Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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186th Technical Meeting

Date: October 14, 2014
Location: Nashville, TN

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $900.00

198th Technical Meeting - Fall 2020

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

193rd Technical Meeting - 2018 Spring

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Paper# 10 2014fall 10

IN SITU GENERATION OF NANOSILICA IN A PLASTICISER

Author: Kothandaraman B*, Annarajan S.D.M.
Abstract: Filler loading often dramatically alters elastomer properties. Smaller the filler particle, better the reinforcement of the rubber. Recently, nanoparticles like nanosilica are studied intently as a...


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Paper# 1 2014fall 1

Interactions between Silica and Epoxidized Natural Rubber with and without Silane

Author: Anke Blume, Wisut Kaewsakulltz, Kannika Sahakaro, Wilma K. Dierkes and Jacques W.M. Noordermeer
Abstract: Unmodified squalene (Sq) and epoxidized squalene (ESq), as models for natural rubber and epoxidized natural rubber, were mixed with silica in the presence or absence of TESPT silane coupling agent....


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Paper# 2 2014fall 2

MIXING SILICA IN NATURAL RUBBER: THE IMPACT OF SURFACE TREATMENT AND MIXING PARAMETERS ON PERFORMANCE, THROUGHPUT AND ENERGY USAGE

Author: Justin J. Martin*, Timothy A. Okel, Raphael Kollah
Abstract: In previous work, it was demonstrated that PPG's proprietary Agilon@ Performance Silica technology platform solves issues with compounding silica in natural rubber. This solution involved modifying...


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Paper# 3 2014fall 3

Influence of Silica Characteristics

Author: Wilma K. Dierkes, Ernest Cichornski, Tanya Tolpekina, Steven Schultz, Anke Blume, J Noordermeerl
Abstract: In this study, five different rubber reinforcing silica types are investigated concerning their influence on properties related to tire performance. The silicas are characterized by different...


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Paper# 4 2014fall 4

Silica Morphology: Beyond the Surface to Benefit Non-Tread Tire Components to Further Reduce Energy Loss

Author: Timothy A. Okel*, Justin J. Martin
Abstract: Rising fuel costs, a wide range of national and international legislation, and increased public attention continue to encourage the automotive industry to pursue increasingly environmentally...


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Paper# 5 2014fall 5

Review of Some Important Issues and Resolutions when Lifetime Predictions of Elastomers are Made Using Accelerated Aging Techniques

Author: K. T. Gillen, M. Celina and R. Bernstein
Abstract: Elastomeric materials are often exposed to air or high humidity environments. For materials expected to last for extended periods of time (years to decades), lifetime estimates normally involve...


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Paper# 6 2014fall 6

Shelf Age-Stiffening in High-Diene Elastomers

Author: James R. Halladay
Abstract: High-diene elastomers like natural rubber and polybutadiene continue to stiffen over time during storage at ambient conditions. As bonded rubber-to-metal products become more complex and part...


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Paper# 7 2014fall 7

The Impact of Age-Stiffening on Fatigue Crack Growth in Natural Rubber and Polybutadiene

Author: James R. Halladay, Casey R. Hedlund*
Abstract: High-diene elastomers such as natural rubber and polybutadiene continue to stiffen over time during storage at ambient conditions. These elastomers also stiffen when heat aged at moderately...


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Paper# 8 2014fall 8

Solubility and Diffusivity of CO2 in Elastomers containing Carbon Nanotube (CNT)

Author: Xuming Chen*, Hamid A Salem
Abstract: Understanding the structure-property relationship of elastomers is of critical importance in developing next generation elastomers for high temperature high pressure (HTHP) application, and in...


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Paper# 9 2014fall 9

Effect of the incorporated POSS nanoparticles in fluoroelastomer

Author: Heloisa Augusto Zen*, Ademar Benevolo Lugao
Abstract: The effects of different load of nanoparticles incorporated onto fluoroelastomer were studied. The elastomer type Viton@ F, which is a terpolymer of hexafluoropropylene, vinylidene fluoride and...


