Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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188th Technical Meeting

Date: October 12, 2015
Location: Cleveland, OH

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $900.00

198th Technical Meeting - Fall 2020

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

193rd Technical Meeting - 2018 Spring

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Paper# 001 Keynote tom connelly 10 5 15

KEYNOTE: DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION'S ROLE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Author: Thomas Connelly, Jr.
Abstract: Keynote Address


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Paper# 1 1 paper 15369 manuscript 1062 0

Biaxial Simple Shear of Rubber

Author: Alan Muhr
Abstract: Because the shear modulus is about 3 orders of magnitude less than the bulk modulus of rubber, the local state of strain of rubber in most engineering components approximates to simple shear. For...


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Paper# 2 2 paper 15361 manuscript 961 0

Directional Constitutive Laws for Rubbers

Author: Julie Diani
Abstract: Industrial rubbers show large strain non-linear viscohyperelastic behaviour with possible softening and residual stretch. Discarding their viscoelasticity and focusing on modelling the material...


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Paper# 3 3 paper 15087 manuscript 1021 0

The Free Retraction of Natural Rubber Vulcanisates

Author: Lewis Tunnicliffe
Abstract: This paper investigates the free retraction of unfilled natural rubber vulcanisates from simple uniaxial extension. As has previously been noted (1-4) the free retraction of rubber vulcanisates...


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Paper# 4 4 paper 15130 manuscript 1056 0

Stiffness Loss in Fatigue

Author: William Mars
Abstract: We present here an analysis of how the growth of crack precursors in rubber leads, under the action of dynamic loading, to degraded stiffness properties.  The analysis is based upon a fracture...


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Paper# 5 5 paper 15062 manuscript 986 0

Comparison of the Strength of Normal and Edge-Cut Tensile Specimens of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber and Natural Rubber with Similar Crosslink Density - Part I

Author: Jiali Jiang
Abstract: Edge-cuts of various depths, c, were introduced into tensile specimens of similarly crosslinked (rc » 6 (10^-5) moles of crosslinks/mL) gum (unfilled) natural rubber (NR) and gum styrene-butadiene...


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Paper# 6 6 paper 15063 manuscript 987 0

Comparison of the Strength of Normal and Edge-Cut Tensile Specimens of Filled Natural Rubber with Different Carbon Black Types and Similar Crosslink Density – Part II

Author: Jiali Jiang
Abstract: The strength of unfilled natural rubber and SBR is compared in the previous paper1. With no intentional cut, gum natural rubber is an order of magnitude stronger than SBR with the similar crosslink...


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Paper# 7 7 paper 15328 manuscript 1045 0

Estimation of Elastomer Service Life: Approaches and Considerations

Author: Paul Tuckner
Abstract: There are different test methods, approaches, and requirements that have been suggested and used to try to estimate the Life-Time and Maximum Use Temperature of Elastomers. These seem to be simple...


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Paper# 8 8 paper 15353 manuscript 1059 0

On the Modeling of Chemical Stress Relaxation of Elastomers

Author: Goang-Ding Shyu
Abstract: Chemical stress relaxation occurs when elastomers are exposed to high temperature and/or certain chemical environments.  The degradation mechanism may be chain scission, additional cross-linking or...


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Paper# 9 9 paper 15065 manuscript 960 0

Nanoparticle Netpoints for Elastomer Nanocomposites with Ultralow Hysteresis Loss Towards Automobile Tire Fuel Economy

Author: Jun Liu
Abstract: To achieve a nanoscopic dispersion of nanoparticles(NPs) together with a tunable inter-particle separation distance of NPs is still a great challenge for the technological application of polymer...


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Paper# 10 10 paper 15339 manuscript 1057 0

Hierarchal Structure and Mechanical Properties of Natural Rubber

Author: Seiichi Kawahara
Abstract: Hierarchal Structure of natural rubber was analyzed in terms of NMR measurement and transmission electron microscopy. Nanomatrix of non-rubber components such as proteins and phospholipids was...


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Paper# 11 11 paper 15395 manuscript 983 0

Thermoplastic Elastomers with Shape-Memory Effect

Author: Liang Xu
Abstract: Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are stimuli-responsive materials. A shape memory polymer can be deformed and “fixed” into a temporary shape, and then later recover to its original (or permanent) shape...


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Paper# 12 12 paper 15045 manuscript 974 0

Effect of Carbon Nanotubes and Cellulose Nanowiskers on the Phase Separation and Morphology in Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nanocomposites

Author: Diego Pedrazzoli
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be very effective in controlling the hard (HD) and soft (SD) microdomain morphology in thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU), and their combination with cellulose...


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Paper# 13 13 paper 15047 manuscript 980 0

Optimization of Melt Compounding Processing Conditions of Thermoplastic Polyurethanes Nanocomposites

Author: Dian Yuan
Abstract: In this work thermoplastic polyurethane (TPUs) nanocomposites incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were prepared via melt blending and compression molding and the...


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Paper# 14 14 paper 14782 manuscript 1001 0

Investigation of Structure Property Relationship in Ethylene Octene Copolymer (EOC) and Polydimethyl Siloxane (PDMS) Rubber Blends through Peroxide Induced Dynamic Vulcanization

Author: Golok Nando
Abstract: This work focuses on the study of thermoplastic vulcanizates based on ethylene octene copolymer (EOC) and poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) rubber prepared by melt mixing technique using dicumyl...


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Paper# 17 17 paper 15391 manuscript 1051 0

Developments for Temperature- and Oil Resistant Tpv

Author: Robert H. Schuster
Abstract: Elastomer-thermoplastic blends have become technologically useful as substitutes for elastomers. They combine the entropy-elasticity of elastomers with the easy processability of thermolastics by...


