Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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A Novel Method for Vulcanization Research in Elastomeric Tire Formulations Using High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography

D24 dpenumaduacs rubber 2019 fall paper with eastman approval

Event: 196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019
Location: Cleveland, OH
Date: October 08, 2019
Author: Dayakar Penumadu
Paper Number: D24

Price: $20.00

  • Dispersion of compounded ingredients in a rubber formulation is important for fatigue or tensile performance. After mixing, certain compounds can remain as dispersed phases within the rubber matrix, which will lead to critical flaws, influencing performance according to the Griffith equation. High Resolution X-Ray Computer Tomography offers a unique opportunity to measure phase domain size and distributions when sufficient x-ray contrast exists. Fillers such as carbon black or silica can be differentiated from sulfur and zinc oxide providing an opportunity to determine dispersion characteristics of the various phases. High-Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography has become an important characterization tool for 3-D and higher dimension material science relatively recently due to the availability of polychromatic micro-focus x-ray sources, efficient and high spatial resolution detectors with superior scintillators. HR-XCT provides very rich data quantifying mixing efficiency of particulates in a matrix, such as insoluble sulfur or silica particles in rubber. Imaging with x-rays provides attenuation, phase, or scattering contrast and will prove to be a critical method for evaluating the field of rubber crosslinking, considering realistic environments in-situ. This paper will highlight methodology development, validation and provide insight on the ability of dispersion of Crystex™ Cure Pro in typical rubber formulations. This straightforward approach will illustrate opportunities for higher productivity in both product evaluation and ultimately tire plant operations.

    Papers from 196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

    Items from 196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019