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Paper# 12 2014fall 12

THE EFFECT OF SILANE LOADING ON PROPERTIES OF A SILICA FILLED SBR MODEL TREAD COMPOUND

Author: Jonathan E. Martens*, Edward R. Terrill, and James T. Lewis
Abstract: The effect of silane loading in a silica-filled tread compound was studied to better understand how the silane coupling agent effects tear and abrasion. A series of compounds were prepared in which...


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Paper# 13 2014fall 13

Evaluation of Various Carbon Blacks in Highly Extended EPDM Compounds for Extrusion Applications

Author: Erick Sharp*, George Stamper, Carl D. McAfee, Leszek Nikiel
Abstract: A three factor, multiple level, general factorial designed experiment was performed to investigate the subtleties of a highly extended EPDM formulation designed for the extrusion market. The three...


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Paper# 14 2014fall 14

IMPROVEMENTS IN CARCASS CARBON BLACKS TO ENHANCE COMPOUND PERFORMANCE

Author: Michael Jacobsson*, Feng Wang, Peter Cameron, Joel Neilsen, Leszek Nikiel, and Wesley Wampler,
Abstract: Although the carbon black industry is relatively mature, it continues to pursue innovations for improved performance in rubber compounds. A recent innovation was the adsorption of polysulfide...


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Paper# 15 2014fall 15

Performance of Guayule and Hevea Natural Rubber Composites made with Waste-derived Fillers

Author: Cindy Barrera* and Katrina Cornish
Abstract: Carbon black, silica and clay are the most widely used fillers in the rubber industry, however, these materials possess some limitations. Carbon black, a reinforcing filler, is derived from...


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Paper# 16 2014fall 16

INNOVATIVE BIOSOURCED COMPATIBILIZERS FOR CARBON AND WHITE FILLERS IN RUBBER COMPOUNDS

Author: Galimberti Maurizio, Barbera Vincenzina, Cipolletti Valeria, Guerra Silvia, Citterio Attilio
Abstract: This work presents innovative bio-sourced compatibilizers suitable for both carbon and white fillers, nano- and nano-structured. 2-amino-1,3-propanediol, known as serinol, was selected as the...


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Paper# 17 2014fall 17

Rice Husk Ash Silica: Agricultural Byproduct to Silica Filler

Author: Michael R. BeaulieuT*, Michael C. Davist, Vera Popovai, Julien Marchalilt, Richard Lainei, and Mindaugas Rackaitist
Abstract: Rice is the second most produced crop in the world (7.0 x 108 metric tonslyear) and for every five tons of rice produced,' one ton of rice husk is produced per year.1'Z Rice husk ash (RHA) silica...


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Paper# 20 2014fall 20

THE EFFECT OF PLASTICIZER EXTRACTION BY JET FUEL ON A NITRILE HOSE COMPOUND

Author: Richard J. Pazur* and T.A.C. Kennedy
Abstract: A series of seven ester based plasticizers were evaluated in a reference nitrile rubber hose compound with respect to extractability resistance to jet fuel. Plasticizers differed in polarity,...


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Paper# 21 2014fall 21

Low Volatility Plasticizers for AEM Compounds Edward McBride

Author: Edward McBride
Abstract: Most AEM compounds use a plasticizer and the type and amount of the plasticizer has a major impact on compound properties. The heat aging requirements for AEM compounds continue to increase in time...


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Paper# 22 2014fall 22

LOW TEMPERATURE CAPABLE FLUOROELASTOMER COMPATIBILITY IN JET FUEL

Author: Richard J. Pazur*, J.G. Cormier
Abstract: A series of four peroxide cured fluoroelastomer (FKM) samples Varying in fluorine leVel and low temperature resistance were assessed in jet fuels (JP-8 and JP-84-100) at 1250C from 1 to 5 weeks....


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Paper# 24 2014fall 24

Sealing Force Measurement: Characterizing Materials and Configuration Responses

Author: Paul Tuckner*
Abstract: Sealing Force, or the Compressive Force exerted in sealing configurations and applications, can be checked with a range of different equipment and procedures, various different test configurations,...