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Paper# 19 19 paper 15390 manuscript 995 0

Matching the Proper Process Promoter to the Performance and Processing Requirements for Modern Tire Applications

Author: Steven Monthey
Abstract: Matching the Proper Process Promoter to the Performance and Processing Requirements for Modern Tire Applications Today’s modern tire applications require a variety of rubber compounds to meet...


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Paper# 20 20 paper 15272 manuscript 992 0

The Better Way to Test Tack

Author: Timothy Banach
Abstract: The measurement of tack has been an enigma in the rubber industry from the beginning. While there have been good theories developed to explain the phenomenom, the many tests developed over the...


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Paper# 21 21 paper 15235 manuscript 956 0

Resin Additives for Compound Performance

Author: Jean-Marc Monsallier
Abstract: Hydrocarbon resins are commercially used as additives in several types of elastomer systems.  The low molecular weight oligomers are prepared from a variety of feedstocks including C4, C5, and...


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Paper# 22 22 paper 15394 manuscript 990 0

Effect of Lewis Acid/Base Adducts As a Silanization Catalyst in Rubber Compositions Containing Silica

Author: Yusuke Tanabe
Abstract: Silica is well known as an attractive filler for a rubber composition, especially in the field of low rolling resistance tires.  Such compositions, however, have the problems about processability...


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Paper# 23 23 paper 14931 manuscript 948 0

Petroleum-Based Safe Process Oils in NR and NR/SBR Blends: Effects of Oil Types and Contents on the Properties of Carbon Black Filled Compounds

Author: J.W.M. Noordermeer
Abstract: The influences of mineral oils: Distillate Aromatic Extract (DAE), and low Polycyclic Aromatics containing Treated Distillate Aromatic Extract (TDAE) and Mildly Extracted Solvate (MES) on the...


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Paper# 24 24 paper 15241 manuscript 978 0

Shape Memory Polymers from Elastomer/Fatty Acid Blends

Author: Kevin Cavicchi
Abstract: Shape memory polymers (SMPs) were prepared by blending elastomers and fatty acids. Blending was accomplished by the swelling of a natural rubber band with molten fatty acid. By this method a SMPs...


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Paper# 25 25 paper 15271 manuscript 1020 0

New Approaches for the Processing and Crosslinking of Special Elastomers

Author: Volker Boerger
Abstract: During the last decade the use of Special Elastomers in the Automotive industry has gained more and more importance due to increasing technical demands under the hood. In particular ongoing Engine...


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Paper# 26 26 paper 14989 manuscript 1029 0

Influence of Coagents on Ageing Properties of Elastomers

Author: Joseph P. Lally
Abstract: Peroxide cured elastomer materials are used in a variety of different applications with steadily increasing requirements for temperature stability and aging resistance like e.g. pipes and hoses in...


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Paper# 27 27 paper 15396 manuscript 991 0

Aromatic Oils : The Best Alternative for Tire Industry

Author: Gloria Montealegre
Abstract: The global rubber industry is growing all over the world and it is driven by the growth in tyre demand. Most of the growth in rubber consumption is expected to come from Asia and America as tyre...


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Paper# 28 28 paper 14980 manuscript 985 0

Biofene™, a New, Renewable Monomer with NOVEL Properties: Polymer Development, Characterization, and Use in Elastomer Formulations

Author: Derek McPhee
Abstract: Amyris is a renewable products company that provides sustainable alternatives to a broad range of petroleum-sourced products.  Amyris uses its white biotechnology platform to convert plant sugars...


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Paper# 29 29 paper 15064 manuscript 1012 0

Guayule Natural Rubber Based on Zero Waste Tehnology-the Indian Perspective

Author: Sawar Dhanania
Abstract: The present trend in the rubber industry is to look for additional sources of natural rubber. Now Guayule Natural Rubber (GNR) stands first in this endeavor, since its discovery nearly 500 years...


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Paper# 30 30 paper 15071 manuscript 993 0

Green EPDM Compounds

Author: Martin van Duin, Philip Hough, Niels van der Aar*
Abstract: Two great challenges of our generation are the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and addressing the limited availability of fossil fuels. Keltan® Eco is LANXESS’ response to an urgent call to...


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Paper# 31 31 paper 15080 manuscript 1055 0

Materials from Renewable Sources for Advanced Rubber Composites

Author: Maurizio Galimberti
Abstract: Rubbers and rubber based composites offer unique opportunities to achieve advanced performances starting from renewable sources. Natural rubber, the regular head-to-tail polymer essentially made by...


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Paper# 32 32 paper 15074 manuscript 1013 0

Rubber Process and Tire Performance Additives from Trees

Author: Wolfgang Pille-Wolf
Abstract: An overview on existing and newly developed products based on renewables sources is provided. Tread Enhancement additives are designed to positively influence the performance  of the rubber...


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Paper# 33 33 paper 15075 manuscript 1034 0

Soy Extender Oils in Automotive Rubber: Case Studies of Natural Rubber and EPDM

Author: Shannon Bollin
Abstract: Research and development of renewable or recycled materials provides an opportunity to support Ford’s corporate environmental strategy. Within elastomer components, one opportunity for using these...


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Paper# 35 35 paper 14940 manuscript 959 0

Beyond RFL Dipping

Author: Thomas Kramer
Abstract: Since decades, textile reinforcements in tires are adhesion activated by resorcinol formaldehyde latex (RFL) dip to allow sufficient bondage between the reinforcement and the surrounding rubber...


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Paper# 36 36 paper 15401 manuscript 1041 0

Can a lab be too capable for its own good? A case study

Author: Fred Fraser
Abstract: When our lab acquired Imaging ATR as an FTIR accessory we found we could effectively address many challenges that we had to refuse before.  Reasons for this favorable change?   In this it’s good to...


