Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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180th Technical Meeting

Date: October 11, 2011
Location: Cleveland, OH

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $900.00

198th Technical Meeting - Fall 2020

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

193rd Technical Meeting - 2018 Spring

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Paper# 102 2011 102

LINEAR-NONLINEAR DICHOTOMY OF THE RHEOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF PARTICLE-FILLED POLYMERS

Author: Amy M. Randall* and Christopher G. Robertson
Abstract: Understanding the complex rheological behavior of rubber compounds is an ever-present need as the rubber industry is moving toward more complex systems, i.e. functionalized polymers,...


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Paper# 39 2011 39

Strength Enhancement from Heterogeneous Networks

Author: C.M. Roland*, G.S. Buckley, D. Fragiadakis
Abstract: Random copolymers of ethylene and propylene [EPR) are usually miscible with the corresponding unsaturated terpolymer (EPDM). Vulcanization of these blends yields networks in which only the EPDM is...


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Paper# 40 2011 40

Dynamic Heterogeneity in Polymers - How Many Chain Segments Must Move So That One Can Move'!

Author: C.M. Roland*, D. Fragiadakis, and R. Casalini
Abstract: Molecules and chain segments exert reciprocal influences as they move, so that motion of one entails motion of many. These many-body correlations underlie dynamic heterogeneity, in which different...


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Paper# 59 2011 59

Choosing the Right Peroxide for Today's High Performance Applications

Author: Steven Monthey*
Abstract: The continued push by automotive and industrial OEM manufacturers for higher temperature and longer lasting performance elastomeric applications has made the use of peroxide cure systems more...


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Paper# 71 2011 71

Effect of F-S-SBR in Silica Tire Tread Formulation

Author: Jonathan E. Martens*, Edward R. Terrill, and James T. Lewis
Abstract: Silica tread performance was studied in a two variablef two level designed experiment. The two variables were polymer functionality and mix method. The first polymer was a functionalized solution...


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Paper# 76 2011 76

Crosslinked Blends of Polyolefin Elastomers with EPDM Rubber

Author: Tim Clayfield, Arnis Paeglis*, Dave Schiff, and Olaf Henschke
Abstract: Random, homogeneous ethylene-oi-olefin copolymers, often referred to as polyolefin elastomers (POEs), share some common desirable attributes with ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) and...


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Paper# 77 2011 77

Natural rubber/carbon nanotube nanocomposites prepared by ultrasonically aided extrusion

Author: Jaesun Choi* and Avraam I. Isayev
Abstract: Nanocomposites of natural rubber with multi walled carbon nanotubes (NRXMWCNT) at a loading range of 2 to 25 phr were prepared by ultrasonically aided single screw extrusion process at ultrasonic...


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Paper# 85 2011 85

LIQUID EPDM FOR LIQUID INJECTION MOLDING APPLICATION

Author: Yonghui Zhang*, John Summers, Wasif Khan, Arthur Fontenot III and Bob Ohm
Abstract: This paper presents the Liquid Injection Molding (LIM) feasibility of newly designed compounds based on Trilene@Liquid Polymers (L-EPDM). The LIM process can be used for applications such as...


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Paper# 91 2011 91

Further Advances in Use of Polymer Process Aids to reduce Material Cost

Author: Chandrasekaran R. Pillai, Hari Chandra, Krish Chandran
Abstract: Leveraging the ability to load high filler levels in compounds with polymer process aids, we were able come up with highly loaded formulations for quality rubber products, in particular molded...


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Paper# 95 2011 95

Upgrading Mixing Operations for Improved Productivity Adding Mixing Capacity to an Existing Mill Room

Author: Lawrence R. Gooch
Abstract: A brief review of current intensive internal batch mixer technology is made with an emphasis on the selection of features from a product and process standpoint. Issues related to equipment...


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Paper# 1 2011 1

Using Sulfron to Improve Rolling Resistance and Durability of Tires

Author: Nico Huntink*, Tony Mathew, Mukund Tiwari and Sarah Parker
Abstract: Transport sector is a major focus point for the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction policy around the globe. Approximately 20-30% of vehicles energy consumption can be attributed to tires...


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Paper# 2 2011 2

INVESTIGATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF STEARIC ACID ON RUBBER-

Author: Elisabeth Ziegler*, Johannes Macher, Dieter Gruber, Peter Polt, Wolfgang Kern
Abstract: The influence of stearic acid loading on the adhesion of rubber to brass-plated steel wires was investigated. The so-called squalene method was employed to investigate the adhesion interface...


