Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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172nd Technical Meeting

Date: October 16, 2007
Location: Cleveland, OH

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $900.00

200th Technical Meeting - Fall 2021

198th Technical Meeting - Fall 2020

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

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Paper# 2 Tsou

Reactive Compatibilization in Polyamide and BIMSM Blends

Author: A. H. Tsou*, B. D. Favis, Y. Hara, P. A. Bhadane, Y. Kirino
Abstract: During the blending of polyamide (PA) and brominated poly(isobutylene-co-p-methyl styrene), BIMSM, interfacial reactions between terminal amines and backbone amides of PA and pendant benzylic...


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Paper# 6 Lopez

EXPLOSIVE DECOMPRESSION TESTING OF FLUOROELASTOMER COMPOUNDS

Author: M. J. Mayor Lopez and R. E. Fuller
Abstract: Explosive Decompression (ED), also known as Rapid Gas Decompression (RGD), is structural failure in the form of blistering, internal cracking andfor splitting caused when the gas pressure to which...


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Paper# 7 Guo

STUDIES OF WATER SWELLABLE NBR FOR DOWNHOLE SEALING APPLICATIONS

Author: Paul McElfresh and Lillian Guo*
Abstract: Acrlyonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) is well known for its excellent chemical resistance to petroleum-based fluids and hydrocarbon fuels and has been widely used in the oil industry as a sealing...


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Paper# 8 Slay

Low Temp Scalability of O-Rings for Oil and Gas Production: Part 1 of 2

Author: Buc Slay*, Kent Farrell
Abstract: Selecting O-ring seal systems for oil and gas production requires a thorough knowledge of the seal’s physical properties and the conditions of the service environment. The search for suitable...


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Paper# 9 Zhong

Fluid Structure Interaction in Flow-Induced Sealing in Wellhead Isolation Tool

Author: Allan Zhong
Abstract: A sealing element in a wellhead isolation tool, also referred to as a WIT cup, is designed to seal a nominal API (American Petroleum Institute Standard) casing ID. A given API casing ID can vary...


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Paper# 11 Dalrymple

ELASTOMER RATE-DEPENDENCE: A TESTING AND MATERIAL MODELING METHODOLOGY

Author: Tod Dalrymple* and Jaehwan Choi
Abstract: Stress relaxation testing at very early times (fraction of a second) combined with test data from a set of constant strain-rate uniaxial tests is used to create hyperelasticlviscoelastic material...


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Paper# 12 Marlow

Understanding Frequency Domain Viscoelasticity in Abaqus®

Author: By Saurabh Bahuguna, Randy Marlow*, and Tod Dalryrnple
Abstract: In this paper, the frequency domain viscoelastic model in Abaqas is explored. The input requirement of the model from aniaxial dynamic tests at several frequencies is detailed. The model assumes...


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Paper# 13 Smithr

COMPOSITE BELLOWS FOR A THERMOACOUSTIC REFRIGERATOR

Author: Robert W. M. Smith
Abstract: Thermoacoustic refrigeration offers the potential to satisfy many of the cooling needs currently served by conventional Vapor compression technology without the use of HCFCs or HFCs, both potent...


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Paper# 14 Bhattacharya

A Constitutive Model of Elastomers That Includes Non-linear Viscoelasticity and Permanent Set Due to Network Breakage and Reformation

Author: By Aparajita Bhattacharya*, Grigori Medvedev and James. M. Caruthers
Abstract: A comprehensive experimental study of the mechanical behavior of a filled elastomer has been undertaken, where the material is subjected to complex loadingmnloading histories at different rates of...


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Paper# 15 Tommasi

LOW GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE FLUOROELASTOMERS: THE EFFECT OF SPECIFIC MONOMERS

Author: Giulio Tommasi*, Mattia Bassi, Aldo Sanguineti and Alessandro Veneroni
Abstract: Fluoroelastomers are well known for their excellent thermo-chemical resistance; however, the need of improving their low temperature behavior has been always recognized. The glass transition...