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Paper# 37 37 paper 15283 manuscript 976 0

Legal Update: Design Protection for Rubber and Plastic Products

Author: Jacob Ward
Abstract: Most companies think of utility patents when considering patent protection for their inventions.  However, there is another type of patent called a "design" patent.  Design patents can be a...


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Paper# 38 38 paper 15317 manuscript 964 0

The Flash DSC - a Novel Method for the Characterization of the Kinetics of Crystallization

Author: Claus Wrana
Abstract: Many properties of elastomers, such as the dynamic-mechanical behavior or the crack growth rate are influenced significantly by the crystallinity and the crystallization kinetics. A prominent...


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Paper# 39 39 paper 15380 manuscript 953 0

Polymer Interaction Coefficient

Author: Wesley Wampler
Abstract: A new parameter has been developed to quantify the affinity of carbon black with various elastomers. By varying carbon black loading and grade in various elastomers, changes in filler-polymer...


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Paper# 40 40 paper 15397 manuscript 1064 0

Synergistic Effect of Exfoliated Nanoclay and Carbon Black in NBR Compounds

Author: Robert Hans Schuster
Abstract: The reinforcement of elastomers provided by “one-dimensional” multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and by “two-dimensional” platelet-like layered silicates with the beneficial impact of furnace CB...


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Paper# 41 41 lin bradley

Narrow Aggregate Size Distribution Carbon Blacks for Truck Tread Reinforcement-LIN BRADLEY

Author: Lin Bradley
Abstract: Government regulation and end user preference are leading to conflicting performance requirements within the truck and bus tire market.  Regulation of OE applications has dictated a significant...


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Paper# 42 42 paper 15121 manuscript 1048 0

Effects of Aging on the Viscoelastic Properties of NBR and HNBR Rubbers

Author: Deidre Tucker
Abstract: Nitrile (NBR) and hydrogenated nitrile (HNBR) rubbers are widely used in the automotive and industrial applications due to their low temperature properties and resistance to various oils and fuels....


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Paper# 43 43 paper 14888 manuscript 967 0

Evaluation of Spent Bleaching Earth As Filler for Rubber

Author: David Ogunniyi
Abstract: Spent bleaching earth (SBE) has been evaluated as filler in natural rubber.  SBE was added to natural rubber and the filler loading was varied from 0 to 40phr.  The curing characteristics of the...


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Paper# 44 44 paper 14916 manuscript 975 0

The Quest for High Melt Flow: New Kraton® Ers Polymers

Author: Yonghua Zhou
Abstract: Kraton® Enhanced Rubber Segment (ERS) polymers are a family of poly(styrene-b-ethylene/butylene-b-styrene) (SEBS) polymers containing higher vinyl content in the rubbery segment than other...


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Paper# 45 45 paper 14977 manuscript 982 0

Styrenic Block Copolymers for Copolyester Modification

Author: Marcus Greger
Abstract: The newest hydrogenated styrenic block copolymer of the Kraton® A family, MD6951, was evaluated in a concept study to modify Co-Polyesters with focus on lower shore hardness and higher melt flow....


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Paper# 46 46 paper 15112 manuscript 1007 0

Thermally Cross-Linked and Sulphur-Cured Soft Tpvs Based on S-EB-S and S-SBR Blends

Author: Golok Nando
Abstract: Thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV) is a specific group of elastomer alloy (EA), in which the rubber phase is selectively cross-linked by dynamic vulcanization and dispersed in the presence of a...


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Paper# 47 47 tatarka manuscript

Elastomeric Cyclic Olefin Copolymers

Author: Paul Tatarka
Abstract: Cyclic olefin copolymers are materials of high rigidity and strength. Clever change to the ethylene and norbornene comonomer ratio created an elastomeric material with exceptional toughness and...


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Paper# 48 48 paper 15110 manuscript 979 0

Tuning TPU Properties By Changing the Hard Segment Content

Author: Vahab Solouki Bonab
Abstract: Among the most versatile polymers with applications spanning from high-tech biomedical to common daily use are the polyurethane thermoplastic elastomers. The phase segregated morphology of...


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Paper# 49 49 isayev manuscript

Manufacturing Polypropylene (PP)/Waste EPDM Thermoplastic Elastomers Using Ultrasonically Aided Extrusion

Author: Avraam I. Isayev
Abstract: Compounding of waste EPDM from postindustrial scrap with polypropylene (PP) is a possible way to manufacture thermoplastic elastomers to solve a significant environmental problem. Accordingly, the...


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Paper# 50 50 rao paper 15081

NBR/PVC Blends for Optimized Physical Properties in Extrusion Compounds

Author: Paul Rau
Abstract: Nitrile rubber (NBR) is a polar elastomeric polymer that can be blended with other elastomers and thermoplastics. The predominant thermoplastic blend with NBR is with PVC. These two polymers form a...


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Paper# 51 51 mcafee paper 15360

Natural Amorphous Silica (Finely Ground Pumice) As an "Enhancer" for Carbon Black Dispersion in EPDM Formulations

Author: Carl McAfee
Abstract: The presence of natural amorphous silica (finely ground pumice) with carbon black in various EPDM formulations was studied for potential “enhancing” effects of the carbon black dispersion from...


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Paper# 52 52 paper 15066 manuscript 1006 0

Experimental Design Approach; Rubber Compound Formulation Guidance

Author: Anna Eriksson
Abstract: Evaluation of different raw material, or formulations, for rubber compounding is often limited to “simple dimension comparison” studies which give limited information about the synergetic aspects...