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Paper# 25 2014fall 25

Failure of "classical elasticity" in auxetic foams

Author: J.H. Roh, C. B. Giller, C. M. Roland, and P. H. Mott*
Abstract: The lower bound customarily cited for Poissonls ratio V is *1, which was derived from the rela- tionship between the bulk and shear moduli in classical elasticity. To test this theory, we meas-...


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Paper# 26 2014fall 26

Prediction of Rubber Abrasion

Author: Guangchang Wu*, Alan Thomas, James Busfield
Abstract: Abrasion is one of the most crucial properties for rubber applications. People have spent a lot of effort trying to understand the true abrasion mechanisms and predict the real wear behaviour....


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Paper# 27 2014fall 27

RUBBER CHARACTERIZATION FOR TIRE MODELING

Author: Nihar Raje* and Brian Steenwyk
Abstract: Since tire rubber exhibits a complex history and temperature dependent mechanical response, a thorough virtual analysis of tires necessitates the use of nonlinear viscoelastic material models in...


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Paper# 28 2014fall 28

Stress Softening of Filled Rubber and Its Internal Morphologies

Author: Yoshihiro Morishita* and Katsuhiko Tsunoda
Abstract: Filled rubber and other polymer nanocomposites are one of the most important materials in several industrial applications, such as tire development. Mechanical reinforcement, strong nonlinearity,...


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Paper# 29 2014fall 29

An Amplitude, Temperature and Prestrain Dependent Constitutive Model of Dynamic Modulus for Tire Rubbers

Author: Mengxi Huang*, Fuqi Wu, Ziran Li and Yuanming Xia
Abstract: This paper proposed a constitutive model to represent amplitude, temperature and prestrain dependence of storage and loss modulus for tire rubbers. Firstly, the amplitude sweeps (0.1-5%) for a tire...


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Paper# 30 2014fall 30

Prediction of Mechanical Property of Compounds by Using a Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network

Author: Teck Cheng Seng*
Abstract: The ability of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network to evaluate the dynamic shear stiffness of rubber compounds from their formulation is presented. An orthogonal experimental...


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Paper# 31 2014fall 31

Mechanisms of Particulate Reinforcement of Elastomers at Small Strains

Author: Lewis B Tunnicliffe*, Alan G Thomas and James JC Busfield
Abstract: Filled elastomer-based components play an integral role in daily life. However the precise nature of the particulate reinforcement mechanism(s) is not fully understood. In this paper and oral...


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Paper# 32 2014fall 32

Study of Polymer-Filler Interactions

Author: Ed Cole*
Abstract: *Presentation Slides only*


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Paper# 33 2014fall 33

Carbon Black Particle Size: What Does it "Mean"?

Author: Tyler Gruber, A. Paul Smith, Ricky Magee,
Abstract: Carbon black (CB) fineness has been quantified since the first TEM images of CBs in 1939 revealed the presence of aggregated, spheroidal, size-distributed particles. Since particle size could be...


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Paper# 34 2014fall 34

Advances in Filler Dispersion Measurements

Author: Leszek Nikiel*, Russell Mason and Wesley Wampler
Abstract: It is well documented throughout the literature that filler dispersion significantly influences rubber performance. However, there is no single experimental method to measure dispersion precisely....


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Paper# 36 2014fall 36

WORLDWIDE TIRE SURVEYS

Author: Walter H. Waddell* and R. Christopher Napier
Abstract: The inflation pressure of the tire impacts all aspects of its performance: handling, treadwear, durability, and rolling resistance. Halobutyl rubber is the polymer of choice to be used in the...


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Paper# 38 2014fall 38

A Coupled Thermo-mechanical Analysis for Steady State Tire Temperature and Rolling Resistance based on Fluid-structure Interaction

Author: Mengxi Huang*, Fuqi Wu, Ziran Li and Yuanming Xia
Abstract: This paper addresses a coupled thermo-mechanical analysis to predict temperature distributions and rolling resistance of a steady state rolling tire. This iterative procedure, in which the...


