Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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176th Technical Meeting

Date: October 13, 2009
Location: Pittsburgh, PA

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $900.00

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

193rd Technical Meeting - 2018 Spring

192nd Technical Meeting - 2017 Fall

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Paper# 103 108

A New Approach to Activating Dithiocarbamates and Thiurams in EPDM

Author: J. Nienaber*
Abstract: Dithiocarbamates and thiurams have been used as secondary accelerators for much of the life of the rubber industry. In todayis competitive world, companies are required to work faster and more...


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Paper# 109 109

Aging of a Black-Filled Natural Rubber Vulcanizate at Fixed Strain: Part II. Tear Resistance

Author: Crittenden J. Ohlemacher,* Gary R. Hamed
Abstract: In service, rubber goods are often deformed at elevated temperature. We previously reported that aging of a black-filled, natural rubber vulcanizate (inefficient sulfur cure) held at fixed strain...


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Paper# 110 110

Avoiding Potentially Hazardous Emissions in Rubber Compounding and Processing

Author: Steven Monthey, Martin Saewe, Scott Zemanek
Abstract: Greater environmental and performance demands are being placed on rubber compounds under development for almost all industries. In automotive applications, the engine compartments have shrunk,...


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Paper# 111 111

Cure Activators to Improve both ECO-Balance and Economics of a Cure System

Author: Martin Saewe*, Steven Monthey
Abstract: The second half of the year 2008 and the first half of 2009 have brought about an economic slowdown of almost unprecedented extent. Especially the automotive industry and with it the rubber...


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Paper# 113 113

THE ROLE OF FUNCTIONAL POLYMERS IN IMPROVING TIRE PERFORMANCE.

Author: Terrence E. Hogan,* Amy Randall, William L. Hergenrother, Chenchy J. Lin
Abstract: Alkoxysilane functionalized poly(butadiene-co-styrene) elastomers were prepared by terminating the anionic polymerization with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS). The isolated product contained 60-70%...


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Paper# 118 118

Anionic Synthesis of Liquid Polydienes and Their Applications

Author: T. Yoo* and S. K. Henning
Abstract: Liquid polydienes are low molecular weight homopolymers or copolymers containing unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds, which can participate in curing by sulfur or peroxides, along the polymer...


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Paper# 121 121

IN-SERVICE EVALUATION OF NITROGEN INFLATION OF TIRES

Author: R. Christopher Napier* and Walter H. Waddell
Abstract: The use of nitrogen gas inflation for tires in severe service conditions is known. A variety of benefits have been claimed for use in passenger car tires. In order to study specific claims, the use...


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Paper# 122 122

Polymers for Innerliner Applications – New Developments

Author: Walter H. Waddell*, R. Christopher Napier, Dirk F. Rouckhout
Abstract: Polyisobutylene and its copolymers are notable for their low permeability to small-molecule diffusants as a result of their efficient intermolecular packing. The first use for butyl rubber (llFl,...


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Paper# 142 142

NEW GENERATION OF LOW PIAH OIL EXTENDED ESBRS FROM LANXESS ELASTOMEROS DO BRASIL

Author: Agnes Martins, Manoel Remigio, Neilson Santos, Marcus Moutinho, Judy Douglas*
Abstract: As of January 1 of 2010, all process oils used in the tire and retread industry in Europe must change to low polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) oils according to European Directive 2005l69lEC....


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Paper# 143 143

PROCESSING BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH-CIS POLYBUTADIENES IN RUBBER COMPOUNDS - HIGHLIGHTING NEODYMIUM POLYBUTADIENES

Author: Judy Douglas*, Heike Kloppenburg, David Hardy, Alex Lucassen, Thomas Gross and Jochen Kroll
Abstract: The mixing and extrusion processes are critical steps for rubber compounders in order to produce materials with a consistent and reliable quality, in a given timeframe at reasonable costs. However,...


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Paper# 148 148

Elevast™ Polymer Modifiers (PM) – Highly Efficient Modifiers for the Property Enhancement of Butyl Rubber

Author: Bruce A. Harrington*, Brendan Rodgers, Charlie Y. Lin
Abstract: A portfolio of polymer modifiers which includes a slate of specialty hydrocarbon fluids intended especially for the property modification of polyolefins is now commercially available. These fluids,...


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Paper# 153 153

State-of-the-Art Gel Detection and Quality Reporting for EPDM Products

Author: Arnis U. Paeglis*, Larry A. Meiske, Ray A. Mangold*, Pam J. Kenny, Brian W. Walther and Tim E. Clayfield
Abstract: The Dow Chemical Company produces NORDELTM LP Hydrocarbon Rubber products (EPDM polymers) to the highest quality standards. An automated optical gellcontaminate detection system has been used for...


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Paper# 155 155

MEMORY OF FILLED RUBBERS

Author: Xiaorong Wang* and Christopher G. Robertson
Abstract: We recently discovered that particle-reinforced rubbers after being sheared (or aged) in oscillation at a frequency (fa) at a small strain (γa) (e.g., ~1% strain) for time (ta) can often produce a...


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Paper# 163 163

Effect of Surface Modified Zinc Oxide as Cure Activator on the Properties of Rubber Compound Based on NR/SBR

Author: Saeed Taghvaei-Ganjali*, Mercedeh Malekzadeh, Ali Abbasian, Morteza Khosravi,
Abstract: Nano zinc oxide (NZnO) were surface modified by poly ethylene glycol (PEG) and poly propylene glycol (PPG). Modification was controlled by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer, Emmett,...


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Paper# 11 11

ECOLOGY THE DRIVING FORCE FOR EXTENSION OF THE USE OF NR

Author: Wanda B. Parasiewicz
Abstract: Natural rubber is still an important industrial polymer, but it continuously competes with a number of synthetic elastomers, such as styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene, which are derived...


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Paper# 14 14

On Fracture Modeling and Characterization of Elastomeric Materials and Composites for Design Applications

Author: Mark R. Gurvich *
Abstract: Existing approaches of fracture analysis of elastomeric materials are primarily based on classical Griffith’s theory of crack growth. There are numerous experimental, analytical and computational...


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Paper# 23 23

NOVEL FAST CURING SYSTEM FOR BUTYL RUBBER

Author: Rani Joseph*, Sona Narayanan
Abstract: This paper describes the effect of different organic accelerators on the vulcanization and mechanical properties of butyl rubber. The effect of adding chloroprene rubber at very low percentage like...