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Paper# 53 53 jorkasky paper 15037

Mixing Parameters: The Rubber Industry's Tool Belt

Author: Richard Jorkasky
Abstract: There are a number of mixing parameters that can affect the outcome of a rubber mix and some of these parameters are often overlooked.  Mixing parameters include the type of rotor, the ram...


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Paper# 54 54 paper 15311 manuscript 1039 0

Study of EPDM Compound Mixing Process: The Effects of Molecular Architecture Effect and Mixing Process Parameters

Author: Greg Li
Abstract: The mixing of an EPDM rubber compound is a critical step in the manufacturing process of various rubber products.  The mixing process is typically simple and direct, but proper selection of the...


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Paper# 55 55 paper 15223 manuscript 1066 0

Long Chain Branching in EPDM Resins. an Open Door to a Complete Spectrum of Mooney-Molecular Weight Relationships

Author: Juan Tuberquia
Abstract: Mooney viscosity is one of the parameters used to specify EPDM resins along with the ethylene and ENB composition; the understanding of Mooney viscosity and its relationship to polymer molecular...


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Paper# 56 56 paper 15057 manuscript 1000 0

Process Simulation Modeling in LSR Injection Molding with Reactive Viscosity Techniques

Author: Rick Ziebell
Abstract: Complex rheology evaluation of Dow Corning’s XIAMETER® Brand Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR) is studied by applying techniques in reactive viscosity measurement. Reactive viscosity measurements,...


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Paper# 57 57 paper 15113 manuscript 1061 0

Injection Molding Microstructured Substrates from Rubber-Containing Polymers

Author: Marisely De Jesus Vega, Smita Birkar, Joey Mead and Carol Barry
Abstract: Prior work suggests that rubber-containing polymers like impact modified polystyrene (HIPS) and thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) exhibit unusual behavior when injection molded to create parts with...


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Paper# 58 58 paper 15174 manuscript 1010 0

Silica-Reinforced Natural Rubber

Author: Pamela Martin
Abstract: Tire manufacturers are targeting: a) low rolling resistance to become more fuel efficient and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, b) high wet grip for safety, c) good wear properties to reduce...


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Paper# 59 59 bhagavatheswaran paper

An Alternative Approach to Characterize Filler Network Dynamics inside Rubbers Under Dynamic Load

Author: Eshwaran Subramani Bhagavatheswaran
Abstract: Rubbers exhibit viscoelastic properties under dynamic loads, which are quantified and expressed in terms of dynamic storage modulus (E’), dynamic loss modulus (E”) and mechanical damping factor...


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Paper# 60 60 okel paper 15218

Silica Morphology and Functionality: Addressing Winter Tire Performance

Author: Timothy A. Okel
Abstract: Tire manufacturers attempt to maximize microhysteretic properties in studless winter tires for optimum traction.  Recently there has been a renewed interest in further improving the fuel efficiency...


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Paper# 61 61 paper 14950 manuscript 949 0

Do We Need Very Stiff Fillers?

Author: Bing Jiang
Abstract: The influence of reinforcement fillers on the stretching of a rubber matrix is analyzed. It is shown that filler stiffness higher than a critical one does not further enhance the stiffness of the...


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Paper# 63 63 paper 15349 manuscript 1024 0

New Silica Benchmark – Solvay Efficium for Tire Productivity and Performance : A Better Understanding on the Silane Reactivity and Vulcanization Behavior in Rubber Performances

Author: Laurent Guy
Abstract: The use of highly dispersible silica (HDS) in green tire treads is continuously increasing worldwide. At the same time, tire makers are expressing the need to improve the processing of compounding...


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Paper# 64 64 paper 15024 manuscript 1035 0

About the Viscoelastic Nature of the Filler Network in Rubber Composites and Its Importance for the Optimization of Composites Containing Grained Rubber

Author: Mario Beiner
Abstract: This presentation is focusing on reinforcement mechanisms in different types of rubber nanoparticle composites and includes the results of recent studies on composites for tire treads containing...


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Paper# 68 68 paper 15341 manuscript 1027 0

New Silica Benchmark, Solvay Efficium® for Tire Productivity and Performance: A Focus on Reduced Silanization Time and Comparison to the Effects of a Process Aid

Author: Marcus Copperwheat
Abstract: The use of Highly Dispersible Silica (HDS) in tire treads is continuously increasing worldwide. At the same time, tire makers are expressing the need to improve the processing of compounding with...


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Paper# 72 72 paper 15101 manuscript 1018 0

Techniques for Modelling Elastomers Used in Flow Equipment

Author: Richard Windslow
Abstract: In the oil extraction industry, elastomer components play a key role in various sealing applications. These can be very large structures such as the packer unit of annular blowout preventer to more...


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Paper# 73 73 paper 15236 manuscript 947 0

Flocculation in Elastomeric Polymers Containing Nanoparticles: Jamming and the New Concept of Fictive Dynamic Strain

Author: Christopher Robertson
Abstract: Understanding the physics of the particle network in filled rubber is key to developing reduced energy loss compounds for automobile tires and other applications.  Progress toward that goal is...


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Paper# 74 74 namani paper 15366

Comparison of Rheological Properties of Polymer Melts Under Shear Flows in Closed Cavity and Open Boundary Rheometers

Author: Madhu Namani
Abstract: Shear flows involving a number of different geometries provide the basis for commercially available dynamic shear rheometers that have proven very useful in the study of molten polymers. Two...


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Paper# 75 75 dick paper 14876

Measuring the Effects of Filler Variations on Compound Viscoelastic Properties As Measured By the Capillary Rheometer and the RPA

Author: John S. Dick
Abstract: The die swell and other viscoelastic characteristics imparted to a rubber compound by different elastomers and reinforcing fillers are very relevant to compound performance in extrusion,...