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Paper# 39 2014fall 39

FLOCCULATION IN ELASTOMERIC POLYMERS CONTAINING NANOPARTICLES: JAMMING AND THE NEW CONCEPT OF FICTIVE DYNAMIC STRAIN

Author: Christopher G. Robertson*
Abstract: Understanding the physics of the particle network in filled rubber is key to developing reduced energy loss compounds for automobile tires and other applications. Progress toward that goal is...


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Paper# 40 2014fall 40

Investigation of the Rubber-Brass Adhesion Layer Using the Olefin-Metathesis Method

Author: Simon Leimgruber*, Wolfgang Kern, Roman Hochenauer, Michael Melmer, Armin Holzner, Gregor Trimmel
Abstract: The investigation of the adhesion layer between rubber and brass-coated steel wires is a challenging task due to its strong bonding. In this contribution we explore the possibilities of...


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Paper# 41 2014fall 41

Technologies for Polymeric Cord / Rubber Adhesion in Tire Applications

Author: A. Louis*, J.W.M. Noordermeer, W.K. Dierkes, A. Blume
Abstract: A good adhesion between the rubber of a tire and the reinforcing polymeric cord is crucial for the overall tire performance and safety. Polymeric cords are commonly treated by a...


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Paper# 43 2014fall 43

Fluorinated Nitrile Elastomers for Drilling Applications

Author: Ming Yu Huang*
Abstract: Zinc bromide (ZnBr2) brine used in drilling muds and completion solutions has high density for wellbore pressure control, but degrades typical nitrile elastomers. Surface fluorination of nitrile...


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Paper# 52 2014fall 52

On the Silanization Kinetics and Compound Properties of Silica-Filled Rubber Containing a Blocked Mercapto Silane

Author: C. Jeffrey Lin*, Michael York, Russell Cody
Abstract: The silanization kinetics of silica compounds containing a blocked mercapto silane, octanoylthio-l-propyltriethoxysilane, were followed by measuring the suppression of silica flocculation upon...


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Paper# 53 2014fall 53

Investigations of Highly Dispersible Silica Types and Silane Types in an OTR Cut Resistant Tire Tread Application

Author: L. Gatti*, M. Heinz, A. Wehmeier, M. Nguyen
Abstract: Rolling resistance has an analog in the Off-The Road (OTR) tire market referred to as Ton Mile Per Hour (TM PH). This is an index of the heat generation as measured by tread temperature with...


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Paper# 54 2014fall 54

INCORPORATING AND OPTIMIZING POLYDYNE (TM) RUBBER POWDER AND EKODYNE (TM) FUNCTIONAL COMPMICRONIZED OUND IN SSBRIBRISILICA-SILANE TIRE TREADS

Author: F. P. Papp
Abstract: This paper will present test results of SSBR/silica-silane tire tread rubber compounds with micronized rubber powder, MRP, and FMRP, now called EkoDyne(TM) functional compound, and incorporation...


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Paper# 55 2014fall 55

Compatibility and Miscibility Studies of Polymer blends Based on Butadiene

Author: Adel F. Halasa and Kwang Su Seo
Abstract: A series of solution blends at different compositions were prepared to determine the compatibility and miscibility of polymers and copolymers based on butadiene and isoprene. The four controls...


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Paper# 56 2014fall 56

Investigation of Composition and Processing Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of MagadiiterSBR Composites

Author: By Yating Mao*, Shigeng Li, Hans-Conrad zur Loye, and Harry J. Ploehn
Abstract: This work investigates mechanical reinforcement and energy dissipation in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) composites containing sulfur-functional, organosilane-modified magadiite (MGD), a layered...


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Paper# 57 2014fall 57

Properties and structure of ultrasonically treated SBR/BR blends

Author: Tian Liang* and Avraam I. lsayev
Abstract: The ultrasonic treatment of SBR/BR 50/50 blend in single screw extruder was carried out at amplitudes up to 10 micron. The untreated and treated SB/BR blends were mixed with CB and silica to...


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Paper# 58 2014fall 58

STUDY OF PROCESSING VIA GAMMA RAYS AND FURTHER SHEAR FOR BROMOBUTYL RUBBER RECYCLING

Author: Sandra R. Scagliusi*, Elisabeth C. L. Cardoso, Ademar B. Lugao
Abstract: Polymeric materials (plastics and rubber) have been contributing in a continuously and raising way for the generation of litter and industrial wastes discarded in landfills. The implementation of...