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Paper# 4 2011 4

NOVEL AND ADVANCED BIO-BASED ENGINEERING

Author: Liqun Zhang*, Hailan Kang, Runguo Wang, Zhao Wang, Yan Wu, Tao Wei, and Kuo-Chi Hua
Abstract: Bio-based polymer products derived from annually renewable agricultural and biomass feedstock have become increasingly important as sustainable and eco-efficient products which can replace the...


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Paper# 6 2011 6

NEW PRODUCT SPECIFICATION DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FOR SILICONE RUBBER

Author: C.W. Olsen Jr.* , H.D. Mun, J.H. Choi, S.S. Eun, Y.S. Heo
Abstract: The process of developing a new grade of rubber often consists of identifying a set of target properties to meet a specific range of applications. The rubber chemist then uses their knowledge of...


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Paper# 7 2011 7

Testing of AEM and FKM Compounds in Acid Condensates for Turbocharger Systems

Author: Edward McBride*, K. Kammerer, L. Lefebvre
Abstract: AEM compounds (DuPontm Vamac@ ethylene acrylic elastomer) and FKM compounds (DuPontm Viton@ fluoroelastomer) are used to make hoses for turbocharged engines. AEM compounds are also used to make air...


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Paper# 8 2011 8

REVIEW OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW APPLICABLE TO THE RUBBER AND PLASTICS INDUSTRY

Author: Jacob M. Ward*, J. Douglas Miller
Abstract: The purpose and scope of the paper is to provide an overview of intellectual property law for engineers and scientists in the rubber and plastics industry. The paper will discuss the basics of...


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Paper# 9 2011 9

The origin of strength of natural rubber studied by synchrotron X-ray: network in raw rubber and vulcanized rubber.

Author: Shigeyuki Toki, Justin Che, Lixia Rong, Benjamin S. Hsiao, Adul Nirnpaiboon, Jitladda Sakdapipanich
Abstract: Stress-strain relation and strain-induced crystallization of un-vulcanized and vulcanized natural rubber and synthetic polyisoprene were studied using synchrotron X-ray at varied temperatures from...


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Paper# 10 2011 10

Strain-Induced Crystallization of Pre- and Post-Vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex During Uniaxial Deformation by In-Sim Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction

Author: Justin Che*, Shigeyuki Toki, Lixia Rong, Benjamin S. Hsiao
Abstract: The structural development and morphology in Vulcanized and un-Vulcanized natural rubber latex was studied under deformation by in- situ synchrotron X-ray scattering and Multiple- Quantum (MQ) NMR....


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Paper# 11 2011 11

DURABILITY TESTING OF SILICONE MATERIALS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE

Author: S. Bhargava*, K.A. O'Leary, T. C. Jackson, B. Lakshmanan
Abstract: Silicone resins are ideal candidates for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) sealing and gasketing. They have many advantages for PEMFC application such as superior stability and longevity...


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Paper# 12 2011 12

Keltan 6251A, A Versatile Sponge Grade Combining Easy Processing With Excellent Physical Properties

Author: Graham Choonoo*, Michiel Dees, Philip Hough
Abstract: Demands placed on the cost, performance and aesthetics of automotive sponge seals over the past decade have steadily increased. Most automotive sponge formulations use medium to high molecular...


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Paper# 13 2011 13

KNEADER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DIRECT DEVOLATILIZATION OF TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE ELASTOMERS

Author: Boyd T. Safrit*, Andreas E. Diener
Abstract: ABSTRACT Synthetic elastomers have been produced for over 50 years. Advances in catalyst systems and polymer formulations have been somewhat diminished by the continued use of the same processing...


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Paper# 14 2011 14

A New Natural Product that Lowers Compound Costs and Produces a Greener Rubber Compound...The Next Generation of Kaolin

Author: Doug Carter, Mark Beavers
Abstract: Polyfil NG is a new kaolin developed to substitute for carbon black or low surface area silica in a rubber formulation resulting in lower lb-vol cost, a reduced carbon footprint, and opportunity to...


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Paper# 16 2011 16

Novel Silica Coated Iron Oxide, "MAGSlLlCA" for Speed Up Crosslinking in Rubber

Author: Orawan Taikum*, Andrea Korch, Rainer Friehmelt, Frank Minister, Mario Scholz, Harald Herzog, and Stipan Katusic
Abstract: The novel silica coated iron oxide under the brand of MAGSILICA is produced by Evonikls fumed oxide production technology. The silica coated iron oxide consists of iron oxide cores and silica...