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Paper# 76 76 liang paper 15191

Ultrasonically Aided Extrusion of NR/BR Blends and Their Compounding with Silica

Author: Tian Liang
Abstract: NR/BR blends with a blending ratio of 50/50 have been prepared using an ultrasonic single-screw extruder. The untreated blend and blends treated at ultrasonic amplitudes of 3.5, 5 and 7.5 micron...


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Paper# 77 77 norton paper 15352

Evaluation of the Viscoelastic Properties of Carbon Black Filled Compounds Composed of Different Elastomers

Author: Edward Norton
Abstract: Compounds composed of different base elastomers will exhibit drastically different viscoelastic properties. This has a great impact on processing operations such as extrusion, calendering, and...


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Paper# 78 78 pillai paper

Coal Powder and Devuclanized Tire Rubber in Off-the-Road Tire Formulation

Author: Chandrasekaran Pillai
Abstract: In an effort to reduce cost of rubber compounds by replacing higher cost regular carbon blacks, coal powder in combination with devulcanized tire rubber was tested in off-the-road (OTR) tire...


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Paper# 79 79 teertstra paper 15387

Global Tire Survey 2014: Regional Trends for Innerliner and Tread Technologies

Author: Steven Teertstra
Abstract: An overview of a recent tire survey conducted within the Tire and Specialty Rubber (TSR) business unit of LANXESS will be presented. The newly formed TSR is a global supplier of high quality...


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Paper# 80 80 dasilva paper 14869

Interrelation Between Morphology and Relaxation Behavior in Self-Assembled Poly((styrene-stat-butadiene)-Block-Butadiene) Copolymers

Author: Cecilia Aguiar da Silva
Abstract: Polymer blends are commonly used to improve the performance of composite materials for tire treads. The relaxation behavior of such composites can be systematically influenced since contributions...


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Paper# 81 81 wohlfahrt paper 15035

Development of Functionalized High-Cis Polybutadiene Rubber for the Rolling Resistance Reduction of Tires

Author: Malte Wohlfahrt
Abstract: The reduction of CO2 emissions as well as the improvement of fuel efficiency is a major task in the automotive industry, thus triggering an increased demand for eco-friendly tires with reduced...


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Paper# 82 82 bacchelli paper 15008

Polymers and Tyres: A New Insight into Rubber Science and Sustainability

Author: Fabio Bacchelli
Abstract: High performance tyres are mainly produced on the basis of silica/silane systems using blends of solution polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber (sSBR) and other polymers. Recent requirements such us...


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Paper# 83 83 nienaber paper 15406

Functionalized Solution SBR Produced in a Continuous Process and its Effects on Tire Properties

Author: Jonathon M. Nienaber
Abstract: Auto manufacturers are constantly looking for ways to improve gas mileage in automobiles. One area that greatly affects gas mileage on cars is the tire.  In return, tire manufacturers are in a race...


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Paper# 84 84 gatti paper 15133

Investigations of Highly Dispersible Silica Types and Silane Types in an OTR Cut Resistant Tire Tread Application

Author: Louis Gatti
Abstract: Rolling resistance has an analog in the Off-The Road (OTR) tire market referred to as Ton Mile Per Hour (TMPH).  This is an index of the heat generation as measured by tread temperature with...


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Paper# 85 85 martens paper 15115

THE EFFECT OF SILANE COUPLING AGENT LOADING IN A SILICA FILLED MODEL TREAD COMPOUND ON PREDICTED WINTER AND WET TRACTION

Author: Jonathan Martens
Abstract: A series of silica filled tread compounds were prepared in which the silane coupling agent (SCA) concentration varied from 0% to 10.6% by weight of silica loading. The silane was...


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Paper# 88 88 jourdain paper 15357

New Approach in EPDM Sponge Profiles with Metallocene Elastomers

Author: Eric Jourdain
Abstract: EPDM is one of the most widely used synthetic rubber in exterior sealing system, in particular in automotive sponge weatherstrips  insuring excellent water, dirt and noise insulation over the life...


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Paper# 92 92 terrill paper 15310

Effect of Filler Type on Abrasion

Author: Ed Terrill
Abstract: To better understand the mechanism of abrasion, we examined a range of polymer types and filler types.  In particular, the effect of filler-polymer interaction on abrasion was examined.  We studied...


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Paper# 94 94 wu paper 15092

Estimate the Tearing Energy during Blade Abrasion Using Virtual Crack Closure Technique

Author: Guangchang Wu
Abstract: The abrasion behaviour of rubber is the principal life determining property for a wide range of different rubber engineering applications such as tyres. Researchers have devoted a lot of effort to...


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Paper# 95 95 motamedi paper 15381

Characterization of Road Profiles Based on Fractal Properties and Contact Mechanics

Author: Mehran Motamedi
Abstract: A major challenge in tire, as well as in road engineering, is to understand the intricate mechanisms of friction. Pavement texture is a feature of the road surface that determines most tire-road...


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Paper# 96 96 garro paper 15319

Limitations and Opportunities for Rubber Friction Modeling in Tire

Author: Luciano Garro
Abstract: Supporting the fast development of modern car tires, a number of sophisticated advanced simulation-tools are developed in order to guaranty an efficient and safe conception and design phase. The...


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Paper# 97 97 he paper 15082

Effect of Chain Architecture on Surface Fluctuations in Thin Polymer Films

Author: Qiming He
Abstract: Thermally stimulated fluctuations always present on the surfaces of polymer melts and compliant solids dictate key properties of those surfaces including adhesion, wetting and friction. While these...


