Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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178th Technical Meeting

Date: October 12, 2010
Location: Milwaukee, WI

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $900.00

200th Technical Meeting - Fall 2021

198th Technical Meeting - Fall 2020

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

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Paper# 101 2010fall 101

AN APPROACH TO INDOOR WEAR TESTING

Author: James A. Popio*, Douglas Rice
Abstract: The objective of our indoor wear technology is to evaluate tires for wear performance in a laboratory environment. Performance includes wear rate and worn appearance or irregular wear. Studies have...


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Paper# 105 2010fall 105

Ultrasonic Aided Extrusion of CNT- and CNF-Filled SBR Compounds and Properties of Their Vulcanizates

Author: Jaesun Choi* and Avraam I. Isayev
Abstract: Ultrasonically assisted single screw extrusion of SBR compounds filled with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) up to 20 phr and carbon nanofibers (CNF) up to 35 phr was carried out. The effects of...


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Paper# 108 2010fall 108

Effect of Crosslink Network on Properties

Author: Edward R Terrill* and James T. Lewis
Abstract: An effort was initiated to fundamentally characterize crosslink networks and thereby to better understand the effect of the network on physical properties. The work compared two natural rubber...


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Paper# 113 2010fall 113

THE EFFECTS OF ETHYLENE CONTENT AND MOONEY VISCOSITY OF EPDM POLYMERS ON THE MIXING EFFICIENCY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF EPDM/IIR BLENDS

Author: Bob Ohm* and Solomon H. K. Tang
Abstract: EPDM rubber is widely used in blends with butyl rubber (isoprene-isobutylene rubber, HR) in tire inner tube applications (automobiles, motor cycle, and bicycles) to improve the heat and ozone...


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Paper# 10 2010fall 10

Material Handling Solutions for NORDELTM IP EPDM Polymers in Pellet Form

Author: Arnis Paeglis,* Shrikant Dhodapkar, and Todd Wilson
Abstract: The Dow Chemical Company produces NORDELTM IP Hydrocarbon Rubber (EPDM polymers products) over the widest range of ethylene contents in the industry, including a number of high ethylene grades that...


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Paper# 34 2010fall 34

Hydrogen Sulfide and Explosive Decompression Resistance of THERBAN (HNBR) Vulcanizates

Author: Victor Nasreddine**, Matthias Soddemann, Kevin Kulbaba, Brian James, Lillian Guo, David Gerrard, Jim Goodson
Abstract: THERBAN@ hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is a specialty elastomer that has excellent mechanical and dynamic properties as well as resistance to heat, oil, tear and abrasion. Such properties are...


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Paper# 48 2010fall 48

Carbon Black for Racing and Motorcycle Tire Treads Performance Model Development

Author: Irene S. YuroVska*, Michael D. Morris, Theo Al
Abstract: Racing tires and motorcycle tires present individual segments of the tire market. For instance, while the average life of cars and trucks tires is 50,000 miles, the average life of race tires is...


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Paper# 53 2010fall 53

ADVANCEMENTS IN EPDM SPONGE COMPOUND PROCESSING USING EPDM BIMODAL POLYMERS

Author: Sunny Jacob*, Eric P. Jourdain
Abstract: ABSTRACT Ethylene-propylene-diene elastomers (EPDM elastomers) are the primary polymer choice for automotive weatherseal applications due to their outstanding weathering and heat resistance...


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Paper# 55 2010fall 55

ELASTOMER COATINGS FOR ARMOR

Author: C.M. Roland,* R.M. Gamache, and D. Fragiadakis
Abstract: Elastomeric coatings have been found to substantially increase the ballistic limit of underlying steel substrates, with an important mechanism being the impact-induced transition of the rubber to...


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Paper# 56 2010fall 56

THE VAGARIES OF ELASTOMER SERVICE LIFE PREDICTIONS

Author: C.M. Roland
Abstract: failure by either mechanical or chemical deterioration. There are well established laboratory tests to address the failure properties of elastomers - fracture mechanics analyses for mechanical...


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Paper# 61 2010fall 61

ON COHESIVE ELEMENT BASED ANALYSIS OF RUBBER AND ELASTOMERIC COMPOSITES

Author: Mark R. Gurvich *
Abstract: High fidelity damage evaluation of elastomeric products should be based on analysis of both cracking initiation and growth. Application of so-called cohesive elements in FEA-based fracture analysis...