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Paper# 25 25

AMORPHOUS METALLOCENE EPDM FOR SUPERIOR LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES

Author: Eric Jourdain, Sunny Jacob, Guy Wouters, Yann Devorest, Milind Joshi, Mike Bednarik, and Mark F. Welker*
Abstract: Ethylene-propylene rubbers and elastomers (also called EPM and EPDM elastomers) continue to be one of the most widely used and fastest growing synthetic rubbers having both specialty and...


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Paper# 30 30

Flocculation, Reinforcement, and Glass Transition Effects in Silica-Filled Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

Author: C. G. Robertson*, C. J. Lin, R. B. Bogoslovov, M. Rackaitis,
Abstract: The introduction of silanes to improve processability and properties of silica-reinforced rubber compounds is critical to the successful commercial use of silica as a filler in tires and other...


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Paper# 39 39

NATURAL RUBBER FROM DOMESTIC CROPS: INTERSPECIFIC COMPARISONS

Author: Colleen McMahan*, Wenshuang Xie, Rosalind Wong, Katrina Comish, De Wood, Luiz H. C. Mattoso, Jose A. Malmonge, David Shintani and Maureen Whalen
Abstract: The United States is dependent upon imports of natural rubber from tropical countries and is the worldas largest consumer of this strategic raw material. Development of domestic rubber crops will...


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Paper# 40 40

Biological feedstock development as part of the domestication and commercialization of Taraxacum kok-saghyz, a potential domestic source of natural rubber and inulin: progress and outlook

Author: Matthew D. Kleinhenz, Frederick C. Michel Jr., Ann Chanon, Daryl T. Ehrensing, A. Raymond Miller, John Streeter, Robert H. Seiple, Crittenden J. Ohlemacher, Colleen M. McMahan, David Shintani, Stephen C. Myers and F. William Ravlin
Abstract: The Ohio BioProducts Innovation Center (OBIC) and its private- and public-sector collaborators employ a market-pull approach to accelerate the commercialization of renewable specialty chemicals,...


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Paper# 41 41

Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TKS) - A Domestic Source of Natural Rubber: Rubber Quality of Early Development Samples

Author: Crittenden J. Ohlemacher*, Robert H. Seiple
Abstract: Natural rubber for commercial use is obtained almost exclusively from the Brazilian Rubber Tree, H evea brasiliensis (Hevea), and nearly all the supply comes from Southeast Asia. Price and supply...


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Paper# 49 49

Improving the Heat Resistance of THERBAN/HNBR

Author: Victor Nasreddine, Matthias Soddemann, Kevin Kulbaba, Martin Saewe
Abstract: THERBAN hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is a specialty elastomer used in demanding engineering applications such as the automotive, heavy duty, and oil well markets. It has excellent combination...


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Paper# 55 55

Ultrasonic Aided Extrusion of Carbon Black Filled SBR

Author: Jaesun Choi* and Avraam I. Isayev
Abstract: Ultrasonically assisted single screw extrusion of carbon-black (CB) filled SBR compounds up to 60 phr was carried out and its processing characteristics were measured. The effects of ultrasonic...


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Paper# 65 65

CANCELLED? MALEIC ANHYDRIDE GRAFTING OF NATURAL RUBBER BY GAMMA RADIATION AND ITS USE IN PREPARING

Author: K. Elias George Sr.
Abstract: Natural rubber (NR) was modified by grafting with maleic anhydride (MA) using gamma radiation for preparing nanocomposites with organoclay using hydroxyethyl substituted tallow ammonium as the...


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Paper# 75 75

Redesigning OTR Compounds With Anti-Reversion Chemistry for Reduced Heat-Build Up and Improved Performance

Author: Fred lgnatz-Hoover*,Byron To, Ed Terrill
Abstract: During service, large off-the-road tires (OTR) undergo severe compressive and shear deformation. As rubber compounds are viscoelastic, the deformation generates heat. Since thick sections of the...


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Paper# 81 81

Improving dispersion of non-halogenated flame retardant systems using Functional Additives

Author: Brett L. Robb and Jeremy R. Austin
Abstract: Many scientific studies have proved that halogenated flame retardants (HFR) such as tetrabromobisphenol A or decabromodiphenyl oxide are widespread contaminates to the environment. Some HFRs have...


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Paper# 82 82

INSULATION COMPOUNDS BASED ON BLENDS OF EPM AND EPDM POLYMERS FOR WIRE AND CABLE APPLICATIONS

Author: Mark F. We]ker*
Abstract: This study compares conventional EP(D)M elastomers, metallocene EP(D)M elastomers, and their binary blends in filled compounds designed for low voltage (LV) and medium voltage (MV) cable...


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Paper# 84 84

Use of Multifunctional Crosslinking Agents in the Electron Beam Cure of Elastomers

Author: William M. Boye
Abstract: Electron beam curing of elastomers involves applying an intense and precise stream of high energy electrons capable of radical induced crosslinking. In the presence of multifunctional crosslinking...


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Paper# 85 85

IMPROVED WIRE & CABLE PERFORMANCE USING SPECIALTY POLYMER MODIFIERS

Author: Bruce A. Harrington*, Mark Welker, and Charlie Y. Lin
Abstract: Elevast™ Polymer Modifiers, available from ExxonMobil Chemical are specialty hydrocarbon fluids designed for tailoring polyolefin performance. These fluids have uniquely defined structures, narrow...


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Paper# 93 93

ADVANCED TYRE FILLER MATERIALS TO REDUCE FUEL CONSUMPTION OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

Author: Michael D. Morris* and Theo AI
Abstract: Transportation accounts for most of the consumption of petroleum in the modern world, and within the transportation sector, trucks and buses consume about 20% of the total. This equates to about 39...


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Paper# 5 5

High Performance Silica Tread with Next Generation Process Additives

Author: Bernard M. Bezilla Jr*., Paul A. Danilowicz
Abstract: The requirements to improve Original Equipment (OE) tire performance have compelled tire manufacturers to develop new tread formulations. These new formulations contain increased tiller loadings,...


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Paper# 62

NEW HIGH AND LOW TEMPERATURE ESTERS FOR ACRYLIC ELASTOMERS

Author:
Abstract: Acrylic elastomers are used in many demanding applications that require high heat resistance over extended periods of time. These polymers are typically plasticized at minimum levels with...


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Paper# 1 1

THE LAST 100 YEARS OF CARBON BLACK REINFORCEMENT IN RUBBER

Author: Wesley Wampler and Leszek Nikiel
Abstract: In the 100 years that the Rubber Division has been in existence there has been numerous advances in the reinforcement of rubber which have been significantly impacted by developments in carbon...


