Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


View Your Rubber Division Account

New insights into the role played by ZnO in sulfur crosslinking by ways of a sulfur donor

A19 butuc new insights into the role played by zno in sulfur crosslinking

Event: 196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019
Location: Cleveland, OH
Date: October 08, 2019
Author: Gina Butuc
Paper Number: A19

Price: $20.00

  • Sulfur crosslinking was discovered by Goodyear and Hancock more than 150 years ago and led to the development of a new material science application – rubber. Since the first discovery of ways of vulcanizing rubber for improved dimensional stability, mechanical properties and chemical resistance, sulfur continued to be analyzed to elucidate its role in the crosslinking process. Early after the discovery was made, it was determined that vulcanization by ways of elemental sulfur alone is too slow for commercial purposes and ways to expedite the crosslinking reaction were studied. Zinc oxide (ZnO) in combination with stearic acid were discovered as best ways for improved sulfur reactivity in the vulcanization process. Zinc ions combine with stearic acid and a cyclic tetrasulfide which acts as a sulfur accelerator to form an active complex which catalyzes the vulcanization process. Since the mechanism of reaction is complex, analyzing the structure at the nano level could yield an insight into the process. This paper is focusing on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) for an in-depth analysis of the process with an emphasis on ZnO crystallography/surface chemistry and its influence on sulfur crosslink process.

    Papers from 196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

    Items from 196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019