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Paper# 91 2010fall 91

Structure-Property Analysis of Unfilled Polyisoprene Vulcanizates Characterized by Mechanical and Rheological Measurements

Author: William M. Boye*, Ed Terrill
Abstract: Rubber vulcanization systems have inherent advantages and disadvantages that are directly related to their structure-property relationships. The balance of static and dynamic physical properties...


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Paper# 95 2010fall 95

The Effect of Antiozonants on Rubber-to-Metal Adhesion

Author: James R. Halladay* and Patrick A. Warren
Abstract: Diene rubber vulcanizates contain free double bonds which are sensitive to attack by oxygen and ozone. Natural rubber (NR), polybutadiene (BR), and blends thereof generally contain active...


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Paper# 7 2010fall 7

Thermoplastic Rubbers from Recycled Rubbers made in the course recycling.

Author: Hari Chandra and Chandrasekaran R. Pillai
Abstract: Using the process that was developed and commercialized, for devuclanizing or re- activating scrap rubber, we were able produce high quality Thermoplastic Rubbers (TPR) of various hardness and...


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Paper# 2010fall 102

High cis-1,4-BRs and SBRs to Meet Current and Future Tire Demands

Author: Judy Douglas*, Heike Kloppenburg, David Hardy, Thomas GroB, Norbert Steinhauser, Alex Lucassen
Abstract: Never before has the demand for more fuel efficient, safe, durable and environmentally friendly tires been greater. In particular, a lot of emphasis has been put on improving the rolling resistance...


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Paper# 1 2010fall 1

STRUCTRE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIP OF LINEAR LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE AND POLY DIMETHYL SILOXANE RUBBER BLENDS ON ELECTRON BEAM IRRADIATION

Author: Golok Nando
Abstract: The effect of electron beam irradiation on the blends of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) rubber at various doses of radiation ranging from 50 to 300 kGy...


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Paper# 5 2010fall 5

PERIDYNAMIC MODELING OF FRACTURE IN ELASTOMERS AND COMPOSITES

Author: Stewart A. Silling*, Abe Askari
Abstract: The peridynamic model of solid mechanics is a mathematical theory designed to provide consistent mathematical treatment of deformations involving discontinuities, especially cracks. Unlike the...


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Paper# 6 2010fall 6

Driving Green...It’s our DNA

Author: David Rohweder
Abstract: Keynote - Presentations Slides Only


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Paper# 9 2010fall 9

New High Performance DOTG Replacement Cure Systems for Acrylic Elastomers

Author: Jennifer Forgue
Abstract: Vamac@ ethylene acrylic elastomers (AEM) and HyTemp@ polyacrylate (ACM) elastomers are both used in under-the-hood automotive applications because of both their fluid and high and low temperature...


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Paper# 11 2010fall 11

NEW CHLOROSULFONATED POLYETHYLE MANUFACTURED WITHOUT THE USE OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS

Author: Vince Cremona* and Shawn Xu
Abstract: Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSM) is an oil, heat, flame, and weather resistant elastomer which has found many applications in industry including wire & cable jackets, hydraulic hose, roll covers...


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Paper# 12 2010fall 12

THE ENHANCEMENT OF INTERFACIAL ADHESION IN EPDM-BASED ADHESIVES, SEALANTS & COATINGS WITH MAH-GRAFTED TRILENE® COPOLYMER

Author: JP Krug, Jorge Soto, Wasif Khan, Harold Young, Nikita Petrosyan, Liz Lissy
Abstract: THE ENHANCEMENT OF INTERFACIAL ADHESION IN EPDM-BASED ADHESIVES, SEALANTS & COATINGS WITH MAH-GRAFTED TRILENE® COPOLYMER: The anhydride group has been shown to be a very reactive and efficient...


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Paper# 13 2010fall 13

USE OF POTTERY STONE AS REINFORCING FILLER IN NATURAL RUBBER

Author: K. Boonkerd*, S. Chuayjuljit, D. Abdulraman and W. J aranrangsup
Abstract: The objective of this research was to study the possibility of using pottery stone (PS) as reinforcing filler in natural rubber (N R). PS is the commercial name for rhyolite, a light colored...


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Paper# 14 2010fall 14

Processing Made Easy With Innovative Low-Viscosity HNBR Polymers

Author: Mark Jones,* and Andy Anderson
Abstract: The high performance properties of HNBR compounds provide exceptional service in applications where extreme heat and fluid resistance are required. These applications have been well documented....