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Paper# 16 Amnuaypornsri

Strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber: Effect of proteins and phospholipids

Author: Sureerut Amnuaypornsri, Shigeyuki Toki, Benjamin S. Hsiao, Jitladda Sakdapipanich, Yasuyuki Tanaka
Abstract: Strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber (NR) during uni-axial deformation was studied in real time by synchrotron wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) technique. Strain-induced...


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Paper# 17 Cassell

POTENTIAL SOLUTION TO THE AGE OLD CHALLENGE OF PROCESSING CLEAR ADHESIVES

Author: Dr. Roger A. Cassell * and Dr. David Kistner
Abstract: Historically, clear adhesives designed to adhere rubber to metal (RTM) have created a whole host of processing and detection challenges unto themselves. Specifically, the end users, who apply these...


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Paper# 18 Delange

ADHESION ACTIVATION OF ARAMID FIBERS FOR RUBBER APPLICATIONS

Author: Pieter J. de Lange*, Peter G. Akker, Stef Willemsen, and Rabin N. Datta
Abstract: The use of aramid fibers as reinforcing material in both tires and mechanical rubber goods, such as hoses, belts, etc., is growing. In these dynamic applications, the adhesion between fiber and...


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Paper# 19 Schroeder

IMPROVING DYNAMIC DURABILITY OF HEAT RESISTANT ELASTOMER COMPOUNDS USING VERY FINE DISPERSIBLE POLYMERS AND ADDITIVES

Author: Andreas Schroeder*, Thomas Frueh, Thomas Alshuth
Abstract: In recent years, continually increasing demands for under the hood applications called for elastomer components with a higher dynamic service life at elevated temperatures (s 100 0C). On the one...


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Paper# 26 Sternstein

ON REINFORCEMENT MECHANISMS IN NANOFILLED POLYMER MELTS AND ELASTOMERS

Author: S. S. Sternstein*, Samuel Amanuel, Meisha Schofner
Abstract: Reinforcement in nanofilled polymer melts and elastomers is considered with emphasis on the effects at low filler concentrations ranging from zero to 12.5 vol. %. Dynamic mechanical data are...


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Paper# 27 Wangi

EFFECT OF FILLERS ON WET SKID RESISTANCE OF TIRES. Part I. Micro-Elastohydrodynaniic Lubrication vs. Filler-Elastomer Interactions

Author: Meng-Jiao Wang* and Yakov Kutsovsky
Abstract: ABSTRACT From results of testing materials using a new filler, it was recognized that the wet skid resistance of tires is determined not only by dynamic properties of the tread compounds, but also...


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Paper# 28 Wangii

EFFECT OF FILLERS ON WET SKID RESISTANCE OF TIRES Part II. Experimental Observations on Effect of Filler-Elastomer

Author: Meng-Jiao Wang* and Yakov Kutsovsky
Abstract: It was demonstrated previously that on the worn surface of vulcanizates during wet skid tests, carbon black is covered by rubber whereas silica particles are at least partly exposed. In this...


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Paper# 29 Awang

NATURAL RUBBER LATEX PREVULCANIZED FILMS WITH NANO-SIZED LAYERED SILICATES.

Author: Suriawati Awang* and Amir Hashim M.Y.
Abstract: In natural rubber (NR) latex products, fillers are simply added to cheapen or to bulk the products. The addition of fillers is not expected to reinforce the physical strength of the NR latex...


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Paper# 30 Zhang

A STUDY ON CARBON BLACK FILLED POWDERED NATURAL RUBBER: FILLER DISPERSION, EXTRUDING BEHAVIOR AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Author: Lianshi Wang, Yaling Lin, Anqiang Zhang*
Abstract: Carbon black (HAF) filled powdered natural rubber (P(NR/HAF)) was prepared using the method of carbon black-rubber latex coagulation without adding polymeric coating resins. The carbon black...


