Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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182nd Technical Meeting

Date: October 09, 2012
Location: Cincinnati, OH

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $900.00

198th Technical Meeting - Fall 2020

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

193rd Technical Meeting - 2018 Spring

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Paper# 101 101

Creating a Green EPDM Compound

Author: Brandon Borzi*
Abstract: With consumer demand pushing for eco-friendly green compounds, the rubber industry is looking for new sources of products that are produced from renewable resources. This paper will show how the...


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Paper# 109 109

A PARALLEL RHEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR MODELING ELASTOMERS AND POLYMERS

Author: I. Lapczyki, J .A. Hurtado, and S.M. Govindarajan
Abstract: This paper presents a new parallel rheological constitutive framework intended to accurately predict the nonlinear, time-dependent response of elastomers and polymers subjected to large...


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Paper# 10 10

Mechanical and aging properties of ultra-high acrylonitrile HNBR elastomers

Author: Kevin Kulbaba, Sarah David
Abstract: HNBR is prepared by the selective hydrogenation of carbon-carbon un-saturation of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber and is classified as a high performance specialty elastomer with excellent...


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Paper# 13 13

Zinc Dithiophoshpates Applications in Sulfur Cured Polymers

Author: Jon Nienaber*
Abstract: The combination of environmental stresses along with the need for higher performance standards and longer service life in dynamic rubber applications, has forced the rubber industry to explore new...


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Paper# 19 19

Nano-Architecture Design for Tire Materials

Author: Keizo Akutagawa
Abstract: Tire technology can be described as the integration of technological elements, which correspond to scale range from nano to macro scales. The number of combinations will be millions of ways and a...


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Paper# 22 22

Measuring the Compatibility of Petroleum-based Hydrocarbon Resins in Elastomersii

Author: Laura E. Shekleton* and Steven K. Henning
Abstract: Hydrocarbon resins are typically defined as low molecular weight polymers with high softening points produced from Various petroleum fractions. They are commonly employed in rubber formulations to...


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Paper# 26 26

Evaluation of Aged Tires with lnnerliners Containing Varying Halobutyl Rubber Levels

Author: Edward R Terrill*, Walter H. Waddell
Abstract: Tires made with 100-phr of bromobutyl rubber and with blends of 8OI2O and 6OI40 bromobutyllnatural rubber in the innerliner were evaluated to order to understand the effect that the halobutyl...


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Paper# 35 35

EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON ULTRASONIC DEVULCANIZATION OF TIRE RUBBER IN TWIN-SCREW

Author: Avraam I. Isayev, Tian Liang* and Todd M. Lewis
Abstract: The die pressure and ultrasonic power consumption during devulcanization were recorded. Degree of devulcanization was investigated by measuring the crosslink density, gel fraction and...


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Paper# 43 43

SYNTHESIS OF HIGH 1,2-NIICROSTRUCTURE OF POLY(1,3- BUTADIENE) USING A BIOBASED LEWIS BASE

Author: Roderic Quirk, Hongwei Ma, Shih-Fan Wang
Abstract: One of the most unique and important aspects of living alkyllithium- initiated anionic polymerization is the ability to prepare poly(1,3-dienes) and styrene-diene copolymers with high...


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Paper# 70 70

Natural rubber/carbon black nanocomposites prepared by ultrasonically aided extrusion

Author: Jaesun Choi and Avraam I. Isayev*
Abstract: Significant efforts were made in rubber research to improve dispersion of carbon black (CB) in rubbers to achieve better processibility and performance of tires and rubber products. In addressing...


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Paper# 76 76

ENGINEERING MECHANICS OF ELASTOMERIC COMPOSITES: GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR EFFICIENT COMPUTATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION

Author: By: Mark R. Gurvich *
Abstract: Mechanical modeling of hyper-elastic composites (HEC) is usually associated with two types of challenges. The first type is challenges of elastomeric deformation itself, such as severe geometrical...


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Paper# 82 82

A novel approach towards highly exfoliated natural rubber-clay composites: Preparation and characterization

Author: S. Rooj, A. Das, K.W. Stockelhuber, R. Stocek, K. Reincke, W. Grellmann, G. Heinrich
Abstract: The accomplishment of high degree of exfoliation of layered clay minerals in non-polar rubber matrix is a major issue in rubber science and technology. In the present investigation, natural rubber...


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Paper# 83 83

Using Short Fiber Reinforcement as a Cost Effective Enhancement of Product Performance in a Variety of Applications

Author: Steven Monthey*
Abstract: Though short fiber reinforcement has been used for many years in power transmission belts, its ability to significantly improve performance properties at low loadings makes these fibers a very cost...