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Paper# 15 2010fall 15

NEXT GENERATION OF HEAT RESISTANT ACRYLIC RUBBERS

Author: Konstantin Zoumis*, Tamotsu Yoshida and Hans-Martin lssel
Abstract: In the early 21st century, we introduced a new high temperature ACM type family (HT-ACMfs) with significantly improved heat resistance compared to existing acrylate polymer grades. Those...


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Paper# 17 2010fall 17

Fluoroelastomer Characterization: Approaches and Considerations

Author: Paul Tuckner
Abstract: Fluoroelastomers represent a specialty class of high performance elastomers. In the ASTM D-2000 Designation, they are noted for Type and Class as HK. Although this might be useful for general...


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Paper# 18 2010fall 18

Real World Value: Complete Part & Mold Evaluation with Polymer System Simulation

Author: Matt Proske* & Kaushik A. Manek
Abstract: State of the art simulation considers more relevant technical details of an injection molding process. When simulation of the process is coupled with the 3D mold components, cooling channels,...


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Paper# 19 2010fall 19

CHARACTERIZATION OF SPLITS IN RUBBER PARTS - CRYOGENIC VERSES MELT FLOW-FRONTS

Author: Donald Madda* and Van T. Walworth
Abstract: Characterization of splits in molded rubber parts is a new and innovative diagnostic application of root-cause analysis designed to help troubleshoot split-related defects in molded rubber...


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Paper# 20 2010fall 20

A Comparison of the Transient Stress-Strain Response of Rubber to Its Linear Dynamic Behavior

Author: P. H. Mott*, J. N. Twigg, C. M. Roland, K. E. Nugent, T. E. Hogan and C. G. Robertson
Abstract: To assess the utility of the Cox-Merz rule, master curves of the small strain, dynamic shear modulus are compared to the transient mechanical response of rubbers stretched over a seven-decade range...


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Paper# 21 2010fall 21

BIAXIAL FATIGUE INVESTIGATIONS ON POLYCHLOROPRENE RUBBER

Author: JL. Poisson*, F. Lacroix, S. Meo, G. Berton, N. Ranganathan
Abstract: Understanding phenomenon induced by complex fatigue solicitations is an important issue for the conception of industrial components. Due to their interesting mechanical behavior and their...


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Paper# 23 2010fall 23

MODELING STRONGLY SHEAR-THINNING MATERIALS IN ABAQUS

Author: O. H. Yeoh
Abstract: Although Abaqus provides numerous ways to model rubber, it remains difficult to model certain types of behavior, such as strongly shear-thinning as seen in the Payne effect. The theoretical...


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Paper# 24 2010fall 24

DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF FILLED RUBBER - Part V: PREDICTION OF CYCLIC BEHAVIOUR OF ELASTOMERIC COMPONENTS

Author: Hamid Ahrnadi, Jan Kick Chye Har, Alan Muhr, & Khee Woon Wong
Abstract: This paper is the continuation of a number of recent publications aimed at the development of a simple ffviscoplasticii model, capable of implementation in existing commercial FEA packages, with...


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Paper# 26 2010fall 26

UNRAVELING THE MYSTERY OF NATURAL RUBBER BIOSYNTHESIS I. INVESTIGATION OF THE COMPOSITION AND GROWTH OF IN VITRO NATURAL RUBBER USING HIGH RESOLUTION SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY

Author: Chengching K. Chiang, Wenshuang Xie, Colleen McMahan and Judit E. Puskas*,
Abstract: Monitoring the growth of in vitro natural rubber (NR) was accomplished by high- resolution Size Exclusion Chromatography SEC. Washed rubber particles (WRP)s isolated from H. brasiliensis latex,...


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Paper# 29 2010fall 29

IMPROVING THE PROPERTIES OF THE BIOPOLYMER POLY(LACTIC ACID)

Author: LEONARD H. PALYS* AND ZUZANNA T. CYGAN
Abstract: Poly(lactic acid) or PLA is a thermoplastic biopolymer manufactured commercially using lactic acid derived from the fermentation of sugar. PLA has a Tm melting point range of 150-162'C] and is...


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Paper# 31 2010fall 31

POLYEPICHLOROHYDRIN RUBBER COMPOUNDS FOR SERVICE IN ETHANOL-CONTAINING FUEL APPLICATIONS

Author: Samuel C. Harber
Abstract: Development of ffgreenii or biofuel technologies is requiring re-evaluation of many traditional fossil-fuel system elastomers. Since polyepichlorohydrin rubbers have a long and reliable record of...