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Paper# 17 2011 17

An Enhanced Corrosion Protection Mechanism for Rubber-to-Metal Bonding

Author: Paul Mills, Tony Hall, Jake Adams
Abstract: The trend toward more stringent performance requirements for many transportation and industrial applications poses a significant and potentially costly problem for elastomeric bonding to various...


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Paper# 18 2011 18

Evaluation of Antidegradants Systems for Enhancing Performance of Bromobutyl Based Tire lnnerliners.

Author: Bernard DiCruz, Bharat B. Sharma, Brendan Rodgers
Abstract: Bromobutyl (BIIR) is an elastomeric isobutylene-isoprene copolymer containing reactive bromine. Bromobutyl polymer exhibit most of the attributes of the butyl polymer molecule because of the...


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Paper# 19 2011 19

EFFECTS OF FILLER MORPHOLOGY ON TIRE INNERLINER PERMEABILITY: A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY

Author: T. C. Gruber*, S. D. Crossley, and A. P. Smith
Abstract: The loss of air pressure in tires is known to degrade tire performance, specifically causing higher rolling resistance and reduced fuel economy. Tire innerliners incorporate solid fillers that help...


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Paper# 21 2011 21

A NEW CONSTITUTIVE EQUATION TO INCLUDE THE MULLINS EFFECT

Author: Goang-Ding Shyu*
Abstract: Rubber is an indispensible component of many downhole oilfield tools due to its versatile sealing capabilities. When calculating the deformation and sealing force of rubber parts with finite...


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Paper# 22 2011 22

Influence of ZnO and stearic acid on the hydrophobation reaction of silica

Author: Anke Blume
Abstract: The use of precipitated silica and silane in tire tread compounds gains more and more importance globally due to the upcoming tire regulations. The use of highly dispersible silica together with...


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Paper# 23 2011 23

Mapping storage modulus and loss modulus of polyolefinlpolystyrene blends with atomic

Author: Dalia G. Yablon, Roger Proksch, Anil Gannepalli, Andy H. Tsou
Abstract: The storage modulus and loss modulus of blends of polypropylenel polystyrene and polyethylene I polystyrene have been mapped quantitatively with contact resonance atomic force microscopy. Contact...


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Paper# 24 2011 24

Loss Tangent Imaging with Atomic Force Microscopy

Author: Roger Proksch, Dalia Yablon
Abstract: Phase imaging on an Atomic Force Microscope [AFM) has been extended to provide an estimate of the loss tangent of the material with nanometer resolution. We review the derivation ofa simplified...


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Paper# 25 2011 25

PREPARATION, STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF THE NANO-REINFORCED THERMAL CONDUCTIVE RUBBER COMPOSITES

Author:
Abstract: State Key Lab of Organic-Inorganic Composites: Key Lab of Beijing City for Preparation and Processing Novel Polymer, Center of Advanced Elastomer Materials (CAEM), College of Material Science and...


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Paper# 26 2011 26

Functional Imidazolium Ionomer Derivatives of Isobutylene-Rich Elastomers

Author: J. Scott Parent, Adam Ozvald and Ralph A. Whitney
Abstract: Macromolecules containing small amounts of ionic functionality, collectively known as ionomers, are valued for their exceptional physical properties, antimicrobial activity, and superiour adhesion...


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Paper# 27 2011 27

CURING STUDIES OF MAGNETORHEOLOGICAL ELASTOMERS

Author: C. Hintze, G. Heinrich
Abstract: Magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) consist of a crosslinked elastomeric matrix and magnetic particles. Because of their advantage to control the Viscoelastic properties by applying an external...


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Paper# 28 2011 28

An Investigation in the Use and Performance of Diatomaceous Earth in an EPDM Rubber Gasket for Domestic Laundry Application

Author: Rajendra K Singh*, Andy Riley, Kelvin Thomas
Abstract: ABSTRACT The reinforcement of elastomers by finely divided fillers, like silica, is fundamental to the rubber industry. Very fine particle size precipitated silica is the major reinforcing filler...


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Paper# 30 2011 30

Noxtite HT-ACM Improved Media Resistance: A Comprehensive Study

Author: Konstantin Zoumis
Abstract: In the early 21st century, we introduced a new high temperature Noxtitem ACM type family (HT-ACM's) with significantly improved heat resistance compared to existing acrylate polymer grades. Those...


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Paper# 33 2011 33

NOVEL FUNCTIONALIZED SSBR FOR SILICA- & CARBON BLACK- CONTAINING TIRES

Author: Sven K.H. Thiele, Susanne Knolla
Abstract: Functionalized SSBR was reported to enhance the interaction of polymer chain-ends with silica andlor carbon black leading to a significant decrease of rolling resistance and heat build-up in tires,...