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Paper# 59 2014fall 59

MODIFIED SOYBEAN OIL-EXTENDED SBR COMPOUNDS AND VULCANIZATES FILLED WITH CARBON BLACK

Author: AVRAAM I. ISAYEV*, JIAXI LI, MARK D. SOUCEK, XIAOFENG REN
Abstract: Soybean oil (S0) was modified through the reaction with dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) at a pressure of 0.14- 0.21 MPa and a temperature of 240C. Carbon double bonds in the soybean oil molecules were...


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Paper# 60 2014fall 60

Recent Advances in EPDM and Dynamically Vulcanized Thermoplastic Elastomers

Author: P.S. Ravishankar, M.D. Ellul and G. J. Wouters
Abstract: Ethylene Propylene Diene Rubber (EPDM) is widely used in a variety of applications (1). However, high chain flexibility of EPDM results in poor dynamic properties. The long lifetime of EPDM rubber...


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Paper# 61 2014fall 61

Innovative Coatings from Low Molecular Weight EPDM

Author: Zhiyong Zhu* and Solomon H. K. Tan
Abstract: EPDM rubber is a desirable material in many coating applications due to its weatherlozone resistance, water repellence and low temperature flexibility. Two innovative coatings have been developed...


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Paper# 62 2014fall 62

NR Replacement by Ultra High Molecular Weight EPDM in Dynamic Applications

Author: Pete Spanos*, John Beelen, Christoph Gogelein
Abstract: Elastomers are used in a variety of applications for noise and vibration attenuation, and typically natural rubber (NR) is the polymer of choice. NR offers high strength, outstanding fatigue, and...


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Paper# 63 2014fall 63

Improving the crack growth resistance of EPDM compounds with Butyl Ionomer

Author: Jon Bielby*, Dana Adkinson, Sean Malmberg, Kevin Kulbaba
Abstract: A new butyl-based material - butyl ionomer - has been developed which contains a persistent ionic charge attached to the butyl backbone. In addition to the properties of traditional butyl rubber...


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Paper# 64 2014fall 64

Propylene-based elastomers extended with Polyalphaolefins

Author: N. Dharrnarajall, P. Rollin and A. H. Tsou
Abstract: Propylene-based elastomers (PBE) are co-polymers of propylene and ethylene made with a metallocene catalyst. These polymers possess crystallinity that is derived from isotactic propylene sequences....


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Paper# 65 2014fall 65

Novel Blends of Nitrile Butadiene Rubber and in-situ Synthesized Thermoplastic Polyurethane-urea: Preparation Method, Characterization and Properties

Author: Muhammad Tahir, Klaus Werner Stockelhuber, Nasir Mahmood, Gert Heinrich
Abstract: In the present study, a novel reactive-blending method is realized to blend nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and thermoplastic polyurethane-urea (PUU) in contrast to the conventional time andlor...


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Paper# 66 2014fall 66

NATURAL RUBBER FROM ALTERNATIVE SOURCES. THE KEY ROLE OF LOW MOLECULAR MASS COMPONENTS

Author: Galimberti Maurizio, Musto Sara, Barbera Vincenzina, Cipolletti Valeria, Tiné Laura, Citterio Attilio, Guerra Gaetano, Castellani Luca
Abstract: This work was focused on poly(l,4-cis-isoprene) from Ziegler-Natta catalysis and from different natural sources: Hevea Brasiliensis (HNR), Parthenium Argentatum (GR) and Taraxacum K0k- Saghyz...


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Paper# 67 2014fall 67

A study of amino acid modifiers in guayule natural rubber

Author: Colleen McMahan* and Dhondup Lhamo
Abstract: Natural rubber (NR) from Hevea brasiliensis (the Hevea rubber tree) is a critical agricultural material vital to United States industry, medicine, and defense, yet the country is dependent on NR...