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Paper# 32 2010fall 32

Formulation Suggestions for Replacing DOTG in AEM Compounds

Author: Edward McBride*, Klaus Kammerer, Laurent Lefebvre
Abstract: AEM (DuPont Vamac@ ethylene acrylic elastomer) compounds are used to make high performance parts like turbocharger hoses and automotive gaskets. The compounds are usually cured with diamines and...


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Paper# 33 2010fall 33

The electric valve gate CRB

Author: Tim Graham
Abstract: REP is introducing the new electric valve gate cold runner block with needles driven by an electric cylinder. REP introduces here a system which is a world premiere and a real innovation in the...


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Paper# 35 2010fall 35

TALC - THE SOLUTION TO CHALLENGES IN AUTOMOTIVE

Author: Oscar F. Noel III*, Gilles Meli
Abstract: The partial substitution of talc for carbon black in various automotive parts provides a level of performance required to meet the challenges of today and the future. Talc as an insulator...


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Paper# 36 2010fall 36

MOLDING OF LIQUID SILICONE RUBBER

Author: Bernie Stritzke
Abstract: injection molding firms are embracing liquid silicone molding because of its similarity to plastic molding and its use of pre-compounded materials. This paper will differentiate liquid silicone...


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Paper# 38 2010fall 38

New understanding of filler dispersion, interfacial interaction and mechanical strengthening of rubber nanocomposites by combining simulation and experimental studies.

Author: Liqun Zhang,* Jun Liu, Sizhu Wu
Abstract: Novel information about filler dispersion and flocculation, rubber-filler interfacial interaction and its mechanical strengthening is obtained by carrying out a detailed coarse-grained molecular...


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Paper# 39 2010fall 39

MICROSTRUCTURE-BASED MODELLING AND FE IMPLEMENTATION OF FILLER-INDUCED STRESS SOFTENING AND HYSTERESIS OF REINFORCED RUBBERS

Author: Hagen Lorenz*, Manfred Kliippe, Gert Heinric
Abstract: Reinforcement of rubber by nanoscopic fillers induces strong nonlinear mechanical effects like stress softening and hysteresis. The proposed model aims to describe these effects on a...


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Paper# 41 2010fall 41

CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPARISON OF THE MULLINS EFFECT OF CARBON- BLACK FILLED RUBBERS AT SMALL AND LARGE STRAINS

Author: Yannick Merckel*, Julie Diani, Mathias Brieu, Pierre Gilormini, Julien Caillard
Abstract: Several carbon-black filled styrene-butadiene rubbers showed different sensibilities to the Mullins softening when submitted to cyclic uniaxial tension. In order to quantify this softening, an...


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Paper# 42 2010fall 42

Laminar Flow Ratio - A New Tool For Runner Cross-Section Design

Author: Van T. Walworth* and Terry Chapin
Abstract: Laminar Flow Ratio is introduced as a new method for mold designers to use for runner cross-sections whereby single mold plate runner cross-sections can be designed to simulate the flow...


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Paper# 43 2010fall 43

Working With Recycled Rubber

Author: Marvin Myhre
Abstract: In the mid 1990s recycling began to resurface after a lengthy hiatus. The focus was different from the early 1900s. Recycling goes back to the early 1900s in the form of reclaim. When environmental...


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Paper# 45 2010fall 45

CONTINUOUS RUBBER COMPOUNDING AND RUBBER RECYCLING, USING A CO-ROTATING TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER.

Author: Emanuele Finazzi*, Alessandro Gallo, and Pasqualino Lucci
Abstract: Rubber compounding is traditionally performed by means of a discontinuous process. Although based on a well-established technology, it is still a complicated process, not completely automatic, and...


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Paper# 46 2010fall 46

PROPERTIES OF RUBBER COMPOUNDS DEVULCANIZED USING HSM TECHNOLOGY

Author: Wayne Maddever*, Michael Burgoyne, James Fisher, David Brown, Kurt Reschner
Abstract: The rising price of oil and a fundamental shortage of natural rubber continue to drive rubber compound prices to record levels. Manufacturers must find greater efficiencies in production...


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Paper# 47 2010fall 47

Curious about Recycled Rubber in Plastics?

Author: Evan R. Piland
Abstract: Presentation Slides. This Presentation gives an overview of recycled rubber, where it comes from, technique for processing, and approaches to using recycled rubber in plastics.


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Paper# 49 2010fall 49

NUMERICAL MODEL FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF SULFUR VULCANIZATION THROUGH THE OSCILLATING DISK CURE METER TEST

Author: Gabriele Milani* and Federico Milani
Abstract: Sulfur was the first agent used to vulcanize the first commercial elastomer, i.e. natural rubber (NR). At present, accelerated sulfur vulcanization is suitable not only for natural rubber (NR) and...