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Paper# 34 2011 34

Comparative Study of Silica, Carbon Black and Novel Fillers in Tread Compounds

Author: Cynthia M. Flanigan*, Laura Beyer, David Klekamp, David Rohweder
Abstract: In response to increasing demands for improved fuel economy and performance, companies are seeking advancements in tire technologies ranging from novel constructions to new material systems....


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Paper# 35 2011 35

NANO AND NANOSTRUCTURED FILLERS AND THEIR SYNERGISTIC BEHAVIOR IN RUBBER COMPOSITES SUCH AS TIRES

Author: Maurizio Galimberti
Abstract: In this work, it was investigated the filler networking phenomenon promoted by nanofillers in IR matrix. IR based composites were prepared containing the following nanofillers: organically modified...


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Paper# 37 2011 37

HIGH PERFORMANCE SILICAS REINFORCED ELASTOMERS: FROM STANDARD TECHNOLOGY TO ADVANCED SOLUTIONS

Author: Soline Daudey*, Laurent Guy
Abstract: Zeosil@ 1165MP* Rhodia Highly Dispersible Silica (HDS) was launched 20 years ago and has progressively become the global standard for full silica tire tread technology, used in the production of...


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Paper# 38 2011 38

The Use of a Surface-Modified Carbon Black with an ln-Chain Functionalized Solution SSBR as an Alternative to Higher Cost Green Tire Technology

Author: Judy Douglas*, Steve Crossley, Joseph Hallett, John Curtis, Dave Hardy, Thomas Gross, Norbert Steinhauser. Alex Lucassen, Heike Kloppenburg
Abstract: This paper demonstrates the preparation of a surface treated carbon black and the reactive in-sftu mixing with an in-chain functionalized solution styrene- butadiene copolymer to form a tire tread...


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Paper# 41 2011 41

Rubber microfibers with morphological stability prepared through combination of electrospinning and in-situ chemical crosslinking

Author: Ming Tian* Xiuying Zhao, Qinghua Hu, Haiyan Wu, Hao Fong, Liqun Zhang
Abstract: Rubber microfibers with morphological stability were prepared through combination of electrospinning and in-situ chemical crosslinking. The rubbers, including polybutadiene rubber (BR), butyl...


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Paper# 42 2011 42

MUSSEL-MIMETIC ELASTOMERS OF VARIED FUNCTIONALITY DESIGN FOR NANOCOMPOSITES

Author: By Xiao-Dong Pan*, Yuan-Yong Yan, Zengquan Qin, Dennis R. Brurnbaugh and Pat Sadhukhan
Abstract: Bulk viscoelasticity and tensile behavior are examined for crosslinked compounds made of mussel- mimetic elastomers of varied functionality design. The mussel-mimetic functionalities containing...


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Paper# 43 2011 43

Characterization of Phase Separated Structure and Interface in SBR/NBR blend by AFM and DSC

Author: Junhyeok Janglii, Masayuki Kawazoez, Hirohisa Yoshidam
Abstract: The interface of phase separated structure of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)/acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) prepared by spin-coating from toluene and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solutions has been...


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Paper# 44 2011 44

SURFACE MODIFICATION OF CARBON NANOTUBES BY POLY(DOPAMINE) COATINGS AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE NATURAL RUBBER/MWCNTs NANOCOMPOSITES

Author: Wencai Wang*, Yonglai Lu, Yi Jiang, Tuyuan Xu and Liqun Zhang
Abstract: A novel method was explored for the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and its application in the preparation of natural rubber (NR)-MWCNT nanocomposites was studied. The...


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Paper# 46 2011 46

Effectiveness of a Thermal Protective Coating for Automotive Components

Author: Russell L. Warley*, Tejbans S. Kohli
Abstract: Rubber components in the automotive industry are sometimes placed in environments where a radiant heat source leads to unacceptably high operating temperatures in the component. One way to mitigate...


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Paper# 47 2011 47

Fuel and Permeation Resistance of Fluoroelastomers

Author: Theresa Dobel* and Christopher Grant
Abstract: Ethanol and methanol are oxygen containing, pollution control additives that can be used in automotive gasoline. Ethanol is typically used in the United States, with gasoline blends up to 85%...


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Paper# 48 2011 48

Temperature dependency of gum and filled (unaccelerated) rubber compounds in the 40 - 180 OC range

Author: Jean L. Leblanc
Abstract: Time and temperature dependencies of modulus and other (rheological) functions are particularly important for polymer systems because, in the former case they allow understanding how a given...