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Paper# 90 90

CURE KINETICS AND VARIABLE TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES FOR SOLVING FACTORY PROBLEMS

Author: John S. Dick* and Edward Norton
Abstract: Some major quality problems observed in the rubber industry are traced to poor control of rubber compound cure characteristics, which results in high internal and external failure costs in rubber...


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Paper# 96 96

Failure Analysis Techniques for Rubber-to-Substrate Bonding

Author: Joshua Drab*
Abstract: Fiubber-to-substrate bonding is achieved with commercially available bonding agents that are designed to withstand the harsh environments that the end component may be exposed to during service....


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Paper# 97 97

Water based bonding agents.

Author: Aissa Benarous, Keith Worthington
Abstract: The history and current status of water based bonding agents is reviewed, with the main emphasis being on the problems associated with the technology involved in the development of water based...


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Paper# 99 99

Carbon Footprint Comparison of Aqueous and Solvent Adhesive Systems used in Rubber-to-Substrate Bonding

Author: Patrick A. Warren*, Tejbans S. Kohli, and Mason V. Myers LORD Corporation
Abstract: Solvent-borne adhesive systems have been a key part of engineered rubber components since the 1950s. Flecent breakthroughs in polymer film forming technologies and the development of novel and more...


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Paper# 2 2

Effects of Cured Liner Gauge on Tire Performance

Author: Christopher Napier, Walter H. Waddell, Dirk F. Rouckhout
Abstract: The inflation pressure of the tire generally impacts the rolling resistance, treadwear, handling, and durability of the tire. Halobutyl rubber is the polymer of choice in the tire innerliner...


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Paper# 3

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN LATERAL FORCES VARIATION

Author:
Abstract: The paper presents an analysis of lateral forces variation between different tires installed on the same type of vehicle and driven in virtually identical conditions. Lateral forces variation is...


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Paper# 1 1

INFLUENCE OF LOW TEMPERATURE EXPOSURE ON TIRE VIBRATION AND TIRE

Author: Adrian LEU*, Mariana ARGHIR
Abstract: The paper presents comments on descending temperature exposure influence on summer tires and offering suggestions to avoid tire diminished performance or unsafe conditions. We"re analyzing...


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Paper# 4 4

Adhesion of RFL-coated Aramid Fibres to Sulphur and Peroxide

Author: Morteza Shirazi , Auke G. Talma and Jacques W. M. Noordermeer*
Abstract: The performance of fibre-reinforced composites is strongly dependent on the nature and the strength of the fibre-matrix interface. Good interfacial bonding is required to ensure load transfer from...


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Paper# 5 5

A PROCESS FOR PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK I SILICA I NANOCLAY MASTERBATCH FROM FRESH NATURAL RUBBER LATEX

Author: Sasidharan Krishnan,* Rosamma Alex, James Jacob and Thomas Kurian
Abstract: A process for production of carbon blackfsilicalnanoclay ternary filler masterbatch from fresh natural rubber (NR) latex was standardized. The filler, nano clay at doses varying from 3-10 parts per...


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Paper# 6 6

Bridging the gap: Advanced methodologies for close-to-reality lab scale compatibility assessment of sealing materials and Biofuels

Author: Markus Honoldl6, Ralf Salameh, Bhawani Tripathy
Abstract: With the worldwide strive of the automotive industry to evaluate and develop alternative mobility concepts, the incorporation of alternative fuels into the current fuel pool gains a strong position...


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Paper# 7 7

FLUOROCARBON AGING STUDIES, AN INITIAL LOOK

Author: Gregory Von White ll*, Patricia Sawyer, Derek J. Wichhart, and Robert Bernstein
Abstract: Aging and degradation of organic materials is a significant concern for engineers who aim to make decisions that affect safety, efficiency, reliability, and economics. One thrust of our research...


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Paper# 8 8

SERVICE LIFE DETERMINATION OF NITRILE O-RINGS IN HYDRAULIC FLUID

Author: Richard J. Pazur, J .G. Cormier and K. Korhan-Tayma
Abstract: The service life of nitrile O-rings exposed to hydraulic fluid was determined by accelerated aging at nine temperatures and four immersion times. The aged O-rings were tested for hardness, volume...


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Paper# 11 11

A METHOD OF USING THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION TO MODEL RUBBER MDR CURE

Author: Al Olsen
Abstract: Rubber Chemists use the Moving Die Rheometer (hereafter referred to as MDR) to test their rubber compounds. The MDR uses traditional parameters such as minimum torque (ML), maximum torque (MH), one...


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Paper# 12 12

NANO ZnO AS ACTIVATOR of RUBBER VULCANIZATION. IS ONLY A MATTER of SIZE?

Author: M. Altomare, M. Guzmán, N. Agulló, R. Comparelli and S. Borrós
Abstract: Looks at nano-sized ZnO to reduce the amount of harmful zinc content.