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Paper# 50 2010fall 50

Pump and Filtration Technology for Thermoplastic Elastomers

Author: Bill Murphy
Abstract: This paper will review the benefits of gear pumps and screen changers for use with Thermoplastic Elastomers. The gear pump is a positive displacement device that meters elastomers at a very...


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Paper# 52 2010fall 52

THE SELECTION OF TEMPERATURE, FREQUENCY AND STRAIN TEST CONDITIONS FOR RHEOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS TO IMPROVE RUBBER TESTING

Author: By: John S. Dick*
Abstract: In the last two decades, the Rubber Process Analyzer (RPA) has been used increasingly to predict changes in a rubber compound's processing and/or product performance by measuring viscoelastic...


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Paper# 54 2010fall 54

A New Hydrogenated Butadiene-Acrylonitril-Butylacrylate

Author: Yue Dongmei, Wei Xinpeng, Yang Haibo, Zou Hua, Wu Weidong, Zhang Liqun
Abstract: Abstract: The copolymeric rubber (BNBR), a new kind of ternary copolymer, was synthesized by butadiene, acrylonitrile and butylacrylate, BNBR retain both excellent features of NBR and ACM due to...


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Paper# 57 2010fall 57

Towards an effective modeling of filled rubbers via an understanding of the relationships between filler dispersion and viscoelastic properties. Part I : Dispersion and linear viscoelastic properties

Author: Matthew Putman*, Jean L. Leblanc
Abstract: Complex polymer systems such as carbon black filled rubber compounds exhibit a set of properties whose origin is currently assigned to specific interactions that develop between the rubber matrix...


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Paper# 58 2010fall 58

Towards an effective modeling of filled rubbers via an understanding of the relationships between filler dispersion and viscoelastic properties. Part II : Nonlinear viscoelastic properties and compounds morphology

Author: Jean L. Leblanc
Abstract: Abstract : When probed in the nonlinear regime, complex polymer systems such as carbon black filled rubber compounds exhibit a behavior that requires advanced rheological techniques to be correctly...


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Paper# 59 2010fall 59

Limits to Poisson's Ratio

Author: P. H. Mott* and C. M. Roland,
Abstract: We present answers to two longstanding questions on Poissonls ratio U: first, what happens to the bulk modulus B in a material as it approaches the softening zone, where U --e U2 and the substance...


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Paper# 60 2010fall 60

A UNIFIED THEORY OF RUBBER FRICTION

Author: By Nicholas Randall*, Robert H. Smith
Abstract: Since the 1940s, it has been common to apply the constant coefficient-of-friction model to rubber, using such coefficients in practice in the same fashion as those obtained from friction testing of...


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Paper# 62 2010fall 62

Analysis of Stiffness Variations in Context of Strain-, Stress-, and Energy-Controlled Processes

Author: W. V. Mars
Abstract: In compounded material systems such as rubber, a wide range of properties can be achieved by design. This flexibility poses a challenge - how to balance stiffness against other considerations such...


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Paper# 63 2010fall 63

Improvements in Tire Productivity and Performance with Agilon Performance Silicas

Author: Timothy A. Okel
Abstract: Rising fuel costs, a wide range of national and international legislation, and increased public attention continue to encourage the automotive industry to pursue increasingly environmentally...


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Paper# 64 2010fall 64

A NEW ULTRA LOW VISCOSITY THERBAN (HNBR)

Author: Kevin Kulbaba*, Matthias Soddemann, Julia Miiller, Claus Wrana
Abstract: THERBAN@ hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is a specialty elastomer used in demanding engineering applications such as the automotive, heavy duty, and oil well markets. It has an excellent...


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Paper# 66 2010fall 66

USV- THE ULTRA SPEED VULCANIZATION PROCESS FOR RUBBER MOLDED PARTS

Author: Peter Lipp
Abstract: This paper will illustrate a new patented solution fUSVii. This process is designed for the rubber injection molding process. USV will increase the rubber temperature close to the vulcanization...


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Paper# 67 2010fall 67

Butyl Rubber Process Aid with recycled content

Author: Hari Chandra and Chandrasekaran R. Pillai
Abstract: Further development work on Rubber Process Aid with Recycled Content on which a paper was presented at the 176th ACS Technical Meeting in Pittsburg, PA in 2009 produced material with some...