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Paper# 49 2011 49

A NEW EPDM GRADE WITH IMPROVED PROCESSING CHARACTERISTICS FOR AUTOMOTIVE HOSE APPLICATIONS

Author: Mark F. Welker, Sunny Jacob, Eric Jourdain, Guy Wouters, Yann Devorest , Milind Joshi
Abstract: EPDM continues to be one of the most widely used and fastest growing synthetic rubbers. It includes a broad range of technologies, targeting both specialty and general-purpose applications While...


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Paper# 50 2011 50

The Impact of Antiozonants on Rubber-to-Metal Adhesion: Part 2

Author: James R. Halladay* and Patrick A. Warren
Abstract: In aerospace and military applications as well as many industrial applications, rubber-to- metal bonded parts must exhibit good environmental resistance. Diene rubber vulcanizates contain free...


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Paper# 51 2011 51

Elastomers in Compression: Testing and Performance

Author: Paul Tuckner
Abstract: Although elastomers are often used in compression in applications, their performance capability and aging responses are often characterized by evaluating changes in physical properties in tension....


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Paper# 52 2011 52

ROLE OF STARCH IN IMPROVING THE FATIGUE LIFE OF CARBON BLACK FILLED SBR COMPOSITES

Author: You-Ping Wu*, Lei Yang, Li-Qun Zhang, Xiao-Mei He
Abstract: This paper deals with the tensile fatigue resistance of carbon black (N330 CB) filled SBR. We found that 5 phr starch, replacing the same amount of N330 CB, can greatly improve the tensile fatigue...


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Paper# 53 2011 53

REINFORCEMENT EFFECT OF PLASMA MODIFIED HALLOYSITE NANOTUBES IN A CARBON BLACK FILLED NATURAL RUBBER-BUTADIENE RUBBER MATRIX

Author: Minna Poikelispaa, Amit Das, Wilma Dierkes and Jyrki Vuorinen*
Abstract: Rubber composites are generally produced by the direct incorporation of fillers like carbon black and/or silica into the rubber matrix. The incorporation of different types of nanofillers is the...


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Paper# 54 2011 54

Worldwide Tire Survey: Inflation Pressure Loss Rates (2011.1746)

Author: R. Christopher Napier, Walter H. Waddell
Abstract: The inflation pressure impacts tire and vehicle performance: rolling resistance, treadwear, handling, and durability. Fleducing tire inflation pressure loss rates (IPLR), as measured by the percent...


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Paper# 56 2011 56

The role of material composition in the construction of viscoelastic master curves: silica-filler network effects

Author: S. Maghami*, W. K. Dierkes, T. V. Tolpekina, S. M. Schultz, J. W. M. Noordermeer
Abstract: One of the important aspects in the development of new tire compounds is the correlation between the dynamic mechanical properties of the rubber, measured on laboratory scale, and the actual tire...


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Paper# 58 2011 58

AN APPROACH FOR VERIFYING FILLER COMPONENTS IN RUBBER COMPOUNDS

Author: D. M. Tucker*, R. A. Webb, A. G. Olsen
Abstract: Material engineers rely on various fillers and filler blends to define the physical, physiochemical and performance characteristics of rubber compounds. It is therefore sometimes necessary to do...


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Paper# 60 2011 60

Phosphate Accelerators in the Vulcanization of Ethylene Propylene Based EPDM Elastomers

Author: Brendan Rodgers, Mark Welker, Sunny Jacob, Eric Jourdain, Bharat B. Sharma, Bernard D'Cruz
Abstract: Vulcanization of ethylene propylene based terpolymers (EPDM rubber) using sulfur and organic accelerators is possible due to the presence of carbon - carbon double bonds in the termonomer units....


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Paper# 61 2011 61

STUDIES OF ZINC-OXIDE FREE - NON PEROXIDE - CROSS-LINKIN G OF COMPOUNDS BASED

Author: Hans Magg*, Sven Brandau
Abstract: Novel cross-linking-systems for acrylonitrile butadiene elastomers (NBR,XNBR) neither requiring zinc- oxides nor being based on peroxides are presented. Being free of sulphur as well they are of...


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Paper# 62 2011 62

Fundamentals of Bis-Maleimide Cure Chemistry

Author: Karthik Vikram Siva Shanmugaml, J. Scott Parent and Ralph A. Whitney
Abstract: Radical-mediated polymer modifications are robust and inexpensive methods of transforming commodity elastomers and thermoplastics into thermoset articles. Although coagent technologies for...