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Paper# 68 2014fall 68

NEW PROCESS FOR ISOLATION AND STABILIZATION OF GUAYULE RUBBER FROM LATEX

Author: Zachary Walters, Howard Colvin*, Greg Bowman
Abstract: Guayule rubber has been considered for tire applications since the early 20m century. Two key issues which must be dealt with before guayule can be considered a raw material for a modern tire are...


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Paper# 69 2014fall 69

Advancing Taraxacum kok-saghyz (Buckeye Gold) as a Viable Source of Ohio Natural Rubber: Effect of planting date and density on root size and rubber yield.

Author: Katrina Cornish*, Sarah McNulty, Griffin Bates, Victor Pool and Nikita Arnstutz
Abstract: Rubber-producing Taraxacum kok-saghyz (Buckeye Gold) dandelion is a possible domestic replacement for imported natural rubber (NR) from Hevea brasiliensis. Rubber quality evaluation indicates that...


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Paper# 71 2014fall 71

Activate modern sulfur cure systems in sponge applications using Rhenogran@ Geniplex-70 (zinc dicyanato diamine)ii

Author: Steven Monthey* and Harald Kleinknecht
Abstract: Rhenogran@ Geniplex-70 (zinc dicyanato diamine) offers several advantages when used in conjunction with a nitrosamine free sulfur cure system in cell forming applications. It can be used as the...


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Paper# 74 2014fall 74

Block co-polymer like phase behavior in ionic elastomer

Author: Debdipta Basu*, Amit Das, Klaus Werner Stockelhuber, Dieter Jehnichen, Petr Forrnanek, Gert Heinrich
Abstract: Predominantly, the mechanical properties of ionic elastomers are mostly dependent on the formation of ionic clusters during the crosslinking of the elastomers with metal oxides e.g., zinc oxide....


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Paper# 75 2014fall 75

Advances in Contact Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Rubber Compounds - Applications, Methodologies, and Sample Preparation

Author: Bryan A. Crawford*, Sudharshan Phani Pardhasaradhi
Abstract: Nanoindentation is a powerful technique for characterizing small volumes of material for the mechanical properties of viscoelasticity, including storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor. The...


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Paper# 76 2014fall 76

MULTI-FUNCTIONALIZED SSBR & COMPOUND VULCANIZATE PERFORNIANCE CHARACTERISTICS

Author: Christian Doring, Sven K.H. Thiele, Daniel Heidenreich
Abstract: The extensive use of fossil fuels and the resulting threat of global warming have led to international treaties and to national legislation demanding emission reductions in greenhouse gases,...


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Paper# 77 2014fall 77

Functionalized Elastomers for Tire Tread Applications

Author: Jean-Marc Marechal*
Abstract: The Reduce strategy can be applied as recent developments in synthetic elastomers synthesis allow us to continue to increase the tire efficiency by introducing a functionalized elastomer with...


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Paper# 78 2014fall 78

Novel Characterization of Block Styrene in Poly(styrene-co-butadiene)

Author: Mindaugas Rackaitis*, Waruna Kiridena, Terrence Hogan, William Hergenrother, Dennis Brumbaugh, Hyeonjae Kim
Abstract: Abstract: Tire performance continues to be enhanced with the development of new polymerization technology and the advancement of materials science. Functionalization and optimization of...


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Paper# 79 2014fall 79

Emulsil(TM) Silica Masterbatch - A New Route to High Performance Smartway Truck Retread Compounds

Author: Christopher Hardiman*, John Kounavis, Julian Maldonado, Bob Scribner
Abstract: The benefits of incorporating silica in tire tread compounds has been well established in the Passenger and Light Truck market based on superior performance in rolling resistance, wear and wet...


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Paper# 80 2014fall 80

Emulsil Silica Masterbatch Technology: Compound Design Considerations for Tire Tread Applications

Author: John Kounavis*, Christopher Hardiman, Julian Maldonado, Bob Scribner
Abstract: The use of silica in tire tread applications has been well known to provide improved benefits in rolling resistance and wet traction performance. The standard method of compounding silica in a tire...