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Paper# 32 Mathewt

A COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE MODIFICATION OF CARBON BLACK AND SILICA. BY PLASMA POLYMERIZATION

Author: T.Mathew* R.N.Datta W.K.Dierkes J .W.M.Nordermeer and W.J.van Ooij
Abstract: Carbon black and silica are widely used active fillers in the rubber industry to improve the physical and dynamic properties of rubbers. The surface energy difference between rubbers and these...


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Paper# 33 Bogoslovov

HIGH-SPEED RETRACTION OF STRETCHED RUBBER

Author: by R. B Bogoslovov* and C. M. Roland
Abstract: Direct and accurate testing of the mechanical properties of rubber at high strains and high strain rates is challenging. Most methods to accomplish this involve custom- made instrumentation and...


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Paper# 34 Gurvich

ON DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CORD-RUBBER COMPOSITES AND FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTICS: STRUCTURAL MODELING

Author: Mark R. Gurvich *
Abstract: Approaches and computational capabilities in structural modeling of cord-rubber composites (CRC) are often based on similar well established solutions for fiber- reinforced plastics (FRP). Although...


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Paper# 35 Sahoo

HEAT SEALING MECHANICS OF ELASTOMERS

Author: Debashis Sahoo
Abstract: This paper discusses an innovative IntactTM Sterile Filling technology developed by Medinstill for the food and drug industry. The enabler is a specially engineered closure stopper material that is...


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Paper# 36 Padovan

Modeling Aging Induced Creep Set in Components Composed of Compounded Elastomers and TPE's

Author: Yih Chyun Sheu, and J ian Tu
Abstract: Subsystem components such as seals-gaskets, shock and vibration absorbing bodytmotor train mounts, tires, belts, hosing, and like parts, generally need to maintain specific dimensional stabilities...


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Paper# 39 Ahmadi

DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF FILLED RUBBER. II - PHYSICAL BASIS OF

Author: H R Ahmadi* & A H Muhr
Abstract: A relatively simple model is proposed, capable of implementation in existing commercial FEA packages, with the scope to capture those aspects of the stress-strain behaviour of filled rubber that...


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Paper# 40 Padunggun

DEVELOPMENT OF THE NON AMMONIA PRESERVATIVE SYSTEM FOR NATURAL RUBBER LATEX

Author: Sasiwimon Padunggun*, Surapich Loykulnant, Chaveewan Kongkaew, Oraphin Chaikumpollert, and Krisda Suchiva
Abstract: Normally natural rubber (NR) latex has to be appropriately preserved in order to avoid prematured coagulation and putrefaction due mainly to the action of contaminated bacteria. The most widely...


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Paper# 41 Lugez

A NEW NITROSAMINE-FREE ACCELERATOR: MIXLAND+ TBP 75 GA

Author: By Pierre Lugez
Abstract: The suppression of nitrosamine-generating products from rubber formulations is an ongoing concern for the rubber industry. Only a few accelerator families are available to achieve this task...


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Paper# 42 Vanderkooi

Surfactant influence on Silica filled tread

Author: John Vander Kooi
Abstract: Improving the processing and physical properties of a silica containing tire tread compound is shown to be feasible by the use of a zinc containing surfactant blend, Struktol JV 46F. This...


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Paper# 44 Chapmanb

ELEVAST™ POLYMER MODIFIERS – NEW PLASTICIZERS FOR POLYOLEFIN ELASTOMERS

Author: Bryan R. Chapman*, Yann Devorest, Michael C. Bulawa, and Alistair D. Westwood
Abstract: Ever increasing performance demands on rubber products require constant improvements in rubber formulations. Plasticizer technology is no exception. In this paper, EXXonMobil Chemical introduces an...