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Paper# 69 2010fall 69

ADVANTAGES OF ROBOTIC FIBER POSITIONING FOR FLEXIBLE FIBER REINFORCED RUBBER PRODUCTS

Author: R. Barendse, S.M. Nooij* & D. Iakovou
Abstract: With ever increasing demands on quality, costs and performance great improvement can be gained with a drastic change in production process for flexible fiber reinforced rubber products. In most...


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Paper# 70 2010fall 70

TRENDS DRIVING SYNTHETIC RUBBER FEEDSTOCK MARKETS

Author: Bill Hyde*
Abstract: Global petrochemical markets have experienced unprecedented volatility in supplyldemand and pricing over the past two years. These trends have been felt at all stages of the value chain. Recent...


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Paper# 71 2010fall 71

Improvement of Dynamic Properties by Addition of Special Low Surface Silica

Author: Gerd Schmaucks
Abstract: The addition of precipitated silica to rubber compounds leads to high viscosity and is associated with processing difficulties. In the vulcanizate, high heat build-up and a decrease in lifetime in...


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Paper# 72 2010fall 72

New Polymer Technology for Hydrogenated

Author: Tomonori Nakashima*
Abstract: ZEON CORPORATION has developed a new hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HNBR). This new polymer technology provides improved compression set resistance, some unique mechanical and dynamic...


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Paper# 73 2010fall 73

SELECTIVE CROSSLINKING OF FKM FOR OPTIMIZED PROPERTIES

Author: C. Wrana *, S. Kelbch, M. Mezger, O. Isenberg-Schulz, S.Augst
Abstract: Fluoroelastomers are well-known for their excellent properties concerning chemical resistance, thermal stability and inertness to acids, solvents and oils. They are synthesized from a variety of...


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Paper# 74 2010fall 74

NOVEL PEROXIDE CURABLE BUTYL RUBBER WITH FILLERS

Author: Lisa Knight*, Lorenzo Ferrari, Treena Crockett and Sarah Chadder
Abstract: A novel regular butyl rubber (HR) with a higher isoprene level (up to 7.5 mole %) has been developed allowing compounders the flexibility to use a peroxide curing system alongside more traditional...


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Paper# 75 2010fall 75

New Generation HIPEX@: Heat and Chemical Resistant TPEs

Author: John Chiao
Abstract: Built on its innovative TPE technology platform, KRAIBURG TPE has significantly improved its HIPEX@ TPE family. The new generation HIPEX@ grades show comparable or better properties as those...


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Paper# 76 2010fall 76

Halogen Free Flame Retardant (HFFR) compounding with EVM and EVM/HNBR

Author: Andreas Roos*, Manuel la Rosa
Abstract: The need for more environmentally friendly products is driven by manufacturer initiatives and corresponding legislative directives. The focus is to ban identified substances that could be hazardous...


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Paper# 77 2010fall 77

OPTIMIZATION OF ESBR TIRE TREAD FORMULATIONS - INTERACTION BETINEEN THE VULCANIZATION CHEMICALS AND DIFFERENT LOW-PAH OILS

Author: Anita Neau*, Markus Hoffmann, KamyarAlavi and Marika Rangstedt
Abstract: Because of the global efforts that have been needed to reformulate tire tread compounds with low-PAH oils, 2010 can be seen as a milestone in terms oftire tread compound development. While the tire...


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Paper# 78 2010fall 78

The White Carbon Footprint

Author: Larry R. Evans
Abstract: Often called "white carbon", amorphous precipitated silica is an integral component of the tread compound used for fuel-efficient tires. The manufacturing process for amorphous precipitated silica...


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Paper# 80 2010fall 80

EPOXIDIZED NATURAL OILS AS THE ALTERNATIVE SAFE PROCESS OILS IN RUBBER COMPOUNDS

Author: Kannika Sahakaro* and Amnuwa Beraheng
Abstract: Due to a toxicity of aromatic oils derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), safe process oils are required for a replacement in rubber industry. This work investigated the properties of...


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Paper# 81 2010fall 81

Petroleum-Based PAH-Safe Process Oils In NR, SBR and Their Blends: Study On Unfilled Compounds

Author: Anida Petchkaewltz, Jacques W. M. Noordermeerz and Kannika Sahakaroltzit
Abstract: Safe process oils are in need for replacement of toxic distillate aromatic extract (DAE). The potential and commercially available petroleum-based safe process oils are: Treated Distillate Aromatic...