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Paper# 63 2011 63

FUNCTIONAL, PEROXIDE-CURABLE ISOBUTYLENE-RICH ELASTOMERS

Author: Ralph A. Whitney*, Karthik V. S. Shanmugam, J. Scott Parent
Abstract: Isobutylene-rich elastomers are valued materials due to their excellent barrier properties, thermal stability and resistance to oxidation. Materials such as butyl rubber...


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Paper# 64 2011 64

EFFECTS OF CARBON BLACK ON THE REVERSION BEHAVIOR OF A CURED NATURAL RUBBER COMPOUND

Author: K. Boonkerd*, W. Phasook, C. Deeprasertkul
Abstract: The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of type and loading level of carbon black on the reversion behavior of natural rubber (NR). Carbon black, comprised of three furnace...


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Paper# 65 2011 65

A COMPREHENSIVE NUMERICAL MODEL FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF CROSSLINKING WITH PEROXIDES AND SULPHUR: CHEMICAL MECHANISMS AND OPTIMAL VULCANIZATION OF REAL ITEMS

Author: Gabriele Milani*. Federico Milani
Abstract: When dealing with the curing process of thick items, the main problem in industrial practice is constituted by the different temperatures which undergo internal (cooler) and external regions....


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Paper# 66 2011 66

Cure Simulation of Large Rubber Components: A Comparison of Compression and Extrusion Moulding

Author: Marina Fernando* , Wong Hon Fei, Colin Hull
Abstract: Curing of rubber is a complex process which involves the insertion of crosslinks to convert the rubber into a useful functional material. The estimation of the cure time needed for product...


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Paper# 69 2011 69

"Greener" Tire Manufacturing using Agilon(TM) Performance Silicas

Author: Timothy A. OkeI*
Abstract: Previous presentations have discussed how appropriate chemical modification results in a new technology platform, AgilonT'V' Performance Silicas, which produces modified precipitated silicas that...


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Paper# 70 2011 70

AGILON PERFORMANCE SILICAS IN NATURAL RUBBER TRUCK TIRE TREAD COMPOUNDS

Author: Justin J. Martin*, Timothy A. Okel, Raphael Kollah
Abstract: The simultaneous improvement of rolling resistance, wear and traction, known as expanding the "magic triangle", requires new approaches to rubber composite development. Precipitated silica has...


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Paper# 72 2011 72

OPTIMIZATION OF MIXING CONDITIONS FOR SILICA-REINFORCED NATURAL RUBBER TIRE TREAD COMPOUNDS

Author: W. Kaewsakulm, K. Sahakarom, W. K. Dierkes, J. W. M. Noordermeer
Abstract: The dump temperature and mixing interval between rubber, silica and silane coupling agent for silica-filled natural rubber (NR) tire tread compounds using bis-triethoxysilylpropyl tetrasulfide...


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Paper# 73 2011 73

Aging characteristics of Carbon Black Filled vs Silica Filled Compound

Author: Frederick lgnatz-Hoover*, Diane Killmeyer and Byron H. To
Abstract: Low rolling resistance tires have treads composed of high loading of silica filler. As such PPD and other polar rubber chemicals adsorb on the filler and are less available to provide performance...


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Paper# 74 2011 74

ULTRA SMALL-ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING STUDY OF FLOCCULATION

Author: Satoshi Mihara, Rabin N. Datta, Wilma K. Dierkes, Jacques W.M. Noordermeer*, Naoya Amino, Yasuhiro Ishikawa, Shoutaro Nishitsuji, and Mikihiko Takenaka
Abstract: In this study the flocculation of silica during vulcanization is monitored using the USAXS technique for two different types of silica: a highly dispersible silica (HD) and a conventional silica...


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Paper# 75 2011 75

Usage of Low-Viscosity HNBR Polymers to Increase Productivity in High-Shear Molding Methods

Author: By Andy Anderson* and Mark Jones
Abstract: With ever-increasing emphasis on cost savings, today's molded goods manufacturers are working continuously to develop process technologies that reduce expense and enhance production output. The...


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Paper# 80 2011 80

CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRONIZED RUBBER POWDERS WITH COST EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE BENEFITS IN RUBBER COMPOUNDS

Author: Tom Rosenmayer, Ravi Ayyer, Frank Papp
Abstract: Micronized Rubber Powder (MRP) is classified as dry, powdered elastomeric compound in which a significant proportion of particles are less than 100 microns. It is used as a compound extender to...