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Paper# 45 King

New DuPontTM Vamac® (AEM) Elastomer with Improved Injection Molding Processability and Performance Attributes

Author: Douglas King*
Abstract: Ethylene acrylic (AEM) elastomers are widely used for injection molding applications where the combination of good heat and oil resistance is required. A new AEM elastomer has been developed...


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Paper# 46 Riley

COMPARISON OF FLUORINATED LIQUID SILICONE RUBBER AND HEAT CURED FLUOROSILICONE ELASTOMER

Author: Gail Riley*, Mel Toub, Oliver Franssen and Stephan Bosshammer
Abstract: Silicone heat cured elastomers (HCE) have traditionally been used in the fabrication of rubber components exposed to a wide temperature range for both static and dynamic applications. For...


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Paper# 47 Bauerle

IMPROVED FLUOROELASTOMERS FOR USE IN FOOD AND BEVERAGE RELATED APPLICATIONS

Author: John G. Bauerle
Abstract: This paper demonstrates the advantages of Viton® GF-600S and Viton® Extreme™ ETP-600S for use in food, beverage and pharmaceutical process applications, compared to other elastomers. Included in...


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Paper# 48 Laakso

ADVANCES IN TYRIN™ CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE (CM) TECHNOLOGY FOR THERMOSET APPLICATIONS

Author: Ray Laakso*, Virginia Guffey, and Rajan Vara
Abstract: Chlorinated polyethylene (CM) is a heat, weather, and oil resistant elastomer which has been used in many automotive and industrial rubber parts for many years. CM can be cross linked using thiol...


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Paper# 49 Dees

ADVANTAGES OF EPDM RUBBER PRODUCTS WITH 2-VINYL-5-NORBORNENE AS THIRD MONOMER PART I: IMPROVED PEROXIDE CURING EFFICIENCY

Author: Martin Van Duin, Michiel Dees* and Herman Dikland
Abstract: The recently developed Keltan ACE™ technology enables the production of highmolecular-weight EPDM polymers with up to 3 wt% VNB as a third monomer in an economically feasible manner. A series of...


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Paper# 50 Plasczynski

Simplistic Test Method Used to Establish Fundamental Relationships between Metal Pre-treatment Morphology and their Ability to Withstand Swage

Author: Thad Plasczynski* and Dr. David Kistner
Abstract: Wikipedia defines swaging as a metal-forming technique in which the metal is plastically deformed to its final shape using high pressures, either by pressing, hammering, or by forcing through a...


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Paper# 51 Monte

TITANATE & ZIRCONATE COUPLING AGENTS IN THERMOPLASTIC & ELASTOMER COMPOUNDS - MAKING NANO TECHNOLOGY WORK

Author: Salvatore J. Monte
Abstract: Titanate or zirconate coupling agents form a less than 2-nanometer monomolecular layer on the surface of any organic/inorganic filler or fiber reinforcement directly in the polymer flux phase to...


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Paper# 52 Datta

A FUTURISTIC MATERIAL FOR IMPROVING TIRE PERFORMANCE: ADRESSING ROLLING RESISTANCE, DURABILITY AND WEAR CHARACTERISTICS

Author: Nico Huntink, Bas Pierik, Pieter de Lange, Rabin Datta*
Abstract: Nico Huntink, Bas Pierik, Pieter de Lange, Rabin Datta*, Teijin Twaron BV, Westervoortsedijk 73, 6800 TC Arnhem, The Netherlands Tel. Jr31 26 366 4396, E-mail: Rabin.Datta@Twaron.com


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Paper# 53 Halasa neo

NEODYMIUM CATALYST FOR DIENE POLYMERIZATION

Author: Adel Halasa*, Michael Gintert
Abstract: The use of a new catalyst system based on neodymium was explored in the synthesis of isoprene-butadiene rubber and polyisoprene. Resultant polymers and compound properties were compared to those...