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Paper# 82 2010fall 82

Designing Next Generation Accelerators for Environmental Requirements as Well as Performance Criteria

Author: Steven Monthey*
Abstract: Increased costs and limited availability of "conventional" rubber chemicals has established a requisite to design alternate chemistries. Driving this prerequisite is the reassurance of the...


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Paper# 83 2010fall 83

EVALUATION OF CELLULOSE ESTERS IN TIRE TREAD FORMULATIONS

Author: Soumendra K. Basu*, Bradley Helmer, Matthew Wood, Jos De Wit, Carlo Testa, Chris Dagenhart, Edward Terrill
Abstract: Cellulose Esters (CE) are high glass transition temperature thermoplastic biopolymers that are made using up to 60% bio-renewable raw materials. Application of CEs as a potential functional filler...


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Paper# 84 2010fall 84

Investigation of Tire Longitudinal Relaxation Length and Its Effect on Dry Stopping Performance

Author: John Turner*, Vladimir Roth, Kelun Xie and Jacob Kidney
Abstract: Tire relaxation length (LX) measurement, finite element modeling and assessment of several tire and loading parameters influencing LX are presented. Computer simulation studies of tire-vehicle...


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Paper# 85 2010fall 85

Filler Matrix Interface Characteristics And Mechanical Reinforcement In Elastomeric Nanocomposites

Author: Maurizio Galimberti
Abstract: This work investigated rubber-clay nanocomposites, in particular: filler-elastomer interface, multiscale clay organization in the rubber matrix, both in the absence and in the presence of carbon...


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Paper# 86 2010fall 86

Optimizing Carbon Black to Balance Tire Wear and Rolling Resistance

Author: Rainer Friehmelt*, Michael Heinz and Werner Niedermeier
Abstract: For future tire developments rolling resistance and tire wear continue to be the key parameters. The global trend for increased energy efficiency requires further reduction of rolling resistance of...


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Paper# 87 2010fall 87

p-ARAMID PULP FOR TIRE REINFORCEMENT

Author: Jeffery S. Downey*, Constantine W. Tsimpris Andrew L. Pollard, Chloe F. Wilson, Jocelyn Willis-Papi, Christiane K. Hohenwarter, Qin Lin
Abstract: Use of p-aramid pulp (KEVLAFICFD Engineered Elastomer) has demonstrated value in a range of tire applications. Incorporation in several tire components has shown benefits in handling, durability...


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Paper# 88 2010fall 88

Viscoelastic Complexities of Elastomer-Particle Composites and Relevance to Prediction of Tire Tread Performance

Author: C. G. Robertson,* C. J. Lin, R. B. Bogoslovov, M. Rackaitis, P. Sadhukhan, J. D. Quinn, and C. M. RoIand
Abstract: Presentation Slides: Flocculation, Reinforcement, and Glass Transition Effects in Silica-Filled Styrene-Butadiene Rubber The introduction of silanes to improve processability and properties of...


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Paper# 90 2010fall 90

A LOW FIELD 1H NMR INVESTIGATION OF PLASTICIZER AND FILLER EFFECTS IN EPDM

Author: Richard J. Pazur*, D. Lee , F.J. Walker, Maxim Kasai
Abstract: The Hahn Echo (HE) Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation (NMFI) relaxation method is regularly used to evaluate the total crosslinking level or state of cure in thermoset rubbers. Nonetheless, it is known...


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Paper# 93 2010fall 93

A Case Study Review of Common Analytical Techniques Used in the Investigation of Seal Failures

Author: Mary Kosarzycki*
Abstract: Seals can fail in a wide variety of ways due to erosion, compression set, chemical attack, improper molding, poor installation and improper material, to name a few. Put another way, the nature of...


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Paper# 94 2010fall 94

The Use Of Resorcinol And Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resins To Promote Bonding Of Rubber To Metal And Textile Reinforcements

Author: Terry D. Dee*, Mike Walkup and Dave McNaughton
Abstract: This paper will review the use of resorcinol and resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) resins for adhesion promotion of rubber compounds to metal and textile reinforcements. The use of resorcinol and RF...


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Paper# 97 2010fall 97

Better Rubber To Substrate Adhesion Via Better Interfacial Chemistry

Author: Jing Jin, Roger A. Cassell, * and Michaeleen L. Pacholski
Abstract: With continuously growing demands for greater operating performance, more durable products and lighter materials, there is greater importance placed on joining dissimilar materials such as rubber...


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Paper# 98 2010fall 98

Characterization of Rubber-to-Metal Adhesives by Thermal Analysis

Author: Michael J. Moore, Swapnil Bondre
Abstract: In order to optimize the rubber-to-metal bonding process, it is helpful to understand the cure parameters of both the rubber and the bonding agent. In this paper, we will review methods of thermal...