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Paper# 3 3

The Last 100 Years of Fumed Silica in Rubber Reinforcement

Author: Orawan Taikum*, Rainer Friehmelt, and Mario Scholz
Abstract: Synthetic amorphous silica such as precipitated silica and fumed silica is used as reinforcing fillers in rubbers. Precipitated silica accounts for the majority of synthetic amorphous silica...


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Paper# 7 7

Non-linear viscoelasticity of (unvulcanized) Natural Rubber, derived materials and compounds

Author:
Abstract: Natural Rubber (NR) is by far the most important elastic material but its production specifications remain relatively poor when compared to synthetics elastomers. The so-called technically...


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Paper# 8 8

Effect of Introducing Edgecuts into Strained Natural Rubber Samples

Author:
Abstract: Typical tests to determine sensitivity of a compound to flaws involve placing edgecuts into an unstrained specimen and stretching it to failure. However, in certain situations, flaws are created...


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Paper# 9 9

Hierarchal multi-scaled structures in natural rubber

Author: Shigeyuki Toki*, Benjamin S. Hsiao, Sureerut Amnuaypomsri and Jitladda Sakdapipanich
Abstract: Natural rubber is composed of polyisoprene chains and natural impurities, such as proteins, phospholipids, carbohydrates and other small components. The functional groups at the ends of...


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Paper# 10 10

APPLICATION OF LOW FIELD 1H DOUBLE-QUANTUM NMR EXPERIMENTS TO THE STUDY OF NATURAL RUBBER

Author: By J. L. Valentin*, J. Brasero, I. Mora-Barrantes, A. Marcos-Fernandez, K. Saalwachter, and L. Gonzalez
Abstract: Natural rubber is an important and unique material with many practical applications. Correlation between microstructure and macroscopic properties is one of the most important topics in rubber...


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Paper# 12 12

REVIEW OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW APPLICABLE TO THE RUBBER AND PLASTICS INDUSTRY

Author: Jacob Ward*, Michael Dockins, and William Dusseau
Abstract: The purpose and scope of the paper is to provide an overview of intellectual property law applicable to automotive elastomers and engineered products. The paper will discuss the basics of...


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Paper# 18 18

Lower Compounding Cost by Improved Mixing Efficiency (Upgrading to an F440 Production Mixer)

Author: Frank. J. Borzenski*, William Flaherty, Robert Wagner
Abstract: Reducing compounding cost is essential to be competitive in today’s market. As the installed base in large sized mixers is aging, the replace of these mixers must be accomplished in such a way that...


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Paper# 21 21

The Rubber Mirror: Reflections of the Rubber Division's First 100 Years

Author: Henry J. Inman ,
Abstract: In 1909, a courageous group of twenty-eight rubber chemists, members of the American Chemical Society took a bold move and formed a subsection of the society -- the India Rubber Chemistry Section...


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Paper# 24 24

A NEW EPDM TO MEET COMPOUNDING AND PROCESSING CHALLENGES

Author: Dave Hofkens, Gose van Zandvoort, Scott Baird*, Michel van Boggelen, Petra Knape, Michael Koch and Susmita Bhattacharjee
Abstract: The rubber industry is constantly demanding innovative products for reducing total system cost while continuously improving performance. This offers significant challenge to EPDM producers in...


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Paper# 26 26

PROCESSING AND FORMULATION FLEXIBILITIES OF A NEW METALLOCENE EPDM RUBBER

Author: Wenbin Liang*, Tim Clayfield, Sherrika Daniel, Arnis Paeglis, Brian Walther, Kim Walton, Peter Voorheis
Abstract: Interviews with elastomer converters have shown that the performance attribute requirements of EPDM continue to evolve. Converters are demanding easier mixing elastomers with greater formulation...


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Paper# 27 27

Addressing Rolling Resistance and Durability of Tires

Author: Nico Huntink*, Rabin Datta*, Peter Paping, Maarten van der Made, Sarah Parker
Abstract: Reducing rolling resistance of tires remains a prime importance for the tire industry. With rising gasoline prices, awareness of the Kyoto protocol as a given, the Euro 5 norm demanding for...


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Paper# 28 28

ULTRA LOW VISCOSITY POLYMERIC ADDITIVES

Author: Dave Hofkens, Peter Meijers, Patric Meessen, Gose van Zanolvooit, Graham Choonoo*, Michael Koch and Susmita Bhattacharjee
Abstract: In 2008, DSM Elastomers installed a state of the art reactive extrusion (REX) line in Triunfo, Brazil. The technology provides a route to manufacture ultra low viscosity EPM and EPDM. In this...


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Paper# 29 29

Disclosed percolation phenomena and mechanism in strengthening of

Author: Liqun Zhang*, Haibo Yang, Weidong Wu, Hua Zou
Abstract: Nano-reinforcement by employing nanoparticles is necessary for high-efficiency reinforcement of elastomeric polymer materials, which was already proven by numerous researches and industrial...


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Paper# 33 33

COMPARISON OF GRAPHITE AND GRAPHENE PRECURSORS IN HNBR

Author: Roger W. Faulkner* Kenneth J. Mumby
Abstract: High shear mixing of expanded graphite produced a small but statistically significant reduction of permeability in HNBR at a shear rate of about 20,000 second'1, though the small reduction of...


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Paper# 34 34

Tailoring the Polymeric Nano-Particles for Rubber Reinforcement

Author: Chenchy J. Lin* and Xiaorong Wang
Abstract: Polymeric nano-particles with brush-like polydiene as the shell and corsslinked polystyrene as the core are synthesized using anionic polymerization via a self-assembly process of macromolecules in...


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Paper# 35 35

NANOFILLERS FOR ELASTOMERS

Author: Maurizio Galimberti*, Pierluigi Riccio, Simona Giudice, Atti1io Citterio, Theonis Ricco, Stefano Pandini, Giorgio Ramorino
Abstract: Nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding a synthetic isoprene rubber with either a layered clay or a carbon nanotube as the nanofiller. More in particular, a montmorillonite layered clay,...


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Paper# 36 36

BioIsopreneTM as the Foundation for Renewable/Sustainable Alternatives to Natural Rubber and Petroleum-Based Synthetic Rubber

Author: Frank J. Feher*, and Marguerite Cervin, Anthony Calabria, Gregg Whited and Andrei Miasnikov
Abstract: Rubber is a critical and strategic industrial raw material for manufacturing a wide variety of products, ranging from medical devices and personal protective equipment to aircraft tires. ...