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Paper# 54 Halasa dod

DODECYLBENZENESULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT: A UNIQUE MODIFIER IN ANIONIC POLYMERIZATION

Author: Adel Halasa*, Jim Prentis, Bill Hsu, Chad Jasiunas, Ronald Kovalak
Abstract: Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, when used in anionic living polymerization system for the co- polymerization of styrene and conjugated dienes (butadiene, isoprene), was found to moderate the cross...


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Paper# 55 Deckmann

THE NEW TACKINESS TESTER FOR THE TIRE INDUSTRY DETERMINATION OF THE ADHESION OF "GREEN TIRES'"

Author: H. Deckmann* and A. Hempel
Abstract: The assembly of uncured **Green Tiref segments made from prefabricated semi-finished products plays an important role in the production line of tires. Especially the adhesion among the compounds is...


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Paper# 57 Janajreh num

NUMERICAL MODELING OF FLUID IMPINGMENT OF A ROLLING TIRE

Author: By Isam Janajreh* and Chaouki Ghenai
Abstract: Vehicle wet traction degradation (partial or total hydroplaning) continues to pose a threat and cause significant losses for insurance companies and in some cases human fatalities. Analysis and...


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Paper# 58 Thielen

CHEMICALLY MODIFIED EMULSION SBR'S IN TIRE TREADS

Author: Georges Thielen
Abstract: A series of Emulsion SBR's (E-SBR) with polar and nonpolar third co-monomers are studied in silica filled compounds. The applied third co-monomers include polar types such as acrylonitrile (ACN),...


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Paper# 61 Tiwari

EFFECT OF PLASMA POLYMERIZATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SILICA IN NBR, EPDM AND NBR/EPDM BLENDS

Author: M. Tiwari, J. W. M. Noordermeer, Wim J. van Ooij and W. K. Dierkes
Abstract: The surface modification of precipitated silica powders by plasma-polymerization with acetylene monomer in order to improve their performance in NBR, EPDM and NBR/EPDM rubber blends, by matching...


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Paper# 62 Kimw

VISCOELASIC AND ABRASION BEHAVIORS OF CARBON BLACK/SILICA/OLS FILLED SBR NANOCOMPOSITES

Author: WONHO KIM*, IL-JIN KIM
Abstract: N,N-dim ethyldodecylamine (tertiary amine) modified MMT ODDA-MMT) was prepared as an OLS (organically modified layered silicates), after that SBR (Styrene-butadiene rubber) nanocomposites...


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Paper# 63 Mihara

INSIGHT INTO THE KINETICS OF FLOCCULATION IN SILICA REINFORCED RUBBER COMPOUNDS

Author: S. Mihara*, R. N. Datta, W. K. Dierkes and J.W.M Noordermeer
Abstract: Flocculation plays an important role in reinforcement of silica filled rubber compounds, even if coupling agents are applied. It is well known that silica tends to flocculate during the early...


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Paper# 64 Roland

EFFECT OF STRUCTURAL ARREST ON POISSON'S RATIO IN FILLER-REINFORCED ELASTOMERS

Author: C.M. Roland, R. Bogoslovov, A.R. Ellis, A.M. Randall, and C.G. Robertson
Abstract: Two materials are studied: 1,4-polybutadiene (PB) containing carbon black particles of varied size at a constant volume fraction of 0.18, and polyvinylacetate (PVAc) containing silica particles of...


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Paper# 65 Goritz

Investigations of the Mobility of Adsorbed Polymer Chains

Author: D. Göritz*, R. Hofmann, H.H. Bissem
Abstract: By means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) the behavior of thin polymer films adsorbed on a graphite surface was investigated. Via force-distance curves, which were recorded for layers of...


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Paper# 67 Nakajima

DYNAMIC NANOFISHING OF SINGLE POLYMER CHAINS

Author: Ken Nakajima* and Toshio Nishi
Abstract: Single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) realized by atomic force microscope (AFM) on a single polymer chain (static nanofishing), where a polymer chain is picked up and pulled at its chemically...