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Paper# 14 14

APPLICATION OF PEROXIDES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF THERMOPLASTIC VULCANISATES

Author: Anthony Bennett*, Waldo Beek and Gea Spijkerman
Abstract: Thermoplastic vulcanisates (TPV) are class of materials with properties combining those of thermoplastics and rubbers. A thermoplastic matrix material gives strength and ensures thermoplastic...


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Paper# 16 16

Synthesis and Mechanical Properties of Magadiite/SBR Composites

Author: Shigeng Li and Harry J. Ploehn*
Abstract: This work investigates mechanical reinforcement in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) composites containing sulfur-functional, organosilane-modified magadiite, a layered silicate (Na2Si1402g'9H20). Use...


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Paper# 18 18

Development of Modified Solution SBR for the Reduction of Rolling Resistance of Tire

Author: Takahiro Kawai*
Abstract: ln recent years, to reduce CO2 emission, improvement of fuel efficiency has become an urgent task in the automobile industry. An important factor for improvement of automobile fuel efficiency is...


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Paper# 20 20

Application of Neodymium Isoprene Rubber in Tread of Truck Tire

Author: Jiangwei Zhao*, Jie Zhang, Chuanqing Li, Jinmei Tan
Abstract: The microstructure and sequence distribution of isoprene rubber obtained via homogeneous neodymium-based catalyst were determined by means of FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The results...


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Paper# 21 21

Organically Functionalized Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs) as Novel Barrier Additives for Rubbers

Author: By Xiaofan Luo,* B. Q. Wierckz and Aaron Puhala
Abstract: In this paper, we report our latest progress in the development of organically functionalized layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as novel barrier additives for rubber compounds, especially those used...


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Paper# 23 23

FKM & AEM HOSE CONSTRUCTIONS FOR CHARGED AIR COOLER APPLICATIONS

Author: Eric Chauvigne Laurent Lefebvre
Abstract: High temperature AEM (HT-AEM) polymers recently introduced to the market are being successfully used in hot side hoses capable of operating up to 1800C. Applications with temperatures above 1800C...


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Paper# 25 25

The influence of humidity on ozonolysis of polybutadiene

Author: Y.Aoyagi*, K.Fukasawa, H.Kikuchi
Abstract: It is believed that there are many accelerators of the ozonolysis of diene rubber, but the influence of these accelerators has not been examined in detail. We investigated the influence of humidity...


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Paper# 27 27

LOW UNSATURATION BUTYL POLYMER FOR CURING BLADDERS

Author: Kathy Lambrinos*
Abstract: LANXESS Butyl RB 100 is a polymer well suited for curing bladder application. Traditionally, regular butyl with a typical unsaturation value of about 1.85 mol % has been the preferred grade for use...


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Paper# 28 28

NATURAL RUBBER: AN OLD MATERIAL FOR NEW APPLICATIONS

Author: Wannarat Panwiriyarat, Nitinart Saetung, Hope Badawy, Chuanpit Khaokong, Pamela Pasetto*,Irène Campistron, Arnaud Nourry, Sagrario Pascual, Laurent Fontaine, Teresa Cutrigth, Jean-Luc Mouget , Varaporn Tanrattanakul , Jean-François Pilard
Abstract: The main activity of our research group consists in the modification/ selective degradation of natural rubber to obtain new precursors to employ as building bricks in the synthesis of new materials...


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Paper# 29 29

CREATING SUPERIOR FATIGUE AND ABRASION REISTANT RUBBER COMPOUNDS THROUGH LIQUID PHASE MIXING

Author: Anand Prakash*, Michael Morris and Russell Coverley
Abstract: Dispersion of reinforcing agents, such as carbon black, is known to strongly influence the physical and dynamic properties of filled elastomeric compounds. This paper will introduce the performance...


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Paper# 30 30

USE OF DIFFFERENT INORGANIC ACTIVATORS AS ALTERNATIVE TO ZnO IN NATURAL RUBBER VULCANIZATION

Author: Manuel Guzman*, Ntjria Agullo, Juan L. ValentIn and Salvador Borros
Abstract: Over the years different alternatives have been proposed to reduce the zinc levels in rubber compounds in order to decrease the environmental impact of the rubber industry. Several researches have...


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Paper# 32 32

ALTERNATIVE NATURAL RUBBER SOURCES TO HEVEA NATURAL RUBBER - QUALITY AND ALLERGENICITY

Author: Katrina Cornish*, Wenshuang Xiel, J. Lauren Slutskyz, Richard S. Kamenikz, Crittenden J. Ohlemacher, David Kostyal, Jillian Collins-Silvas, David K. Shintanis, Matthew Kleinhenz, Frederick Michel, Robert G. Hamilton
Abstract: For the last century, the natural rubber market has been supplied almost entirely by rubber tapped as latex from the Brazilian, or para, rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. The burgeoning economies...