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Paper# 37 37

ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF NATURAL RUBBER: THE EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

Author: By Yves Poirier*, J an B. van Beilen, Hans Mooibroek
Abstract: EU-PEARLS, a new European Union research project coordinated by Wageningen University and Research Centre, focuses on the development of integral production chains using two new crops for the...


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Paper# 38 38

INVESTIGATION OF THE COMPOSITION AND GROWTH OF IN VITRO NATURAL RUBBER USING HIGH RESOLUTION SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY

Author: Judit E. Puskas*, Chengching K. Chiang, Wenshuang Xie, Colleen McMahan
Abstract: Monitoring the growth of in virro natural rubber (NR) was accomplished by high- resolution Size Exclusion Chromatography SEC. Washed rubber particles (WRP)s isolated from H. brasiliensis latex,...


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Paper# 43 43

Improved Flex Properties for Peroxide Cured AEM Compounds

Author: Edward McBride
Abstract: Traditionally the best dynamic properties have been from AEM compounds cured with a diamine cure package. This paper will review lab work that has been done to improve the dynamic properties of...


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Paper# 44 44

Elastomeric Materials based on Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber for Seals in Carbon Dioxide (R 744) High Pressure Service – Improving the Resistance against Explosive Decompression

Author: Hans Magg, Achim Welle, Matthias Soddemann*
Abstract: HNBR-vulcanizates for automotive air conditioning systems running with carbon dioxide (R 744) are presented. The following properties are found relevant: Polymers with high acrylonitrile-content...


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Paper# 45 45

PRACTICAL STATE OF CURE MEASUREMENTS BY NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

Author: Richard J. Pazur* and F.J. Walker
Abstract: The use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spin echo measurements (T2 relaxation) for assessing the state of cure of crosslinked rubber systems is becoming widespread in the rubber industry....


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Paper# 47 47

New Family of Low Viscosity HNBR Polymers

Author: Mark Jones* and Andy Anderson
Abstract: In today’s challenging economic times, rubber goods manufacturers are looking for even the smallest cost savings while at the same time producing a quality product. Reducing their overall...


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Paper# 48 48

Light-Induced Gold Iridescence (Sunburn) of EPDM Weatherseals

Author: Bob Ohm* & Dan Patton
Abstract: Automotive weatherseals are made from ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM). When exposed to sunlight, a subtle discoloration of the surface develops. Although the color does not affect the...


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Paper# 50 50

Extruder Feeder Design for Quick Cleaning and Fast Product Changeovers

Author: Bill Kramer
Abstract: Economics and customer demands often require processers to change products on extrusion lines several times daily, which can involve disassembling and cleaning the feed roll and bearings on...


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Paper# 51 51

MAINTAIN QUALITY, CUT DOWN PRODUCTION COSTS

Author: Sergio Pierno
Abstract: Also Presented as Paper #22 in New Commercial Developments. Rubber technical parts keep "serving" industrial and medical applications, but the economic difficulties call for much reduced...


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Paper# 52 52

Effect of Aging on the Permeability Properties of Bromobutyl Based Tire lnnerliner Compounds

Author: Brendan Rodgers*, Sunny Jacob, Bharat B. Sharma, H Manjunath, and Subendhu Pal
Abstract: Every compound processed in a tire manufacturing plant will have a shelf life defining the maximum time between initial mixing and calendering or extruding. A broad range of factors are important...


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Paper# 53 53

High-Temperature Elastomer Seal Material Testing and Selection for Downhole Environments

Author: Lillian Guo* and Paul McElfresh
Abstract: As drilling technology allows deeper and hotter reservoirs to be reached, oil and gas well operations must be able to withstand harsher environmental conditions. The wells in which the drilling and...


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Paper# 54 54

AFM STUDIES ON SILICA DISPERSION IN EPDM RUBBER

Author: N Natchimuthu
Abstract: EPDM rubber formulations filled with precipitated silica and cross-linked by peroxide vulcanization have been investigated with the objective of realizing better processing characteristics and...


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Paper# 56 56

Magnetic clamping systems in rubber molding presses

Author: David L. Fischer*
Abstract: With increasing demands on manufacturers today, ways to improve productivity on the shop floor are more than welcome. This report reviews the typical situations in rubber molding plants and the...


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Paper# 58 58

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW RUBBER-TO-SUBSTRATE BONDING TECHNOLOGY

Author: Christopher D. Schneider* and Tejbans S. Kohli
Abstract: Solvent adhesive systems, since their commercialization in the 1950s, have been a key component of engineered rubber components worldwide. The efficacy of solvents to assemble the key polymers and...


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Paper# 59 59

Development of Aqueous Bonding Agents: An Encompassing Approach to Provide Innovation for Tomorrow

Author: ROGER A. CASSELL*
Abstract: Designing rubber to metal bonding (RtMB) systems is more demanding than ever before with economic, environmental and technological considerations playing a pivotal role in research and development....


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Paper# 61 61

Soft Thermoplastic Polyurethanes

Author: Donald Meltzer
Abstract: Soft plasticizer-free thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) have been developed that exhibit durometers below 70A on the Shore scale of hardness. The TPUs have been characterized in terms of their...


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Paper# 63 63

Polymer Process Aid with Recycled Content

Author: Hari Chandra and Chandrasekaran R. Pillai*
Abstract: Most Process aids are usually oils and waxes with few exceptions like liquid depolymerized rubbers and low molecular weight plastics. The new product that we have developed is low viscosity, low...


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Paper# 64 64

MULTIWALL CARBON NANOTUBE REINFORCEMENT OF HNBR AND FKM

Author: Roger W. Faulkner, Kenneth J. Mumby*, Alan Fisher, Tim Jozokos, Sophie Zhou
Abstract: Hyperion Catalysis FibrilTM multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT) were added to three different elastomers: an HNBR, a peroxide cure FKM, and a bisphenol-cure FKM. The inclusion of the CN T improved...


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Paper# 66 66

CANCELLED

Author:
Abstract: Figure captions Fig. 1: SEM image of MWNT Fig. 2: Vials containing aqueous dispersions of MWNTs (a) without surfactant (b) with surfactant (photograph taken after 6 months of sample preparation)...