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Paper# 82 2011 82

PATHWAY FOR HIGH-QUALITY RECLAIM BY THERMAL TREATMENT OF SULFUR-VULCANIZED SBR

Author: S. SAIWARI, W.K. DIERKES AND J .W.M. NOORDERMEER*.
Abstract: De-vulcanization of SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) is a challenge, as the broken polymer chains tend to re-arrange. This influences the properties of the reclaimed and re-vulcanized rubber, and...


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Paper# 83 2011 83

OPTIMIZING THE USE OF MICRONIZED RUBBER POWDER

Author: Frank Papp
Abstract: With continually rising raw materials costs, especially for polymers, rubber product manufacturers are striving to contain product costs by using alternate materials. The use of Micronized Rubber...


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Paper# 84 2011 84

A Novel Strategy of reuse of Waste Rubber

Author: By Yiqing Wang *, Liqun Zhang, Yuxing Feng and Xiaoming Tao
Abstract: Generally, to reuse of waste rubber, the three dimensional network of the thermoset rubber system must be broken down either through the cleavage of crosslinks, or through the carbon-carbon linkage...


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Paper# 86 2011 86

The Yerzley Oscillograph Revisited

Author: Ismail Saltuk, Nuri Akgerman
Abstract: Yerzley Oscillograph is the testing equipment specified in ASTM Standard D945-06 for determining static and dynamic mechanical properties of rubber and rubber like materials. The present version of...


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Paper# 88 2011 88

EPDM for Wire & Cable Applications

Author: Russ Vogelsong* and Bob Ohm
Abstract: Electrical insulation compounds based on EPDM rubber vary widely in physical and electrical properties due to the inherent properties of the base polymer and the type and levels of compounding...


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Paper# 90 2011 90

An Effective DOTG Replacement Accelerator for Both High Performance and General Elastomers

Author: Jennifer Forgue
Abstract: R.T. Vanderbilt Company, Inc. has developed a new accelerator for the replacement of guanidines, targeting its use in high performance acrylic based elastomers as well as general polymers. Vamac@...


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Paper# 93 2011 93

EFFECT OF TALC ON THE DISPERSION OF CARBON BLACK

Author: Nicole Hershberger* and Bonnie L. Stuck
Abstract: The effect of talc on the dispersion of various grades and blends of carbon blacks was evaluated. The addition of talc improved the dispersion of semi-reinforcing grades of blacks and blends...


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Paper# 94 2011 94

Tire Halobutyl lnnerliners and Compounding Components

Author: Brendan Rodgers*, Bharat B. Sharma and Bernard D'Cruz
Abstract: Use of bromobutyl and chlorobutyl rubber innerliners in tires allow significant improvement in air retention properties and tire durability. Halobutyl elastomers such as chlorobutyl and bromobutyl...


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Paper# 96 2011 96

COMPOUNDING AND PROCESSING STUDIES OF RUBBER COMPOUNDS REINFORCED BY SHORT ARAMID FIBERS WITH DIFFERENT SURFACE TREATMENTS

Author: C. Hintze*, S. Wiessner and G. Heinrich
Abstract: There is a renewed interest in the application of short aramid fibers in elastomers due to the considerable improvement of tribological and hysteretical properties of the corresponding rubber...


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Paper# 97 2011 97

EUROPEAN R.E.A.C.H. OVERVIEW

Author: Bonnie L. Stuck
Abstract: R.E.A.C.H. (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) is a single system for registering new and existing chemicals that are manufactured or imported into the EU...


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Paper# 98 2011 98

Blending Recycled Rubber with Recycled Plastic

Author: Jim Anderson
Abstract: Describes a patent pending process for bonding recycled tire rubber with recycled plastics to form a new composite material that is a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE). The process develops a molecular...


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Paper# 100 2011 100

Hyberdized Modified Asphalt (HMA) With Enhanced PG Plus Characteristics

Author: G. Mohammed Memon *
Abstract: It was observed that this new system of making Modified asphalt is based on the mechanism of hyberdizing the polymer with crumb rubber or used tire rubber by using specialized X-Linking System...


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Paper# 101 2011 101

Pyrolysis Carbon Black, an opportunity for the rubber industry

Author: Nicolaus Probst* and Martin Loe
Abstract: Carbon blacks from the pyrolysis of used tyres (CBp) have been around at least on conferences, for some time. Their commercial production and use in the industry might have been suffering from both...