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Paper# 68 Stranick

SUPERRESOLVING LINEAR AND NONLINEAR OPTICAL MICROSCOPY FOR MATERIALS ANALYSIS

Author: Michael R. Beversluis, Chris Michaels, and Stephan J. Stranick*
Abstract: Light microscopy is a widely used analytical tool because it provides non-destructive, real-time, three-dimensional imaging with chemical and material specific contrast. Despite microscopy advances...


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Paper# 69 Cherney

Chemical Mapping of Rubbers and Polymers via Confocal Raman Spectroscopic Imaging

Author: Daniel P. Cherney
Abstract: Confocal Raman Spectroscopic Imaging has been demonstrated as a non- destructive technique to determine the spatial and chemical content of rubbers and polymers. Raman spectroscopy is a...


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Paper# 71 Winesett

THE APPLICATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION CHEMICAL IMAGING TECHNIQUES FOR BUTYL RUBBER BLENDS

Author: D. A. Winesett*, A. H. Tsou
Abstract: Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) imaging, and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) are applied to identical series of elastomeric...


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Paper# 72 Hamprecht

PROCESSING SPECTRAL IMAGES

Author: Linus Görlitz and Fred A. Hamprecht∗
Abstract: Spectral images offer more information on complex probes than either conventional imagery (yielding only one or few measurements per voxel) or conventional spectroscopy (resulting in only one or a...


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Paper# 73 Dierkes

A MECHANISTIC APPROACH TO EPDM DEVULCANIZATION

Author: K.A.J. Dijkhuis, I. Babu, J .S. Lopulissa, J Noordermeer and W.K. Dierkes*
Abstract: The extensive utilization of rubber in a wide variety of products causes a problem in terms of waste. Reclaiming of end-of-life products or production scrap is a potential solution. A high quality...


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Paper# 74 Rousch

EPDM RECYCLING

Author: Remy Rousch
Abstract: EPDM is probably one of the most familiar non-tyre rubbers. Because of itis high UV and ozone resistance the most typical applications lie in the field of the automotive and the industrial sectors...


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Paper# 75 Adur

POLYDYNE™ ULTRA GROUND TIRE RUBBER – A UNIQUE FUNCTIONAL ADDITIVE

Author: Ashok M. Adur
Abstract: Conventional ground rubber is typically in the range of 30 to 40 mesh and has a few low performance uses. PoIyDyneTM ultra ground tire rubber due to its proprietary grinding technology and its...


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Paper# 76 Cole

USE OF RECOVERED BLACK REINFORCING AGENT AS A SUPPLEMENT FOR VIRGIN CARBON BLACK

Author: William F. Cole, Jr. Peter Spargo
Abstract: The United States generates about 300M scrap tires per year, about one per capita. Most of these are used as tire derived fuel (TDF), giving them a low value close to the value of coal. While TDF...


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Paper# 79 Bras

ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES OF USING ULTRA FINE SCRAP TIRE RUBBER (UFSTR) IN VIRGIN AND RECYCLED RUBBER AND PLASTIC COMPOUNDS, A COMPREHENSIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

Author: Bert Bras* & Tina Guldberg,
Abstract: As has been shown in the art, ultra fine scrap tire rubber powders (specifically, 100 mesh and finer as defined by ASTM standards) can be included in virgin and recycled rubber and plastics...


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Paper# 80 Bergmann

IMPROVED DEMOLDING BEHAVIOUR OF EVM COMPOUNDS USING A TWO STEP PEROXIDE CROSSLINKING CONCEPT

Author: G. Bergmann*, S. Kelbch, C. Fischer, H. Magg, C. Wrana
Abstract: To improve the demolding behaviour of Peroxide crosslinked EVM compounds in injection molding processes, a new two step concept using two Peroxides has been tested and established. The concept...