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Paper# 33 33

Improved Medical Stopper Solutions with High Performance, Anionic Isoprene Rubber

Author: George A. Anthony*, Philippe Henderson*, Dr. Marc Hein*
Abstract: Natural rubber (NR) has been the material-of-choice in many medical applications including medical stoppers. However, health care providers and the general population have become more aware of NRis...


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Paper# 34 34

INVESTIGATION OF THE STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF GUAYULE RUBBER

Author: Cheng Ching K. Chiang, Balaka Barkakaty, Judit E. Puskas, Wenshuang Xie, Katrina Cornish ,Federic Peruch, Alain Deffieux
Abstract: Despite great advances in chemistry and materials science, Natural Rubber (cis-l,4-polyisoprene (PIP), NR) remains irreplaceable in many applications with properties that cannot be matched by any...


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Paper# 36 36

COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF THE DE-VULCANIZATION PARAMETERS OF TIRE RUBBERS

Author: S. Saiwari, W.K. Dierkes* and J .W.M. Noordermeer
Abstract: The optimal process conditions for a high ratio of de-vulcanization to polymer degradation have been investigated for tire rubbers: SBR, BR, NR and CIIR. These polymers all show their own...


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Paper# 37 37

ADVANCES IN MICRONIZED RUBBER POWDER

Author: F. P. Papp
Abstract: Previous publications by this author have described recommended methods of incorporation of micronized rubber powder, (M RP), into rubber compounds, including optimization of important physical...


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Paper# 44 44

FILLER NETWORK ANALYSIS

Author: Yoshinobu Isono*
Abstract: Correspondence between nonlinear viscoelastic properties and change in various networks in carbon black (CB) filled rubbers have been studied by using combined measurements of relaxation modulus...


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Paper# 45 45

A New Way of Thinking about the Fillers Role in Natural Rubber: Improving Hysteresis Through Filler Modifications and Smart Compounding

Author: Michael J acobsson*, Peter Cameron, Joel Neilsen, Leszek Nikiel, and Wesley Wampler
Abstract: There have been several attempts to improve hysteresis in carbon black-filled compounds by way of implementing a coupling agent, which increases the interaction between the carbon black and...


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Paper# 46 46

TITANATES AND ZIRCONATES - DIFFERENT THAN SILANES AND WHY THAT MATTERS TO RUBBER COMPOUNDERS

Author: Salvatore J. Monte
Abstract: Data and references are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of titanates and zirconates in unfilled, foamed and filled polymers and why they are different than silanes at the interface with an...


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Paper# 47 47

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE SILICONE RUBBER - TIB2 COMPOSITES

Author: Aparna M J oshi*, Anjali A Athawale
Abstract: Electrically conductive composites comprised of silicone rubber and titanium diboride (TiB2) were synthesized by conventional mixing methods. Fine particles of TlB2 (in micron size) and 10 parts...


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Paper# 48 48

Improved Medical Stopper Solutions with High Performance, Anionic Isoprene Rubber

Author: George A. Anthony, Philippe Henderson, Marc Hein,
Abstract: Natural rubber (NR) has been the material-of-choice in many medical applications including medical stoppers. However, health care providers and the general population have become more aware of NR's...


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Paper# 49 49

POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE NANOCOMPOSITES WITH VARIOUS ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FIBROUS NANOFILLERS: MORPHOLOGY-

Author: Nabarun Roy and Anil K. Bhowmick*
Abstract: Among various elastomers, polydimethylsiloxane is versatile owing to exotic compilation of properties such as low temperature flexibility, high thermal stability, incredible surface properties and...


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Paper# 51 51

GREEN TIRE TREAD COMPOUNDS BASED ON SILICA-REINFORCED EPOXIDIZED NATURAL RUBBER (ENR): COMPARISON OF THE ROLE OF WATER IN THE CURE OF ENR, sSBR/BR, NR AND BR

Author: Pamela J. Martin, Andrew V. Chapman*, Stuart Cook and Robin T. Davies
Abstract: As concerns grow regarding climate change and the cost and long-term availability of oil supplies, there is an increasing desire for products such as tires to be manufactured in part or entirely...


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Paper# 52 52

REINFORCEMENT OF NATURAL RUBBER BY PRECIPITATED SILICA: THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING TEMPERATURE

Author: S. Salina Sarkawi1*, Wilma K. Dierkes, Jacques W.M. Noorderrneer
Abstract: The thermal history and in particular the mixing dump temperature is a parameter of paramount importance in mixing rubber and silica with a silane coupling agent in order to achieve proper...


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Paper# 54 54

Stress Relaxation Behavior of Nanoclay filled Natural Rubber (NR)/Nitrile Rubber (NBR) Blend Nanocomposites

Author: Hanna J. Maria, Nathalie Lyczko, Ange Nzihou, Kuruvilla Joseph, Cherian Mathew, Sabu Thomas
Abstract: Blends of different polymers have significant influence in industrial applications. Understanding the role of nanofillers in immiscible blends is one of the key factors in modifying the morphology,...