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Paper# 67 67

Chemically Modified Precipitated Silica: Eliminates Production Drawbacks and Enhances Fuel Efficiency, Safety and Environmental Performance

Author: Timothy A. OkeI*
Abstract: Rising fuel costs, a wide range of national and international legislation, and increased public attention continue to encourage the automotive industry to pursue increasingly environmentally...


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Paper# 69 69

SPECIAL LOW SURFACE SILICA AS FILLER IN FLUOROELASTOMERS

Author: Gerd Schmaucks
Abstract: While precipitated silica is the well-established reinforcing filler for the so-called “Green Tire” and polar polymers, and fumed silica is used as the major filler for silicones; fluoropolymers...


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Paper# 70 70

NR/BR-based Tire Sidewall Compounds Ozone-stabilized with Alkylphenol-polysulfide Modified EPDM

Author: By H. Zhang, R. N. Datta, A. G. Talrna, J. W.M. Noorderrneer*
Abstract: In order to overcome cure incompatibility and heterogeneous filler distribution for NR/BR/EPDM blends, modification of the EPDM can enhance its affinity towards curatives and fillers. In this...


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Paper# 73 73

MICRODISPERSION OF SILICA IN TIRE TREAD COMPOUNDS BASED ON EPOXIDIZED NATURAL RUBBER

Author: Andrew V. ChapInan*, Stuart Cook, Robin T. Davies, Jaymini Patel and Jonathan L. Clark
Abstract: There is an increasing desire for products to be manufactured in part or entirely from renewable materials and for the energy consumption over the life cycle of products to be minimized. In the...


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Paper# 74 74

NAPHTHENIC EXTENDER OILS IN NR TIRE TREAD COMPOUNDS

Author: Anita Neau* and Marika Rangstedt
Abstract: Highly aromatic oils have been the most common extender oils for natural rubber compounds for many years, especially in tires. However, as new laws come into force in the European Union in order to...


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Paper# 76 76

Rubber products optimization via laboratory compound characterization and computer design/process simulation for the medical field

Author: Ben Chouchaoui
Abstract: Rubber “products” fit in 1: (chemistry) rubber development and (mechanical) laboratory characterization, 2: (mechanical) design, analysis, and shape optimization, besides validation testing and...


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Paper# 77 77

Clean and Effective Curing Vital for Elastomer Applications in Pharmaceutical Packaging

Author: Wai Keung Wong
Abstract: Due to their excellent elasticity, penetrability and resiliency performance, elastomers are being used in a wide range of pharmaceutical packaging. Historically the major use of elastomers in...


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Paper# 78 78

NOVEL STYRENIC BLOCK COPOLYMERS FOR MEDICAL TUBING

Author: Mark G. Kalisvaart and Kathryn J. Wright*
Abstract: A new family of styrenic block copolymers (TPE-S) is well suited as a viable alternative to plasticized, soft PVC. These Enhanced Rubber Segment (ERS) grades are highly compatible with...


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Paper# 79 79

INJECTION MOLDING OF THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS FOR MICROFEATURE REPLICATION

Author: Sung-hwan Yoon, Jejjfrey Rawson, Yormghyo Kim, Joey L. Mead, and Carol M. F. Barry
Abstract: A thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU) previously demonstrated superior ability to replicate injection molded microscale features abilities in comparison to thermoplastic polymers. In this...


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Paper# 80 80

Design, Preparation and Performance of Novel Bioelastomers and

Author: Liqun Zhang*, Dongmei Yue, Lijuan Lei, Hua Zou, Rui Shi
Abstract: In order to satisfy medical requirements, several novel bioelastomers were prepared based on biocompatible acid and alcohol. These polyester typed bioelastomers displayed excellent elasticity and...


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Paper# 83 83

HALOGEN FREE FLAME RETARDANTS FOR WIRE AND CABLE APPLICATIONS

Author: Ming Wei*, Daniel Murphy, Carol Barry and Joey Mead
Abstract: Flame retardants play a very important role in avoiding fire risks in wire and cable applications due to heat generation by current or outside sources. Halogen flame retardants are typically used...


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Paper# 86 86

Elastomeric Micropowder as a Compounding Alternative in Fluoroelastomer Wire and Cable Applications

Author: James A. Shell
Abstract: Because of increased demands of hydrocarbon and heat resistance, including both automotive and downhole oil industry applications, use of fluoroelastomer as an application alternative in wire and...


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Paper# 87 87

A MECHANISTIC STUDY INTO CROSS-LINKING OF SATURATED ELASTOMERS WITH DI-AZIDES

Author: A.J. Zielińska, J.W.M. Noordermeer, A.G. Talma, R. Peters, M. van Duin
Abstract: For vulcanization of fully saturated elastomers peroxidelco-agent systems are commonly applied. Problems encountered with peroxides are a low efficiency and unwanted side reactions. In this paper,...


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Paper# 88 88

EVALUATION OF EXTRACTABLE ORGANIC ZINC AS A QUANTITATIVE MARKER FOR TIRE TREAD PARTICLES IN ENVIRONMENTAL MATRICES

Author: Kenneth Unice*, Marisa Kreider, Britt McAtee and Julie Panko
Abstract: Dichloromethane extractable organic zinc has been proposed as a robust quantitative marker for tire-tread particles in environmental samples including air, soil or sediment, however, to date a...


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Paper# 89 89

ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY OF RUBBER FRACTION IN FINE PARTICLES

Author: Minako Harada*, Tadashi Shibata, Julie Panko and Ken Unice
Abstract: A group of 11 global tire manufacturing companies initiated an environmental, health and ecological research program called the Tire Industry Project (TIP) in 2005. Bridgestone Corporation as one...


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Paper# 90 90

UNDERSTANDING WET SKID RESISTANCE TESTING WITH THE BRITISH PENDULUM SKID TESTER: ANALYSIS OF SLIDING NOISE FROM VARIOUS FILLED COMPOUNDS

Author: Cara Adams, Akiko Neil, Greg Chaplin, Paul Zakeljand Xiao-Dong Pan*
Abstract: The British pendulum skid tester (BPST) has been widely adopted for laboratory characterization of wet skid resistance (WSR) for rubber compounds. However, testing results are not yet well...


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Paper# 91 91

Multiple Glass transition temperaturesof terpolymers of Isoprene for tire tread

Author: A. F. Halasa*, B. B. Gross, W. L. Hsu The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
Abstract: Novel polymers have been developed which will contribute to a better combination of traction and tread wear in tire applications, which is historically difficult to achieve. In this work, Multiple...