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Paper# 98 98 mangavel paper 14879

FPM Material Development for Rapid Gas Decompression Resistance

Author: Marie Mangavel
Abstract: Elastomer O-ring seals are used in the oil and gas industry under very hostile environment and the complication of extraction conditions (deep drilling) leads to more severe requirement of parts...


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Paper# 99 99 griffith paper

Closing the Fluoro Elastomers High Temperature Gap: New Developments in Fluorosilicone Rubber

Author: Phillip Griffith
Abstract: As rubber applications continue to evolve and require higher temperature performance and higher resistance against fuels and oils, many industries, including automotive, aviation, and oil & gas,...


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Paper# 100 100 mcbriade paper 15108

Improved AEM Dipolymer – Peroxide Curable

Author: Edward McBride
Abstract: Most AEM polymers are terpolymers of ethylene, methyl acrylate and an acidic cure site monomer.  The compounds made from the AEM terpolymers are cured with diamines and they require a post cure...


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Paper# 101 101 cardin paper 15371

Using Multivariate Modeling and Optimization for Rapidly Developing New and Improved Elastomers

Author: Marlene Cardin
Abstract: The continual development of new functional polymers with improved properties and of new products for different application areas is an important area for most chemical companies.  There are...


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Paper# 102 102 schuster paper 15398

Impact of Ionic Liquids on Properties of Specialty Rubber Compounds

Author: Robert Hans Schuster
Abstract: Concerning special rubbers like fluorinated rubber (FPM) and fully hydrogenated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR), ionic liquids were incorporated in concentrations of 80 mmol and 35 mmol,...


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Paper# 103 103 joseph paper 15372

Aluminium Tri-Hydroxide As Novel Filler for Fluorocarbon Rubber and Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer

Author: Rani Joseph
Abstract: In this study Aluminium tri-hydroxide (ATH) filled Fluorocarbon rubber (FKM) and Ethylene Propylene diene rubber (EPDM) composites were prepared by mill mixing. ATH was incorporated at different...


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Paper# 104 104 kounavis paper 15120

Emulsil® Silica Masterbatch Based on Ultra High Surface Area Silica and Functionalized ESBR: A New Route to High Performance

Author: John Kounavis
Abstract: The use of silica in tire tread applications has been well known to provide critical benefits in rolling resistance and wet traction performance not possible with other fillers.  The standard...


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Paper# 105 105 hiratapaper 14946

Liquid Rubbers Utility in Tire Formulation

Author: Kei Hirata
Abstract: Kuraray has developed a series of liquid rubber products with molecular weights ranging from a few thousands to a hundred thousand. These polymers, which consist of isoprene, butadiene, styrene and...


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Paper# 106 106 isayev paper 15088

Toward Replacement of Petroleum Oils By Modified Soybean Oils in Tire Applications

Author: Avraam I. Isayev
Abstract: Petroleum oil is a common plasticizer for tire rubbers filled with precipitated silica and carbon black (CB). The current trend in tire industry is to replace petroleum oils with modified oils...


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Paper# 107 107 larson paper 15148

Procedure for Estimating Oil 3-D Solubility Parameters

Author: Brent Larson
Abstract: Process oils make important contributions to nearly every compound in a tire, and oil/polymer interactions affect compound processing and performance.  One way to predict oil/polymer interactions...


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Paper# 108 108 blume paper 1503

Effect of the Crosslink Density and Sulfur-Length on WET-Traction and Rolling Resistance Performance Indicators for Passenger CAR Tire Treads

Author: Anke Blume
Abstract: The scope of this study is the investigation of the influence of different sulfur vulcanization systems for silica reinforced SBR/BR blends on the performance indicators of tire treads made...


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Paper# 109 109 albehaijan paper 15315

Low Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Process OIL in Butadiene Rubber Compound for Tire Tread Application

Author: Hamad Albehaijan
Abstract: The role of process oil in rubber compounding is well established. One of the main purpose is to manage viscosity of rubber mixes particularly filled compound in order to maintain efficient...


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Paper# 110 110 anask paper 14859

Energy Dissipation Characteristics of an Elastomer Under Dynamic Condition -a Comprehensive Assessment Using High and Low Frequency Analyser

Author: Anas K
Abstract: The dynamic deformation of a visco elastic material can cause heat generation. This heat generation is an aspect energy dissipation. The present paper investigates the contribution of various...


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Paper# 111 111 jaglowski paper 14952

Contributions to Hysteresis in Elastomer Compounds

Author: Kathryn Jaglowski
Abstract: Hysteresis is a measure of the amount of energy lost per cycle during deformation of an elastomer. Tangent delta, or the loss factor, is a measure of hysteresis and is the ratio of the loss modulus...


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Paper# 112 112 ling paper 14997

Using Elastomer for a High Temperature Application

Author: Lanping Ling
Abstract: The use of high temperature conductors (ACSS, ACCR, and ACCC) is becoming increasing common throughout the electric power industry to upgrade existing transmission line and build higher capacity...


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Paper# 113 113 paper spanos 15109

Formulating Ultra High Molecular Weight EPDM to Match Fatigue and Dynamic Performance of Natural Rubber While Maintaining Superior Heat and Environmental Resistance

Author: Pete Spanos
Abstract: Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber is typically used in applications where its superior weather and heat resistance is utilized. Historically, it has not had significant use in dynamic...


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Paper# 114 114 delvecchio nr dynamic properties

Effects of Carbon Black on Dynamic Properties of Natural Rubber

Author: RJ Del Vecchio
Abstract: A broad range of carbon black grades, covering both particle size and structure variations, is used in a 75 durometer series of Natural Rubber compounds.  Effects on processing variables, standard...