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Paper# 55 55

Experimental Evaluation of Rubber Properties

Author: Kenneth Aniunoh*
Abstract: Rubber is a material that finds use in everyday consumer products from tires in cars to erasers on pencils. The properties of the rubber raw materials and the finished products play a highly...


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Paper# 56 56

Two-Dimensional Wide-Angle X-Ray Diffraction Simulation Study on Strain-Induced Crystallization and Temperature-Induced Crystallization of Un-Vulcanized Natural and Synthetic Rubber

Author: Justin Che*, Christian Burger, Shigeyuki Toki, Lixia Rong, Benjamin S. Hsiao
Abstract: New insights into the strain-induced crystallization (SIC) and temperature-induced crystallization (TIC) of un-vulcanized natural rubber (NR) and synthetic polyisoprene rubber (IR) have been...


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Paper# 57 57

ENTANGLEMENT AND END LINKING NETWORK ON STRESS-STRAIN RELATION AND STRAIN-INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION OF UN-VULCANIZED AND VULCANIZED NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC RUBBERS. II

Author: *Shigeyuki Toki, Justin Che, Lixia, Rong, Benjamin S. Hsiao, Sureerut Amnuaypornsri, Adul Nimpaiboon, Jitladda Sakdapipanich
Abstract: Stress-strain relation and strain-induced crystallization of un-vulcanized and vulcanized natural rubber (NR) and synthetic polyisoprene (IR) were studied using synchrotron X- ray. at varied...


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Paper# 63 63

New NBR/HNBR Adhesives for Oill Gas Drilling Applications

Author: Brian Carney* and James R. Halladay LORD Corporation
Abstract: A large segment of the oil and gas drilling industry relies on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) compounds for producing critical parts like pumps, blow-out preventers, and stator assemblies....


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Paper# 66 66

NOVOR 800 - A NEW HEAT-RESISTANT VULCANIZING SYSTEM

Author: Graham T. Spiller, Stuart Cook and Andrew V. Chapman*.
Abstract: The Novor vulcanizing systems are based on adducts of a nitrosophenol with a bis- isocyanate. The Novor systems were developed to provide reversion-resistant cures, in particular in NR at high cure...


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Paper# 67 67

THE EFFECT OF DEFORMATION MODE IN THE PREDICTION OF TIRE PERFORMANCE BY DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS

Author: Jonathan E. Martens*, Edward R. Terrill, and James T. Lewis
Abstract: Tire tread performance prediction in silica reinforced compounds by using DMTA was measured between a functionalized and non-functionalized S-SBR, both subjected to different lengths of mixing...


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Paper# 68 68

LINEAR VISCOELASTIC ENERGY DISSIPATION AT THE FILLER-RUBBER INTERFACE IN SILICA-RUBBER NANOCOMPOSITES

Author: Lewis B Tunnicliffe*, Alan G Thomas, Kevin E Young, John A Stuart and James J C Busfield
Abstract: Understanding the reinforcement of rubber by particulate fillers has posed a challenge to academics and industrialists for many years. Whilst the stiffening of rubbers by rigid particulates is...


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Paper# 69 69

REACTIVE MIXING AS A WAY OF GRAFTING ONTO SILICA SURFACE WITH EPOXIDIZED POLYMERS

Author: Marly A. M. Jacobi*, Marcus V. Braum and Robert H. Schuster
Abstract: Lightly epoxidized cis-butadiene rubber (EpBR) was prepared and used to react in Sim with precipitated silica in an internal mixer in passenger tire tread formulations. Previous studies of...


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Paper# 71 71

Selective Interactions in CNT – Rubber Composites

Author: H. Chogule, H. Wittek and R. H. Schuster*
Abstract: Presentation Slides Only. Investigation of the interaction potential of CNTs with rubbers; includes discussion of sorption of molecular probes on CNT surfaces, reduced polymer dynamics on CNT...


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Paper# 72 72

Effect of Filler Surface Activity and Morphology on Mechanical and Dielectric Properties of NBR / Graphene - Nano - Composites

Author: Markus M. Mowes*, Frank Fleck and Manfred Kliippel
Abstract: The surface characteristics of graphenes and graphite based nanofillers are analyzed in regarding of activity, porosity and roughness in comparison to mechanical and dielectric properties of...


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Paper# 73 73

LAYERED NANOFILLERS FOR RUBBERS

Author: Guerra Gaetano , Conzatti Luciae, Giannmi Luca
Abstract: Rubber nanocomposites were obtained by melt blending synthetic poly(l,4-cis-isoprene) as the rubber and organically modified clays (OC). OC were prepared by reacting at the solid state pristine...