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Paper# 92 92

IMPORTANT ROLES OF POLYMERS AND FILLERS FOR TIRE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF TREAD COMPOUNDS

Author: By Shingo Futamura* and Kuo-Chi Hua
Abstract: Because the rolling tire meets the road surface at the tread component of the tire, the proper selection of tread compounds plays an important role in designing a tire for optimal performance....


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Paper# 94 94

Diatomaceous Earth - Filler for Rubber Reinforcement

Author: Rajendra K. Singh
Abstract: Diatomaceous Earth (DE) was used as a filler for reinforcement in silicone rubber. Compared to silica, higher loading of DE could be used without negatively impacting overall properties. In fact,...


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Paper# 95 95

COMPOUNDING FOR INJECTION MOLDING WITH TALC

Author: Oscar Noel* and Gilles Meli
Abstract: ABSTRACT Talc provides flexibility to balance the benefits of improved processability with product performance in thermoset rubber. In injection molding applications, the partial substitution of...


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Paper# 96 96

REINFORCING EFFECT OF MODIFIED FUMED SILICA IN RUBBER COMPOUNDS

Author: Irene Mora-Barrantes* , Juan L. Valentín, Pilar Posadas, Ángel Marcos, Andrés Rodríguez, Luís Ibarra and Luis González
Abstract: Rubbers are polymeric materials characterized by their high elasticity. However, the reinforcement of these soft matrices is essential to obtain the required properties for their different...


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Paper# 97 97

Performance of Green, Tire Derived, Recovered Carbon Black

Author: William F. Cole
Abstract: Major product development challenges for rubber chemists and engineers have always been processability, performance, durability and cost. Today designers also add "end of product life"...


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Paper# 98 98

Comparison of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and N, N-dimethyldodecylamine as a Modifier for Na+-montmorillonite (MMT) on Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR)/organoclay nanocomposites manufactured by a Latex Method

Author: Wonho Kim*,Wook-Soo Kim, II-Jin Kim, Gye-Soo Kim, Jong-Woo Bae, Young-Hoo Byon
Abstract: This study has made the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)/organoclay nanocomposite through the latex method by using the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and N,N-dimethyldodecylamine (DDA) as...


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Paper# 100 100

Polyisoprene as a useful substrate dedicated to new polymer developments; from natural rubber to bioactive polymers

Author: Rachid Jellali, Anuwat Saetung, Frederic Gohier,* Irene Campistron, Nasreddine Kebir, Albert Laguerre and Jean Francois Pilard
Abstract: The past decade has seen increased research activity devoted to the development of environmentally friendly methods for producing polymers. Indeed, the possibility of obtaining polymers from...


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Paper# 101 101

RUBBER VULCANIZATION - A WELL KNOWN TECHNOLOGY WITH A LOT OF QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED

Author: Nuria Agullo, Salvador Borros*
Abstract: Sulfur vulcanization is technologically the most important chemistry employed in the production of rubber goods. Differences between vulcanization processes arise from the physical and chemical...


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Paper# 102 102

Natural rubber in automotive dynamic applications

Author: Benoit Le ROSSIGNOL*, Yann FROMONT and Frederic GOMEZ
Abstract: Abstract Natural rubber is widely used in automotive dynamic applications as engine mount or bush due to its mechanic properties. The first part of this paper gives a review of the main...


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Paper# 103 103

EXFOLIATION OF NANOLAYER ASSEMBLIES FOR IMPROVED NATURAL RUBBER PROPERTIES: METHODS AND THEORY

Author: Anil K. Bhowmick*, Mithun Bhattacharya and Suman Mitra
Abstract: Natural rubber (NR) based nanocomposites were prepared by conventional processing techniques using various nanoclays like unmodified clays (hectorite and montmorillonite, NA) and modified...


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Paper# 104 104

PROPERTIES OF NR COMPOSITES CONTAINING NONCONVENTIONAL FILLERS

Author: Andreas Bischoff, Katharina Brandt, Cristian Oprisoni, Luciane Schneider, Mathias Zabel, Robert. H. Schuster*
Abstract: Synthetic routes for preparation of polymeric fillers "in-situ" formation of cellulose nanofibers and "in-situ" dispersion of pristine montmorillonite are presented. NR nanocomposites containing...


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Paper# 105 105

Flame Retardant Natural Rubber Formulations

Author: Marina Fernando, Colin Hull and Jonathan Clark
Abstract: To ensure structural integrity and human safety, specialist fire resistant and smokeless rubber formulations are needed in industry. Legislation concerning materials of construction exists in many...


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Paper# 106 106

EFFECT OF CURE EFFICIENCY ON PROPERTIES OF GUM AND BLACK FILLED NATURAL RUBBER VULCANIZATES

Author: G. R. Hamed and K. Boonkerd*
Abstract: Effects of the sulfur cure efficiency on the reversion behavior and the normal and edge-cut tensile strength of gum and black filled natural rubber (NR) vulcanizates were studied. N,...


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Paper# 107 107

Butyl Rubber Curing Bladder Resin Vulcanization Systems: Compositions and Optimization

Author: Brendan Rodgers, Sunny Jacob, Chris Curry, and Bharat B. Sharma#
Abstract: A curing bladder is an important component ofthe tire vulcanizing press and the tire curing process. The proper selection of butyl polymers and compounding materials for the bladder formulation is...


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Paper# 112 112

Vulcanization of Nanocomposite Tire lnnerliner Compounds and Permeability

Author: John Soisson *, Brendan Rodgers Weiqing Weng, Robert Webb, and Sunny Jacob,
Abstract: Nanocomposite technology offers the potential to provide a platform for the next incremental improvement in tire performance. Tire innerliners based on nanocomposites may allow liner gauge...


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Paper# 114 114

Morphology and rheology of non-reactive and reactive EPDM/PP blends in transient shear flow: plasticized vs. non-plasticized blends

Author: SHANT SHAHBIKIAN*, PIERRE J. CARREAU,* M.-C. HEUZEY, MARIA. D. ELLUL, HARI. P. NADELLA, JOHN CHENG, PRADEEP SHIRODKAR
Abstract: In this work, non-plasticized and plasticized EPDMIPP (ethylene-propylene-diene- terpolymerlpolypropylene) based thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) were prepared in the presence and absence of a...


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Paper# 115 115

STYRENE-DIENE THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS. MILESTONES AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

Author: Roderic P. Quirk
Abstract: One of the unique synthetic aspects of living polymerizations,in general, and living alkyllithium-initiated poymerizations specifically is the ability to prepare block copolymers by sequential...