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Paper# 115 115 paper defante 15325

Friction and Adhesion Between Two Hydrophobic Surfaces Underwater in the Presence of Surfactants

Author: Adrian Defante
Abstract: The contact of two hydrophobic surfaces underwater is of importance in biology, biomedical and material science. By using surface sensitive sum frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG), we have...


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Paper# 116 116 paper muhr 15367

Rolling and Sliding Friction of Indentors on Rubber

Author: Alan Muhr
Abstract: Most recent technical publication son the friction of rubber have focussed on the application of viscoelastic theory to estimate the frictional force needed to induce sliding between a rigid...


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Paper# 117 117 spadone paper 14985

Paired Design Treadwear Analysis

Author: Leighton Spadone
Abstract: Introduction: Presenting an approach that reduces treadwear testing cost: in time, vehicles, and tires; and improves the power of detecting compound treadwear improvements. Background: Treadwear...


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Paper# 118 118 tsukishima paper 14919

Analysis of Crack Initiaion of Rubber Abrasion By X-Ray Imaging Method

Author: Shin Tsukishima
Abstract: Crack initiation and propagation of rubber abrasion was observed by X-ray imaging method. Rubber specimens rubbed against rounded tip needle observed by X-ray imaging at SPring-8 beamline BL19B2....


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Paper# 119 119 paper 15240 manuscript 958 0

Aqueous Adhesives for Rubber-to-Substrate Bonding: Performance and Physical Properties Relationship

Author: Emmanuel Pitia
Abstract: High performing aqueous based adhesives are becoming more attractive in the manufacture of engineered rubber devices, such as vibration and motion control devices. The driving forces for this trend...


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Paper# 120 120 chen paper 15027

Polymerization and Sequence Structure Characterization of High Ethylene-Content Ethylene-Propylene Elastomers

Author: Jianjun Chen
Abstract: Ethylene-propylene elastomers(EPR) of high ethylene content were synthesized with a homogeneous vanadium-based catalyst. The effect of high ethylene contents (70 mol % in the gas phase) and ethyl...


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Paper# 122 122 paper kamba

Development of Less Exothermic and Heat Resistance Chloroprene Rubber

Author: Takashi Sunada, Yasuhiro Kamba*
Abstract: Chloroprene rubber (CR) was developed in 1931 and has been widely used for industrial field applications ranging from transmission belts, conveyor belts, electric cables, hoses, and sponges,  to...


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Paper# 123 123 paper baker

PFE 40Z, a Novel Peroxide Curable Perfluoroelastomers with Improved Performance

Author: Julie Baker
Abstract: A novel  iodine-containing perfluoroelastomer gum (PFE 40Z) is introduced. It is designed for very rapid peroxide cure, improved processing and enhanced physical properties of conventional...


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Paper# 124 124 arkles paper 15124

Silicone Elastomers with Exceptional Elongation

Author: Barry Arkles
Abstract: Polysiloxanes elastomers formed by the step-growth of heterobifunctional macromers achieve high molecular weights and show elastomeric behavior.  Advanced NMR and DSC techniques as well as...


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Paper# 125 125 paper karall

Norsorex (trans-polynorbornene) - a Specialty Polymer-New Developments Based on Improvements of the Polymer in Combination with Silicones and Process Oils

Author: Gerhard Karall
Abstract: Pending


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Paper# C10 C10 paper 15058 manuscript 1017 0

Poly(butadiene-graft-pentafluorostyrene) As a Coupling Agent in Rubber Compounding

Author: Nicole Swanson
Abstract: Reinforcing fillers are necessary in rubber compounding to aid in enhancing the mechanical properties of the compound for various applications. Carbon black (CB) is currently the most common...


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Paper# C11 C11 paper 15356 manuscript 1038 0

Slumping of Hierarchically Patterned Thermoplastic Polymer Thin Films

Author: Ying Chen
Abstract: Hierarchical patterning of thermoplastic polymer thin films can be achieved by layering nano and micro-scale patterns onto the films using nanoimprint lithography. This process creates conditions...


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Paper# C12 C12 paper 15116 manuscript 1069 0

Ultra High Molecular Weight EPDM Vs. Natural Rubber for Dynamic Applications

Author: Cody Stotler
Abstract: Compounds based on high molecular weight (MW) EPDM will be prepared in our lab and compared with NR for their processability and dynamic properties. Historically, NR has been the choice for molding...


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Paper# C13 C13 paper 14930 manuscript 1004 0

Effect of Aromatic Oil on Phase Dynamics of S-SBR/BR Blends for Passenger Car Tire Treads

Author: A. Rathi* , M. Hernández, W.K. Dierkes, J.W.M. Noordermeer, C. Bergmann, J. Trimbach and A. Blume
Abstract: Even though S-SBR/BR blends are commonly used for passenger car tire treads, little is known about the phase dynamics arising from the local morphological heterogeneities. The present study aims at...


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Paper# C2 C2 paper 15374 manuscript 1042 0

Thermoplastic Elastomer Fiber Mats as Local Drug Delivery Vehicles: Investigation of the Cytotoxicity of Fiber Mats

Author: Andrew McClain, BRUNO PAVIA, ADITYA JINDAL, MELISSA CAMMASOLA, and JUDIT E. PUSKAS
Abstract: Rubbery fiber mats were prepared using polyisobutylene-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs). The fiber mats were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Water Contact Angle. Mouse...


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Paper# C3 C3 paper 15150 manuscript 1031 0

Devulcanization of EPDM Scrap Using an Ultrasonic Twin Screw Extruder: Effect of Screw Design

Author: Hui Dong, Jing Zhong, Avraam I. Isayev
Abstract: Waste ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber powder from postindustrial scrap is significant environmental problem. In attempt to solve this problem, a technology for its recycling and...