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Paper# 74 74

Numerical Analysis of Inflatable Structures With Application to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Author: Michael Coatney, Muthuvel Murugan, Mulugeta Haile, Harris Edge
Abstract: Several areas of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) performance need to be improved for the next generation of UAVs to be used successfully in expanded future combat roles. This paper describes the...


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Paper# 75 75

Prediction of the Hysteresis and Creep Energy Loss with FEA within Filled Rubber Materials As Applied to Power Transmission Components

Author: S. Burghardt*, J.L. Brighton, K. Blackburn
Abstract: The prediction of energy dissipation from filled rubber components undergoing complex loading cycles is an important part of the design process if optimized components and minimized energy...


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Paper# 77 77

Modeling rubber disks subjected to small compressions

Author: O. H. Yeoh*
Abstract: A simple method for the analysis of incompressible rubber disks subjected to small compressions originally proposed by Gent and Lindley 0) is to regard the deformation as arising from a...


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Paper# 78 78

STOCHASTIC THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS ON THE HYPERELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLE FILLED RUBBERS UNDER MODERATE FINITE DEFORMATION

Author: By Xu Li*, Ziran Li, and Yuanming Xia
Abstract: Based on the spherical characteristics of carbon-black (CB) filler particles in statistic viewpoint, a three-dimensional (3D) numerical modeling strategy is proposed, in which the filler particles...


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Paper# 79 79

DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF PRESSSURE LOADED METAL-RUBBER LAMINATE

Author: Robert W. M. Smith
Abstract: Motivated by the application of a metal-rubber laminate bellows structure to replace a component in a thermoacoustic-stirling engine, the static and dynamic properties of such bellows was...


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Paper# 80 80

ROAD FORCE VARIATION INFLUENCE ON TIRE VIBRATION

Author: Adrian LEU*, Mariana ARGHIR
Abstract: The paper analyses tire vibration caused by Road Force Variation on passenger car tires and presents suggestions for reducing tire vibration. Considering multiple samples, we are analyzing Radial...


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Paper# 81 81

TALC for Peroxide Cured Compounds

Author: Oscar F. Noel III* and Dr. Gilles Meli
Abstract: The performance of talc in peroxide cured compounds can be enhanced via surface treatment with silane coupling agents. This approach offers a method of increasing the use of talc as a reinforcing...


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Paper# 84 84

PATENT LAW UPDATE: HOW WILL THE LEAHY-SMITH AMERICA INVENTS ACT AFFECT INVENTION DISCLOSURES AT YOUR COMPANY'S

Author: Jacob M. Ward*
Abstract: The Leahy-Smith America lnvents Act (AIA) represents the first major overhaul of U.S. patent system in 60 years.I Among the many revisions to U.S. patent law under the AIA, which becomes fully...


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Paper# 85 85

The Creation & Management of Knowledge in the Rubber Compounding Industry

Author: J R Patel
Abstract: The rubber industry is divided into tyre and non-tyre. The skih's in both sectors are simiiar and transferabie. Those wih'ing and abie to observe and tiy different ways of making the rubber work...


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Paper# 86 86

An Advanced Alternative to Ethylene Acrylic (AEM) Elastomers for High-Temperature, Oil Resistant Hoses

Author: Joshua R. Kelley*
Abstract: Zeon Chemicals' new HyTemp AR212XP high-temperature polyacrylate (HT-ACM) offers a higher level of heat and fluid resistance compared to high-temperature ethylene acrylic (HT- AEM) elastomers....


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Paper# 87 87

AEM Polymer for Seals and Gaskets with Low Oil Swell and Improved Processing

Author: Edward McBride* Theresa Dobel
Abstract: An AEM polymer - VMX 3110 from DuPont - has been developed for the seal and gasket market. Compounds made from this polymer have shown improved processing in both injection and compression molding...


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Paper# 89 89

EXTRUSION OF LOW FRICTION AND LOW TACK MICROSTRUCTURED SURFACES ON SILICONE RUBBER

Author: By Andrew H. Cannon*, Mel Toub, and VWliam P. King
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to create low friction and low tack silicone surfaces without addition of coatings or lubricants but through alteration of the physical structure of the silicone...


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Paper# 91 91

A Parametric Evaluation of Hardness, Compression Set and Compression Stress Relaxation

Author: Paul Tuckner*
Abstract: There are interests or concerns about the relationship between the material response and the configuration effects when evaluating different materials in a range of different shapes. Although tests...


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Paper# 92 92

INFLUENCE OF FRICTION ON THE FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH OF COMPONENTS UNDER HIGH COMPRESSIOIN

Author: Salim Mirza* and John Harris
Abstract: Resistance to crack growth due to cyclic fatigue loading is an important design consideration for elastomeric components subjected to compressive loading. Under this mode of loading the crack faces...