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Paper# 116 116

Silicone Elastomers

Author: Lauren Tonge,* Mike DiPino and Craig Gross
Abstract: In the last 60 years, silicone rubber has become a major part of our daily lives. From the first step on the moon to medical stents, airplanes to airbags, glass buildings to the kitchen, silicone...


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Paper# 117 117

EPDM - Past, Present and Future

Author: P.S. Flavishankar*
Abstract: This paper is intended as a broad overview of the EPDM process X product technology. The topics include a historical evolution of the Ziegler-Natta (Z-N) catalyst and process technology, the impact...


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Paper# 120 120

COMPACT NMR FOR RUBBER ANALYSIS

Author: Bernhard Blumich*, Federico Casanova, Ernesto Danieli, Jorg Mauler, and Juan Perlo
Abstract: NMR provides information about rubber formulations from NMR spectra, about object shape from NMR images, and about cross-link density from NMR relaxation data. Conventional NMR equipment is bulky...


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Paper# 123 123

Study of Steel Tire Cord - Rubber Adhesion Build-up and Degradation

Author: Guy Buytaert*, Hancheng Liang, Gabrielle Pax and Patricia Reis
Abstract: Brass-coated steel cords are extensively used as reinforcement material in radial tires, high-pressure hydraulic hoses and heavy duty conveyor belts. Bonding between sulfur cured rubber and steel...


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Paper# 124 124

ASTM Highway Equivalent Laboratory Wheel Testing Standards for Commercial Truck/Bus Tires

Author: Terrence Ruip, Phillip Mosier*
Abstract: ASTM Committee F0930 Task Group on Commercial Truck]Bus Tire Test Development has achieved its goals of developing: 1) ffhighway equivalencyli tire temperature algorithms for laboratory roadwheel...


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Paper# 128 128

The use of Designed Experiments to optimize the filler loading in an EPDM compound

Author: Arthur L. Scott*
Abstract: This paper will show that the use of Designed Experiments can be an economical way to explore optimization of any part of a rubber compound. In this experiment, a standard EPDM compound was used to...


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Paper# 130 130

Improved Natural Rubber Processing and Physical Properties by Use of Selected Compounding Additives

Author: Colin Clarke*, Manfred Hensel
Abstract: Several additives developed for use in Natural Rubber (NR) or NR containing compounds are featured in this review paper. The use of different mixing methods for NR and their effect both on...


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Paper# 131 131

THE EFFECT OF ADDITIVES ON THE PROCESSING BEHAVIOUR OF NATURAL RUBBER COMPOUNDS - RHEOLOGY AND MOULD STICKING

Author: Martyn Bennett*
Abstract: This paper looks at the effect of a range of additives on the rheological and moulding behaviour of Natural Rubber compounds The work covers the evaluation of internal and external lubricating...


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Paper# 134 134

USE OF CROSSLINKING COAGENTS FOR NATURAL RUBBER LATEX- DIPPED PRODUCTS

Author: Justo Brasero*, Raquel Verdejo, Miguel Angel Lopez Manchado and Juan Lopez Valentin
Abstract: Natural rubber latex (NRL) articles are very present in our lives, since latex is a suitable material for making articles of very thin walls. Nevertheless, these products cause problems derived...


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Paper# 135 135

CAN TYRE CRUMB BE AN ALTERNATIVE TO ZNO AS ACTIVATOR IN NATURAL RUBBER VULCANISATION?

Author: Manuel Guzman*, Nuria Agullo and Salvador Borros
Abstract: Zinc oxide is a widely used compound in rubber industry due to the excellent properties that shows as activator for sulphur vulcanisation. Despite its superior characteristics, there is an...


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Paper# 136 136

CURING CYCLE OPTIMIZATION OF A THICK SECTION RUBBER PART

Author: Abdulrahman El Labban*, P. Mousseau, J.L. Bailleul and R. Deterre
Abstract: The curing cycle optimization is a first order concern for rubber industry both to control the part quality and to reduce curing times. Thick parts curing control is very delicate due to low...


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Paper# 137 137

Advancure™ Hexamethylenediamine Curative in Guanidine-Free Cure Systems for Vamac®

Author: Byron To*, Patricia Czomba, Alice Uminska, Edward McBride
Abstract: DuPont Vamac® ethylene acrylic elastomers (AEM) are designed to withstand high and low temperatures and aggressive new automotive fluids in under the hood automotive applications such as seals,...


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Paper# 138 138

Mechanism of peroxide cure of EPDM rubber

Author: By Martin van Duin*, Ramona Orza, Ron Peters and Victor Chechik
Abstract: The results of three experimental studies, i.e. gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection of peroxide-crosslinked alkenelalkane model compound mixtures, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance of...


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Paper# 139 139

Fundamentals of Curing Elastomers with Peroxides and Coagents III: Blending Coagents to Optimize Processing and Physical Properties of Rubber Compounds

Author: Steven K. Henning
Abstract: Previous work in the series has demonstrated the addition of coagents affects both the quantity and quality of crosslinks in peroxide-cured elastomeric compounds. Compound vulcanization kinetics...


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Paper# 140 140

AN ORIGINAL ANTI-REVERSION NITROSAMINE-FREE CURING AGENT AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO TMTD

Author: By Pierre Lugez*
Abstract: The development of a new curing system has to answer a series of constraints about health, safety and environment issues or regulations. The use of an activated poly-ter-butylphenol disulfide (as...


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Paper# 141 141

POLYISOBUTYLENE-BASED RUBBERS: PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE

Author: Judit E. Puskas* and Lucas M. Dos Santos
Abstract: This paper will discuss polyisobutylene-based rubbers. Halobutyl rubbers, brominated or chlorinated copolymers of isobutylene and isoprene are the most important representatives of this group....


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Paper# 145 145

Hydrogenated Liquid Acrylonitrile-Butidiene Rubber

Author: Dongmei Yue*, Liqun Zhang
Abstract: Liquid Nitrile Rubber(LNBR) and Liquid Hydroxy Nitrile Rubber(LNBR-OH) has lower viscosity and better processability. LNBR as plasticizer of HNBR can completely be compatible with HNBR. HNBR will...


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Paper# 146 146

Simultaneous control of molecular weight and 1,4-cis selectivity in the polymerization of 1,3-Butadiene with N,N'-Bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene)-1,2-diphenylethylenediaminato cobalt (I) in combination with diethylaluminum chloride

Author: Kiyoshi Endo* and Kenji Nakatani
Abstract: High 1,4-cis poly(butadiene) (PBd) is a useful material as a synthetic rubber, and a large amount of 1,4-cis PBds are manufactured by Ziegler catalysts. Such catalysts are effective to produce a...