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Paper# C4 C4 paper 15362 manuscript 1068 0

ELECTROSPUN BUTYL RUBBER MATS FOR ICE-PHOBIC APPLICATIONS

Author: JINDE ZHANG, TEHILA NAHUM, ARTEE PANWAR, CAROL BARRY, JOEY MEAD
Abstract: Electrospinning has been recognized as one effective method to fabricate sub- to nano-scale fibers, and subsequent films, mats and membranes. Compared to films made by other conventional methods...


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Paper# C5 C5 paper 15184 manuscript 1033 0

Ubiquitous Distribution of Salts and Proteins in Spider Glue Enhances Spider Silk Adhesion

Author: Gaurav Amarpuri, Vishal Chaurasia, Dharamdeep Jain, Todd A. Blackledge, and Ali Dhinojwala
Abstract: Modern orb weaving spiders use micron-sized glue droplets on their viscid silk to retain prey in webs. A combination of low molecular weight salts and proteins makes the glue viscoelastic and...


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Paper# C6 C6 paper 15244 manuscript 1015 0

Characterization of Bio-Based Natural Rubber Nanocomposites Made from Agro-Industrial Byproducts

Author: Cindy Barrera and Katrina Cornish
Abstract: Agricultural and industrial food processing byproducts are generated in large quantities, yet most of them lack of a valuable application and are treated as wastes that require costly disposal. In...


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Paper# C7 C7 paper 15334 manuscript 997 0

Improving Fatigue Crack Growth Testing By Using Prior Data: An Experimental and Analytical Study

Author: David Ostberg
Abstract: Fatigue crack growth (FCG) tests in Pure Shear specimens were conducted under constant loading conditions (ISO 27727) and under conditions where the peak loading was varied. An approach is...


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Paper# C9 C9 paper 15344 manuscript 1008 0

Fourier-Transform Rheology of Complex, Heterogeneous Rubber Materials

Author: Lukas Schwab* and Manfred Wilhelm
Abstract: As a consequence of the addition of reinforcing fillers like carbon black to rubbers the onset of non– linear viscoelasticity is shifted to low strain amplitudes (g0 < 0:1). Therefore standard...


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Paper# P1 P1 mcclain

Compositions Effect on Material Properties of Polyisobutylene Thermoplastic Elastomers

Author: Andrew McClain
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P10 P10 mehta b

MODERATE TEMPERATURE CURING OF PLANT OILS VIA THE “ENE” REACTION

Author: Brinda Mehta
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P11 P11 debnath d pp11 1

Synthesis of Hyperbranched Poly(n-nonyl acrylate) and its Crosslinking to form Organogels

Author: Dibyendu Debnath
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P12 P12 kodihalli shivaprakash n pp12 1

Investigation on the Relationship Between Physical Properties and Rubber Abrasion Resistance

Author: NischayKodihalliShivaprakash, JindeZhang, Carol Barry, Joey Mead
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P13 P13 zhong j pp13 1

Preparation and Properties of PP/Waste EPDM Thermoplastic Elastomers Using Ultrasonically Aided Extrusion

Author: Jing Zhong
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P14 P14 jindal a pp14 1

Rubbery Drug-Eluting Electrospun Fiber Mats for Healthcare

Author: Aditya Jindaland J.E.Puskas
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P15 P15 raut p pp15 1

Surface Engineering Approach for Enhanced Filler Dispersion and Hysteresis Reduction in Carbon Black Filled Rubber Compounds

Author: Prasad Raut
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P16 P16 elias j

Reduce Exposure to Crystalline Silica By Substitution with Fused Silica in Silicones

Author: Jose Elias
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P17 P17 gonzalez j

Light Weighting Silicone Rubber Materials

Author: Jose Gonzalez
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P18 P18 li j

Modified Soybean Oil-Extended SBR Compounds and Vulcanizates Filled with Carbon Black and Silica

Author: Jiaxi Li
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P19 P19 antonitis a pp19 1

Effect of Silane Coupling Agent in Silica-Reinforced Natural Rubber/Epoxidized Natural Rubber Blends

Author: Andrew D. Antonitis
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P2 P2 kantor j

Synthesis of Hydrolysis Resistant Polyisobutylene-Based Polyurethanes

Author: Jozsef Kantor
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P20 P20 staub n pp20 1

Omniphobic Electrospun Butyl Rubber Membranes

Author: Nicholas Staub
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P3 P3 shrikhande g pp3 1

Thermoplastic Elastomer Fiber Mat As Local Delivery Vehicle: Development of Functionalized Fluorescein Derivatives

Author: Gayatri Shrikhande
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P4 P4 liang t

Stucture and Properties of Ultrasonically Extruded NR/BR Blends and Their Compounds Filled with Silica

Author: Tian Liang
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P5 P5 singh m pp5 1

Thermoplastic Vulcanizate (TPV) Based on Eco-Friendly EPDM

Author: Mansehaj Singh
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P6 P6 tan x

Oligo-b-Alanine b-Sheets As Crosslinker and Filler

Author: Xin Tan, Joseph Scavuzzo, Li Jia* and Gary Hamed
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P7 P7 zhang y

Fabrication and Properties of Novel Rice Bran Carbon/Carboxylated Styrene Butadiene Rubber Composites: Effect of Coupling Agents and Ionic Liquid

Author: Yinhang Zhang
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P8 P8 ge x

An Investigation on the Tribology of Bentonite/Silane/NBR Nanocomposites and the Effects of Solid Lubricants

Author: Xin Ge
Abstract: Student Poster


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Paper# P9 P9 deng f

Synthesis and Characterization of Microcrystalline Cellulose-Graft-Poly(methyl methacrylate) Copolymers and Their Application As Rubber Reinforcements

Author: Fei Deng
Abstract: Student Poster


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