Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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Nature of Carbon Black Reinforcement of Rubber: Perspective on the Original Polymer Nanocomposite

A16 robertson and hardman cb reinforcement rubber div iec 2021

Event: 200th Technical Meeting - Fall 2021
Location: Pittsburgh, PA
Date: October 05, 2021
Author: Chris Robertson
Paper Number: A16

Price: $20.00

  • Adding carbon black (CB) particles to elastomeric polymers is essential to the successful industrial use of rubber in many applications, and the mechanical reinforcing effect of CB in rubber has been studied for nearly 100 years. Despite these many decades of investigations, the origin of stiffness enhancement of elastomers from incorporating nanometer-scale CB particles is still debated. It is not universally accepted whether the interactions between polymer chains and CB surfaces are purely physical adsorption or whether some polymer-particle chemical bonds are also introduced in the process of mixing and curing the CB-filled rubber compounds. We review key experimental observations of rubber reinforced with CB, including the finding that heat treatment of CB can greatly reduce the filler reinforcement effect in rubber. The details of the particle morphology and surface chemistry are described to give insights into the nature of the CB-elastomer interfaces. This is followed by a discussion of rubber processing effects, the influence of CB on crosslinking, and various chemical modification approaches that have been employed to improve polymer-filler interactions and reinforcement.

    Papers from 200th Technical Meeting - Fall 2021

    Items from 200th Technical Meeting - Fall 2021