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Paper# 93 93

Critical Plane Analysis of Fatigue Crack Nucleation Under Tension, Shear, and Compression

Author: W. V. Mars
Abstract: When fatigue cracks develop from microscopic precursors in rubber, they tend to do so on specific planes. The orientation and loading experiences of such planes under the action of a given...


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Paper# 95 95

NEW APPROACH TO MODELING FAILURE OF RUBBER

Author: Konstantin Volokh
Abstract: Nonlinear theories of elasticity describe rubber deformation but not failure, however, in reality rubbers do fail. In the present work we review a new approach of energy limiters that allows for...


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Paper# 98 98

HUMIDITY AND RUBBER-TO-METAL BONDING WITH SILANE ADHESIVES

Author: Michael J. Moore* and Ursula Oyer
Abstract: Silanes are a valuable class of rubber-to-substrate bonding agents for specialty elastomers. One drawback with silanes, however, is the sensitivity of coated inserts that have been stored under...


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Paper# 102 102

SUSTAINABLE IN-MACHINE MOLD CLEANING USING DRY ICE

Author: Steve Wilson *
Abstract: For injection and compression rubber molders there is a great demand to increase the productivity of their equipment and the quality of their parts, while maintaining healthy margins. This can be a...


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Paper# 103 103

Applications of Imaging ATR to Rubber Analysis

Author: Fred Fraser*
Abstract: FTIR analysis using ATR imaging enables the analyst to probe a rubber surface for spatial descriptions of the following: locations of microscopic contaminants, hard phaselsoft phase maps of...


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Paper# 104 104

DETERMINING FLUOROELASTOMER CONTENT OF RUBBERS USING THERMAL DEGRADATION AND SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS OF ANALYSIS

Author: D. M. Tucker *, R. A. Webb, A. G. Olsen and Yan Fayman
Abstract: Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) is commonly used to determine the volatile, polymeric and filler components of rubber materials. Tests conducted with various copolymers, terpolymers and base...


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Paper# 106 106

HIGH PERFORMANCE POLYBUTADIENES IN GOLF BALLS

Author: J. Douglas*, B. Comeau*, D. Goguen, Dave Hardy, Heike Kloppenburg, Yan Zhang, Thomas Gross
Abstract: Golfers in recent centuries have witnessed with enthusiasm advances in golf ball technology. From the feathery and gutta-percha, to the modern day wound and solid core golf balls, those passionate...


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Paper# 107 107

Rocks to Rubber: Origin of the Fluoroelastomer Species

Author: Ed Cole*
Abstract: Presentation Files only. Discusses history of Fluoroelastomers, production of refrigerants, FKM production and cure systems, and FKM market synopsis.


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Paper# 108 108

Soybean Oil Plasticizers as Replacements for Petroleum Oil in Rubber

Author: Zoran S Petrovic, Mihail lonescu, and Jelena Milic
Abstract: Polymerized soybean oils of different molecular weights were used as plasticizers in blends of natural rubber with styrene butadiene rubber. The oils of different molecular weights and viscosities...


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Paper# 110 110

High Strain Rate Mechanical Behavior of Polyurea as a Function of Stoichiometry

Author: P. H. Mott* and C. M. Roland
Abstract: The stress-strain behavior of a commercial elastomeric polyuria prepared at three different stoi- chiometries (Air Products Versalink P1000 curative mixed with Dow Isonate l43L prepolymer, at...


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Paper# 111 111

A STUDY ON VISCOELASTICITY AND THE MULLINS EFFECT OF ELASTOMERS

Author: Goang-Ding Shyu*
Abstract: Although rubber is capable of very large elastic deformation, it also shows significant viscoelastic behavior and a strain-induced, stress-softening phenomenon (the Mullins effect). In this paper,...


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Paper# 113 113

DYNAMIC COMPRESSION RESPONSE AND MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A FOAM EPDM SEAL AND ITS EFFECT ON VEHICLE DOOR CLOSURE

Author: Mahmoud Oumohand * and Moulay Sakaly
Abstract: Automotive door weather strip seals, made of foam EPDM, are usually designed to meet specific compression performance with respect to door closure. The seal deformation response is generally...


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Paper# C1 C1

Phase-Field Modeling of Strain-Induced Crystallization of Elastomer

Author: Rabia Laghmach*, Thierry Biben, Laurent Chazeau, Jean-Marc Chenal
Abstract: 9th Annual Student Colloquium & Poster Session. We present a kinetic model of crystal growth of elastomers under strain using the phase-field approach connecting the thermodynamic of...