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Paper# 81 Kitamura

ANALYSIS OF RUBBER FRACTION IN SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER (SPM) ON ROAD

Author: Yuji Kitamura*, Chikako Kuroiwa, Minako Harada and Nobuko Kato
Abstract: In order to evaluate the content of tire rubber dust in suspended particulate matter (SPM), a quantitative analysis for rubber fraction in particulate matter was performed by pyrolysis gas...


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Paper# 83 Warley

Location of the Minimum State of Cure in Molded Components

Author: Russell L. Warley*
Abstract: The distribution of state of cure in a molded rubber component is usually non-uniform due to slow heat transfer processes involved in the moldinglcooling cycle. The minimum in the distribution...


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Paper# 85 Galimberti

RUBBER - CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES: FROM NANOSTRUCTURES TO PROPERTIES

Author: Maurizio Galimberti, Stanislao Senatore, Angela Lostritto, Luca Giannini, Anna Spatola, Gaetano Giuliano, Gaetano Guerra, Lucia Conzatti, Giovanna Costa
Abstract: In this contribution are discussed rubber-clay nanocomposites composed of a diene rubber and layered clays. Synthetic and natural poly-1,4-cis-isoprene and styrene/butadiene copolymers are used as...


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Paper# 86 Ignatzhoover mix

Mixing Conditions, Peptizer and Antidegradant on Productivity and Performance of NR/BR Based Tread Compounds

Author: Frederick lgnatz-Hoover*, Byron To
Abstract: This work will compare mixing conditions, peptizer, conventional PPD antidegradant, and quinone diimine (QDI) antidegradant. The effects of productivity improving techniques on hysteresis, wear and...


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Paper# 87 Klockmann

Fuel Efficient Silica Tread Compounds with a New Mercaptosilane - a Practical Way to Improve its Processing

Author: Dr. Oliver Klockmann*, Dr. Anke Blume, Andre Hasse
Abstract: The strong awareness for safety issues in the automotive business increases the need for passenger car tires with excellent wet grip behavior. Furthermore regarding the current discussion of global...


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Paper# 88 Grosch

RUBBER ABRASION AND TIRE WEAR

Author: K.A. Grosch
Abstract: Rubber abrasion is essentially a mechanical tearing process and has been linked with the rate of a cut growth process as function of the tearing energy dissipated in the contact area between rubber...


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Paper# 91 Thiele

NOVEL FUNCTIONALIZED SSBR FOR SILICA CONTAINING TIRES

Author: Sven K.H. Thiele*, Dieter Bellgardt and Manfred Holzleg
Abstract: Rising oil and fuel prices and the threat of global warming increase the pressure on both automotive and tire industries to reduce a vehicleis fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Optimized tire...


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Paper# 93 Nikiel

Improved Carbon Blacks for Low Hysteresis Applications in Rubber

Author: Leszek Nikiel*, Wesley Wampler, Henry Yang, and Tom Carlson
Abstract: Tires and other rubber goods are employed in many applications that require dynamic deformations and thus the relative amount of energy that is stored or lost as heat during the deformations is...


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Paper# 95 Noel

TALC AS A DISPERSION AID FOR REINFORCING FILLERS IN RUBBER

Author: Oscar Noel*, Gilles Meli, Hemant Thakkar
Abstract: The effect of talc on the dispersion of carbon black and precipitated silica in tire-tread compounds was evaluated in order to determine if the mixing time could be reduced. The results indicate...


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Paper# 96 Wu

INFLUENCE OF STARCH ON THE PROPERTIES OF CARBON BLACK FILLED SBR COMPOSITES

Author: You-Ping Wu*, Gui-Hua Liang, She-Mao Wu, Li Liu, Li-Qun Zhang
Abstract: Starch, obtained from renewable resource, has been creatively used as a kind of filler in tyre compounds in order to lower the rolling resistance and reduce the use of carbon black made from...