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Paper# 82 2014fall 82

Adhesive Rubber Friction

Author: D. Stratford Devalba, J. Busfield, A. G. Thomas
Abstract: The behaviour and effects of the sliding friction exhibited by rubber is of key importance in industry. Whilst the effects of rubber friction can be empirically described the fundamental mechanisms...


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Paper# 83 2014fall 83

Flocculation Kinetics and Filler-Rubber Interaction in Silica-Reinforced NR Compounds

Author: Wisut Kaewsakull, Kannika Sahakaroll, Wilma K. Dierkes, Jacques W.M. Noordermeer
Abstract: The dispersion stability of silica aggregates in the rubber matrix is one of the concerns for silica-filled compounds. Silica aggregates tend to flocculate due to their poor compatibility with the...


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Paper# 84 2014fall 84

SILICA-REINFORCED EPOXIDIZED NATURAL RUBBER TIRE TREADS , PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY

Author: Pamela J. Martin*, Paul Brown, Andrew V. Chapman and Stuart Cook
Abstract: Concerns regarding climate change and public health have compelled governments to reduce the environmental impact of transport. Many countries are introducing tire labeling and legislation...


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Paper# 85 2014fall 85

Tearing of Black-tilled Natural Rubber and Synthetic Polyisoprene Rubber Vulcanizates

Author: Tianxiang Xue*, Gary Hamed,
Abstract: Natural rubber (NR) has outstanding tack and strength in the unvulcanized state and high tensile and tear strength when vulcanized]. These features are attributed to its ability to crystallize...


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Paper# 86 2014fall 86

Nanomechanical Mapping of NR/BR Blends with Atomic Force Microscopy

Author: Anna Kepas-Suwara, Andrew V. Chapman* and Stuart Cook
Abstract: The majority of rubber is used in blends, most notably in tires, and thus there is an increasing desire for micro-characterization techniques that can discriminate between the phases in a blend,...


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Paper# 87 2014fall 87

Dynamic Properties of Silica-Filled Polyisoprene Rubbers and their Blends with Polybutadiene Rubber

Author: Marina Fernando*, Anna Kepas-Suwara, Jonathan Clark and James Sandilands
Abstract: Silica-filled rubber vulcanizates are increasingly used in the rubber industry for many different applications. They are used in the manufacture of technical white rubber products, in...


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Paper# 88 2014fall 88

EFFECTS OF VARIATION IN STRAIN MEASUREMENTS WITH THE EXTENDED DYNAMIC RANGE (EDR) OF THE RPA ON THE ACCURACY OF SHEAR THINNING MEASUREMENTS FOR RUBBER COMPOUNDS

Author: John S. Dick*, Edward Norton, and Tianxiang Xue
Abstract: The shear thinning or pseudoplasticity characteristics imparted to a rubber compound by different elastomers and reinforcing fillers are very relevant to compound performance in extrusion,...


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Paper# 89 2014fall 89

Examining the Cold Temperature Properties of elastomeric systems in the Linear and Non- Linear Viscoelastic Ranges

Author: D. M. Tucker*, R. A. Webb, Y. Fayman and W. Gaspar
Abstract: An understanding of the low temperature behavior of polymers and elastomeric compounds is critical to material design and engineering decisions. There is heavy reliance on glass transition...


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Paper# 91 2014fall 91

EVOLUTION OF RPA TEST METHODOLOGIES FOR THE RUBBER INDUSTRY

Author: By: John S. Dick*
Abstract: Since its introduction to the rubber industry in 1992, the RPA has transitioned from mostly R&D Applications, to factory problem solving, and ultimately into nine standard ASTM and ISO methods for...


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Paper# 92 2014fall 92

Best Practices for Enhancing Rubber-to-Substrate Bonding

Author: Jeffrey D. Means* and Mason V. Myers
Abstract: In the rubber-to-substrate bonding industry, there are a variety of applications that require robust adhesion utilizing Chemlok@ adhesive systems. These applications include noise and vibration...


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Paper# 93 2014fall 93

Gamma-irradiation Effect on Mechanical Properties of PP/EPDM Polymeric Blends

Author: Elizabeth Carvalho Leite Cardoso , Sandra Regina Scagliusi, Ademar B. Lugao
Abstract: Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) are provided with many properties of elastomeric or rubbery materials, but can be processed with the thermoplastic processing methods, they are one of the fastest...