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Paper# 99 2010fall 99

OVERCOMING INCOMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS IN ELASTOMER BLENDS BY TAILORED SURFACE PROPERTIES OF RUBBER ADDITIVES

Author: M. Tiwari, Fl. Guo, R. Datta, A. Talma, J. Noordermeer
Abstract: Rubber is a challenging composite material, whose functionality strongly depends on its morphology. Distribution and dispersion of fillers and curing agents in polymer blends are critical, as these...


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Paper# 103 2010fall 103

Test And Characterization On The Temperature Dependence Of Hyperelastic Behavior Of Tire Rubbers Under Moderate Finite Deformation

Author: By Xu Li*, Yi Dong, Ziran Li, and Yuanrning Xia
Abstract: In this paper, based on the testing system containing a temperature box where Automated Grid Method is applied, the experimental investigation on the temperature dependence of hyperelastic behavior...


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Paper# 104 2010fall 104

Factors Influencing Reinforcement of NH and EPDM Rubbers with Short Aramid Fibers

Author: M. Shirazi, J. W. M. Noordermeer*
Abstract: Among short fiber reinforced composites, those with rubbery matrices have gained great importance due to the advantages they have in processing and low cost, coupled with high strength. These...


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Paper# 106 2010fall 106

Impact Of The Direction Dependent Stress Softening On The Multiaxial Material Behavior Of Filled Rubber

Author: HASAN KAHRAMAN* AND EDMUND HABERSTROH
Abstract: The mechanical behavior of filled rubbers depends on the maximum stretch load previously reached and consequently on the induced stress softening. This softening effect is referred to as the...


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Paper# 107 2010fall 107

NANOCOMPOSITES OF NITRILE (NBR) RUBBER WITH MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES

Author: Nuthathai Warasitthinon*, Lacramioara Schulte aufim Erley, Andrew P. Hope, David Norton, Jijun Huang, and Joey Mead
Abstract: Nanotechnology offers the promise of new materials with enhanced performance. Carbon nanotubes reinforced elastomers have potential for improved rubber compounds in aggressive environments. In this...


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Paper# 110 2010fall 110

ZINC OXIDE in the UNITED STATES RUBBER INDUSTRY is A JOURNEY OF DISCOVERY and MYSTERY

Author: Carl N. Caputo*
Abstract: In the past ten years much has happened in the commodity markets worldwide including the zinc oxide market we are focusing on today. During that time industry segments and individual companies have...


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Paper# 111 2010fall 111

POLYURETHANE ADHESIVE SYSTEMS FOR CORD-RUBBER ADHESION

Author: Donald Burlett
Abstract: Adhesion between the rubber matrix and tensile cords in belts is crucial for proper function as a power transmission device. Traditionally, tensile cords have been treated with three layers of...


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Paper# 114 2010fall 114

Effective Curative Dispersion for Uniform Mechanical Properties

Author: Frederick Ignatz-Hoover* & Byron H. To
Abstract: Uniform curative dispersion is important in preparation of rubber articles with consistently uniform mechanical properties. Poor dispersion of curatives resulting from poor mixing will lead to an...


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Paper# 108A 2010fall 108a

Progress In Ultrasonic Spectroscopy To Characterize Dynamic-Mechanical Properties Of Nanostructured Elastomers In The High-Frequency Regime

Author: C. Oprisoni, Th. Alshuth, R. H. Schuster*
Abstract: Dynamic-mechanical analysis in the MHz region delivers valuable information for understanding the behav- ior of polymer blends and filled elastomers. A direct measurement is provided by ultrasonic...


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Paper# 30-A 2010fall 30a

ELECTRO-SPUN BIO - POLYMERIC NEW FIBERS AS VALUABLE SCAFFOLDS FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REINFORCING

Author: Ulrike Wangenheim, Nina Eggers and Robert H. Schuster*
Abstract: ABSTRACT Electrospinning introduces a new level of versatility and a wide group of materials into the mi- crolnanofiber range. This technology provides a unique potential for tissue engineering and...


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Paper# 92A 2010fall 92a

CONDUCTING A FAILURE ANALYSIS ON A FUEL HOSE

Author: Niles Stenmark*
Abstract: Cracking and subsequent leakage occurred within an aircraft fuel hose. The leakage occurred after eleven years of service in an aircraft auxiliary fuel system. The cracking was limited to an...


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