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Paper# C2 C2

IN-SITU SYNCHROTRON WAXD INVESTIGATION OF THE CRYSTALLIZED ZONE AROUND A FATIGUE CRACK TIP IN NATURAL RUBBER

Author: By Pierre Rublon, Bertrand Huneau, Erwan Verron, Daniel Berghezan
Abstract: 9th Annual Student Colloquium & Poster Session. In tire industry, fatigue crack propagation in elastomers is investigated to improve the service life of products. Natural rubber (NR) is a key...


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Paper# C3 C3

IMPACT OF HIGH STRAIN RATE CYCLES ON THE STRAIN INDUCED CRYSTALLINE PROPERTIES OF NATURAL RUBBER

Author: By Nicolas Candau*, Laurent Chazeau, Jean-Marc Chenal, Catherine Gauthier, Etienne Munch
Abstract: 9th Annual Student Colloquium & Poster Session. Real time Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) measurements during cyclic tensile tests at high strain rates (from 8 s'1 to 280 s1) and at room...


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Paper# C4 C4

Necking in silica filled poly(dimethylsiloXane) and the resulting mechanical properties of the tneckedi material

Author: Oluwaseyi (Shay) Ogebule*, Grigori A Medvedev, and James M Caruthers
Abstract: 9th Annual Student Colloquium and Poster Session. Necking is well known phenomena in uniaxial extension for filled and unfilled semi-crystalline polymers as well as in amorphous polymers below...


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Paper# C6 C6

Type I and Type IV Circumallergenic Natural Rubber Latex Thin Films

Author: Lauren Slutzky* and Katrina Cornish
Abstract: 9th Annual Student Colloquium and Poster Session. Natural rubber latex from the Brazilian para rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is commonly used for thin film barrier products such as condoms,...


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Paper# C8 C8

Thermogravimetric Analysis of the Kinetics of the Reaction of Alkoxysilane with Silica

Author: Yuk Yu Law* , Donald L. Feke and Ica Manas-Zloczower
Abstract: 9th Annual Student Colloquium & Poster Session. The surface functionalization of silica by alkoxysilane can improve its dispersion into polymers by beneficially modifying interparticle and...


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Paper# C9 C9

PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CARBON BLACK (CB) WITH CARBON NANOTUBES IN NITRILE (NBR) RUBBER/CB NANOCOMPOSITES

Author: Nuthathai Warasitthinon*, Artee Panwar, Lacramioara Schulte aufim Erley, Andrew P. Hope, David Norton, Jijun Huang, Carol Barry, and Joey Mead
Abstract: 9th Annual Student Colloquium & Poster Session. Due to potential use of carbon nanotubes as reinforcing fillers, carbon black (CB, 50phr) in nitrile rubber (NBR) nanocomposites was partially...


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Paper# P-1 P1

Fix Me

Author:
Abstract: FIX ME


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Paper# P2 P2

ULTRASONIC TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER FOR RUBBER DEVULCANIZATION

Author: Avraam I. Isayev, Tian Liang*, Lewis M. Todd
Abstract: Student Poster. Discusses the design and manufacture a new ultrasonic twin-screw extruder for devulcanization of rubbers devulcanization of rubbers. Study and compare properties of ground tire...


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Paper# P3 P3

Decrosslinking of crosslinked HDPE via ultrasonic assisted extrusion

Author: Keyuan Huang* and Avraam I. lsayev
Abstract: Student Poster. Examines the effect of ultrasonic waves on virgin uncrosslinked HDPE and crosslinked HDPE (XHDPE) uncrosslinked HDPE and crosslinked HDPE (XHDPE) using single and twin screw...


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Paper# P4 P4

SBR/Carbon Nanotube Nanocompsites Using Polystyrene Coated Carbon Nanotubes As A Master Batch

Author: Lingling Wang
Abstract: Student Poster. In this work, CNT was coated by Polystyrene Polystyrene (PS) to prepare rubber/CNT composites (RCNs). As PS has the similar similar chemical chemical properties properties with...


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Paper# P5 P5

The Preparation of Multilayer Silicone Rubber Composites and their Behavior in the Electromagnetic Field

Author: Rui Jian, Liang Fang, Nuthathai Warasitthinon, Lingling Wang, Ming Wei, Carol F. Barry and Joey Mead
Abstract: Student Poster. Objectives: To prepare conductive silicone rubber with multilayer To prepare conductive silicone rubber with multilayer structure, and to test the effects of filler loading and...


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Paper# P6 P6

Fix Me

Author:
Abstract: Fix Me


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Paper# P7 P7

New Isobutylene-based Thermoplastic Elastomers

Author: Attila L. Gergely*, Judit E. Puskas
Abstract: Student Poster. The development of polymeric materials that incorporate naturally occurring monomers from renewable resources are of great interest. We investigated the carbocationic...


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Paper# P8 P8

THE EFFECTS ON RESILIENCE USING DITHOPHOSPHATE CURE SYSTEMS WITH POLYBUTADIENE

Author: Labon Wolgamott
Abstract: Student Poster.


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