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Paper# 147 147

Tire Failure through ICP

Author: Thomas R. Giapponi*
Abstract: lntracarcass Pressurization or ICP is a well know entity within the tire industry as the air pressure within the body ply cords. The Forensics analysis of and definition of ICP is not as well...


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Paper# 149 149

Plasma polymerization of monomers onto fillers, to tailor their surface properties in tire compounds

Author: By W. K. Dierkes*, M. Tiwari, R. N. Datta, A. G. Talma, J. W. M. Noordermeer
Abstract: Rubber reinforcement by tillers is primarily based on filter structure and surface properties. A chemical change of the surface properties while maintaining the structure allows tailoring tiller...


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Paper# 150 150

NOVEL FUNCTIONALIZED SSBR FOR SILICA- & CARBON BLACK- CONTAINING TIRES

Author: Sven Thiele*, Dieter Bellgardta
Abstract: The extensive use of fossil fuels and the resulting threat of global warming has led to international treaties and to national legislation demanding emission reductions in greenhouse gases,...


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Paper# 154 154

THE EFFECT OF MIXED FILLER SIZES ON THE FIBER DIAMETER OF ELECTROSPUN BUTUYL RUBBER FORMULATIONS

Author: Dan Murphy*, Walter Zukas, Carol Barry and Joey Mead
Abstract: Electrospinning of theimosetting elastomers is a method for developing nonwoven membranes with a microporous structure, for use in dynamic applications (i.e. stretchable). These membranes have...


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Paper# 156 156

New Rubber Recycling Technology: Cost Effective Transformation of Rubber Crumb into Secondary Rubber

Author: Alex Vainer
Abstract: The reutilization of scrap vulcanized rubber products is an environmental problem of global concern. Converting these waste materials to a valuable resource presents an economic opportunity of...


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Paper# 157 157

Thermal Behavior of Vinyl Ester Resin Matrix Composites Filled With Meehanoehemical Devulcanized Ground Rubber Tire Powder (GRT)

Author: Sriram Yagneswaran*, Neetu Tomar, Dennis W. Smith, Jeffrey R. Cellura
Abstract: The thermal behavior of vinyl ester (VE) resin matrix composites filled with mechanochemical devulcanized ground rubber tire powder (GRT) was studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and...


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Paper# 159 159

TRUE RECYCLING OF RUBBER- NEEDED NOW MORE THAN EVER

Author: David Brown*, Michael Burgoyne and Wayne Maddever
Abstract: The first thing that a rubber chemist learns is that rubber cannot be recycled, but can only be converted to another physical form, to be used as a filler, for example. The prevalent belief is...


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Paper# 160 160

De Link Devulcanization Technology A New Sustainability Option for the Rubber Industry

Author: Steve Nieto
Abstract: This presentation discusses the patented DeLink technology which can devulcanize any sulfur cured polymer using a chemicallmechanical process on industry standard equipment. This technology has far...


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Paper# 161 161

SELECTED ASPECTS ON AGING OF ELASTOMERS

Author: Ulrich Giese*, Marcus Santoso, Robert. H. Schuster, Yolanda Navarro Torrejon and Corinna Welzel
Abstract: Aging processes are determining the service life of elastomer components. Over the course of time mechanical-dynamic load, oxidation processes, temperature, exposition to UV light and to aggressive...


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Paper# 162 162

REVERSION BEHAVIOR, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL AGING PROPERTIES OF GUM NATURAL RUBBER VULCANIZATES WITH DIFFERENT SULFUR TO ACCELERATOR RATIOS AND ACCELERATOR TYPES

Author: C. Deeprasertkul, K. Boonkerd* and K. Boonsomwong
Abstract: Effects of sulfur to accelerator (S/A) ratio on reversion behavior, mechanical and thermal aging properties of gum natural rubber vulcanizates were studied. Various types of accelerator including...


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Paper# 164 164

Smarter Rubber Testing That Contributes to the Rubber Industry's Productivity Gains

Author: John S. Dick*
Abstract: This paper reviews the overall technological advances which have resulted in significant improvements in productivity for the rubber industry. A general review is given on this subject. Also...


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Paper# 165 165

ADHESION SCIENCE OF RUBBER-TO-METAL BONDING TECHNOLOGY

Author: Dave Pugne* and Frank Krakowski
Abstract: Engineered rubber-to-metal devices enable key performance attributes for automotive, industrial and aerospace applications. These critical parts rely on a dependable bond being formed between the...


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Paper# 166 166

Extending the Usability Of An Installed Calender - Developing the Requirements for a “New” Calender

Author: Lawrence R. Gooch*
Abstract: The principles underlying the calendering process are reviewed. An approach is outlined for developing appropriate specifications for the calender. The past practices of calender design and...


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Paper# 167 167

MODELING AND PRODUCT OPTIMIZATION FOR AUTOMOTIVE WEATHER- STRIPPING

Author: By Sherrika Daniel*, Brian Walther, Peter Voorheis, Tim Clayfield, Arnis Paeglis, Wenbin Liang, Dave Schiff
Abstract: Custom compounders to the automotive industry are constantly being challenged with lower cost targets yet more stringent performance requirements for their products. Dow has expanded a predictive...


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Paper# 169 169

Sub-micrometer TPVs based on crosslinking-induced phase separation of polycaprolactone/oligoetherdimethacrylate blends

Author: Martin Van Duin,* Roy l'Abee, Han Goossens and Marloes Verbruggen
Abstract: Reaction-induced phase separation (RIPS) of initially miscible mixtures of poly(8- caprolactone) (PCL) and elastomer precursors based on difunctional methacrylate resins was applied to prepare...


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Paper# 155-A 155 a

GEAR PUMPS FOR THE RUBBER INDUSTRY

Author: Bill Murphy*
Abstract: This paper will review the benefits of gear pumps for use in extrusion and compounding lines. The gear pump is a positive displacement device that meters rubber at a very consistent flow rate, and...


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Paper# 63A 63a

A Green Revolutionary Microwave Process to Produce Alkoxysilanes

Author: Lloyd J. Willey
Abstract: The high value of alkoxy silanes to produce silane couplers, such as in the rubber industry Si69 (Silane Coupling Agent Si 69) is well established. However, the processes currently used to produce...


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