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Paper# C11 2014 c11

Structure Property Relationship of Novel in-Situ Prepared Thermoplastic Polyurethane Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites with Improved Antithrombotic Property for Biomedical Applications

Author: M.Selvakumar*, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Santanu Chattopadhyay and Golok B. Nando
Abstract: Student Colloquium, #11: The paper reports the preparation of two types of 2D rod-like nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) (unmodified and modified) of varying high-aspect ratios, by modified...


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Paper# C14 2014 c14

NOVEL FILLER-INTERACTIVE BUTYL-TYPE THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS: POTENTIAL REPLACEMENT OF HALOBUTYL RUBBERS

Author: Attila L. Gergelyl, Judit E. Puskas
Abstract: Student Colloquium, #14: This work investigated the effect of carbon black and silica reinforcement of noVel curable thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) consisting of polyisobutylene (PIB) and...


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Paper# C15 2014 c15

DEVELOPMENT, CHARACTERIZATION AND PROPERTIES OF NOVEL QUATERNARY RUBBER NANOCOMPOSITES

Author: S.KUMAR, V.S.CHATTOPADHYAY, G.B.NANDO, SUJITH NAIR, G.UNNIKRIsHNAN,
Abstract: Student Colloquium #15: Rubber nanocomposites based on bromobutyl rubber (BIIR), polyepichlorohydrin rubber (CO), carbon black (CB) and organically modified montmorillonite clay (NC)...


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Paper# C16 2014 c16

Effect of Sample Geometry and Dimensions on the Fracture of Natural Rubber Vulcanizates

Author: Ming-Hang Yang*, Gary R. Hamed
Abstract: Student Colloquium #16: Natural rubber (NR) has extraordinary green strength and cut-growth resistance due to its ability to strain-crystallize. We have discovered that the width of an edge-cut...


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Paper# C2 2014 c2

Study on Mechanical Properties of (CNT Filled PolystyrenelThermoplastic Vulcanizates) Multilayer Structures Prepared by Coextrusion Methods

Author: Rui Jim W, Minne Xie, Carol M. F. Barry, and Joey L. Mead
Abstract: Student Colloquium, #2: In order to study the mechanical properties of CNT filled binary blend, multilayer thin sheet containing 3, 33 and 513 layer structures had been successful fabricated by...


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Paper# C3 2014 c3

Effect of Compatibilizers and Number of Layers on Mechanical Properties of TPV/PS Multilayer Films by Co-Extrusion

Author: Minne Xie, Rui Jian, Carol Barry, and Joey Mead
Abstract: Student Colloquium, #3: The multilayer coextrusion process was utilized to produce multilayer films with enhanced mechanical properties through selective manipulation of layer thickness and...


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Paper# C5 2014 c5

Investigation of Rheological and Mechanical Properties of Polyether Block Amide/Thermoplastic Polyurethane Blends Prepared Using Twin Screw Extrusion

Author: Srnita Birkar*, Weilin Peng, Carol Barry, Joey Mead
Abstract: Student Colloquium, #5: Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a widely used polymer with great wear resistance and adhesion. In contrast, polyether block amide elastomers (PEBAX) have good...


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Paper# C7 2014 c7

Evolution of the Hysteresis Area During Fatigue Tests of a Synthetic Rubber

Author: Christophe Cruanes *, Florian Lacroix, Ga'e'lle Berton, Stephane Meb, and Naranayaswami Ranganathan
Abstract: Student Colloquium, #7: The hysteresis area as a fatigue criterion has been studied in the framework of the fatigue behavior of the elastomers since the early 2000. Lacroix in 2004 [1] has shown...


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Paper# C9 2014 c9

Properties of Silica Filled SBR Processed Through an Ultrasonic Twin Screw Extruder

Author: Edward Norton* and Avraam I. Isayev
Abstract: Student Colloquium, #9: Silica filler has become widely used in the rubber industry and many efforts have been made to improve its dispersion and compatibility in non-polar rubber compounds. These...


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