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Paper# 103 2011 103

THE EFFECT OF ACRYLONITRILE CONTENT ON THE THERMO-OXIDATIVE AGING OF NITRILE RUBBER

Author: Richard J. Pazur*, J.G. Cormier and K. Korhan-Taymaz
Abstract: The primary objective of this study is to investigate the level of thermo-oxidative degradation in a series of unstabilized and unfilled nitrile rubbers varying in acrylonitrile content (18 to...


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Paper# 104 2011 104

Development of an Elastomeric Material That Swells in Water-Based Fluids

Author: Aaron D. Clark* and Kelly A. Williams
Abstract: Elastomeric materials that swell in water based fluids are well known in the pharmaceutical, oil field, agricultural and general water stop industries. Numerous parameters such as polymer class,...


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Paper# 106 2011 106

Rubber, Rubber Recycling, Sealing & Bonding with Polybutadienes

Author: Andreas Berlineanu
Abstract: The butadiene monomer can be polymerized in different ways, giving rise to three isomers called 1,4-cis, 1,4-trans and 1,2-vinyl. High cis polybutadienes from Evonik are manufactured using...


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Paper# 58a 2011 58a

Evaluation of Non- Nitrosamine Generating Accelerator Systems for the Vulcanization of Chlorobutyl Elastomer

Author: Bernard DiCruz*, Bharat B. Sharma, Brendan Rodgers
Abstract: Vulcanization of chlorobutyl rubber differs from that of general purpose rubber. Butyl rubber has approximately 2% unsaturation in the backbone. The presence of chlorine in chlorobutyl rubber the...


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Paper# C1 2011 c1

INVESTIGATION OF POLYMER-FILLER INTERACTION IN LIQUID SILICONE RUBBER

Author: Anthony Sullivan
Abstract: Student Colloquium: The physical properties of both natural and synthetic elastomers or rubbers have been extensively analyzed by a variety of methods and techniques. While there has been much...


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Paper# C2 2011 c2

INVESTIGATION OF THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMER PROPERTIES FOR MICROFEATURE REPLICATION

Author: Younghyo Kim*, Sung-Hwan Yoon, Jin-Goo Park, Joey L. Mead and Carol M. F. Barry
Abstract: Student Colloquium: Preliminary investigation has shown that the relative amount of hard and soft segments in block copolymer elastomers affected the molding window and replication of injection...


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Paper# C4 2011 c4

Highly lmpermeable Nanocomposites of Brominated Butyl Rubber with Modified Montmorillonite Clay

Author: Arun Kumar W, Satyam Modill, Daniel Schmidt, Car0lM F. Barry, and Joey L. Mead
Abstract: Student Colloquium: Incorporation of nanoclays in vulcanized rubber can enhance the barrier and mechanical properties, with the aid of intercalation, exfoliation or both. Achieving a high degree...


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Paper# C5 2011 c5

Can a quasilinear viscoelastic model describe the nonlinear mechanical behavior of unfilled elastomers?

Author: Rasika Prabhu*, Aparajita Bhattacharya, Grigori A Medvedev and James M Caruthers,
Abstract: Student Colloquium: An extensive set of linear and nonlinear mechanical experiments, including nonlinear stress- strain behavior, stress relaxation, and creeplrecovery, have been carried out on a...


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Paper# C6 2011 c6

Effect of Polymer Hardness and Clay Loadings on Electrospun Thermoplastic

Author: Satyarn Modi*, Arun Kurnar, Daniel Q. Murphy, Carol M. F. Barry, and Joey L. Mead
Abstract: Student Colloquium: Electrospun fibers can meet the stringent requirements of high-end filtration devices, however, the fabrication of electrospun fibers with controlled distribution and pore size...


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Paper# C9 2011 c9

Photovulcanization of Otherwise Uncured Rubber Components and Effects on Adhesion

Author: Jennifer Hegarty* and Henry Obermeyer
Abstract: Student Colloquium: Rubber products are used in many life safety critical applications, including tires and large scale water control structures. Despite rigorous quality control of rubber bulk...


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Paper# HC17 Hc17

SILICONE AND OTHER SYNTHETIC RUBBER STANDARDS FOR MEDICAL USE

Author: Rick Ziebell*
Abstract: Silicone and other synthetic elastomers often serve as biomedical grade materials where they are fabricated into components and assembled as a medical device. A medical device communicates with the...


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Paper# HC2 Hc2

Novel Polyisobutylene-Based Polyurethanes for Health Care

Author: Gabor Erdodi, J ungmee Kang and Joseph P. Kennedy*
Abstract: This presentation concerns the development and status of unique polyurethanes consisting of polyisobutylene soft segments and conventional hard segments (PIB-based PUs) exhibiting unprecedented...


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