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Paper# 97 Hadi

CHARACTERIZING THE EFFECT OF ULTRA FINE SCRAP TIRE RUBBER ON TIRE COMPOUND PROPERTIES

Author: Abdul M. Hadi,* Donald L. Botka
Abstract: There has been a significant amount of research on the effects of ground rubber on the cure characteristics of ground-rubber-filled-vulcanizates and the resultant effect on the physical properties....


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Paper# 98 Gauchet

Carbon black influence on the rheological behavior of HNBR rubber

Author: Severine Gauchet, Julie Morcel, Patrice Meroz, Claude Cardinet, Emmanuel Gomez,
Abstract: This work concerns the understanding of the carbon black influence on the fatigue behavior of rubber. The aim of this work is to understand how modification of molecular mobility of polymer chain...


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Paper# 99 Ade

NEXAFS MICROSCOPY, RESONANT SCATTERING AND RESONANT REFLECTIVITY: UNIQUE TOOLS FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS

Author: Harald Ade
Abstract: Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectromicroscopy, resonant scattering and resonant reflectivity are specialized soft X-ray characterization tools that complement other real- and...


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Paper# 100 Toki

CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSTRUCTURES IN NATURAL

Author: Shigeyuki Toki*, Christian Burger, Benjamin S. Hsiao, Sureerut Amnuaypomsri, Jitladda Sakdapipanich
Abstract: The superior mechanical properties of natural rubber (NR) to synthetic poly-isoprene (IR) are owed to its impurities such as proteins, phospholipids, carbon-hydrate and oxidized metals. Synchrotron...


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Paper# 102 Kishimoto

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF FILLER IN RUBBER COMPOSITE UNDER STRETCH WITH TIME-RESOLVED TWO-DIMENSIONAL ULTRA-SMALL-ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING

Author: By Hiroyuki Kishimoto*, Yuya Shinohara, Yoshiyuki Amemiya
Abstract: We investigated the hierarchical structure of silica, especially agglomerate structure, in stretched rubber by time-resolved two-dimensional ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (2D-USAXS)....


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Paper# 103 Putman

High Resolution Reflected Light Microscopy to Determine Filler Micro-Dispersion

Author: Matthew C. Putman* John B. Putman
Abstract: Optical Microscopy has long been the preferred method for rapid dispersion analysis because of its relative simplicity. Reflective Light Microscopy with automatic image processing has become a...


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Paper# 104 Akutagawa

Mesoscopic Mechanical Analysis of Filled Elastomer with 3D-Finite Element Analysis and Transmission Electron Microtomography

Author: Keizo Akutagawa, Ken Yamaguchi,Atsushi Yamamoto, Hisashi Heguri, Hiroshi Jinnai, Yuki Shinbori
Abstract: Analysis of deformation of the filled elastomer in mesoscopic scale was investigated with 3-D FEM (Finite Element Analysis). Combination of 3-D TEMT (Transmission Electron Micro Tomography) and...


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Paper# 105 Isayev

CONTINUOUS ULTRASONIC DEVULCANIZATION: COMPARISON OF CARBON BLACK FILLED SYNTHETIC ISOPRENE AND NATURAL RUBBERS

Author: Ximei Sun, A. I. Isayev
Abstract: The continuous ultrasonic devulcanization of CB filled IR was carried out. Similar to the unfilled IR, the power consumption during the devulcanization of the filled IR increased with the increase...


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Paper# 106 Orourke

Reactive Ester Plasticizer For Elastomers

Author: Stephen O’Rourke
Abstract: Ester plasticizers are traditionally used to provide low temperature and improved processing of elastomers. New esters have been designed recently to improve permanence of these materials when...


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Paper# 107 Smithd

FUNCTIONALIZATION OF USED TIRE RUBBER BY HYDROSILATION

Author: Madan Banda 1, Amit K. Naskar H, K. Prasanna U. Perera 1, Alex Kitaygorodskiy 1, Dennis W. Smith, Jr. 1* Cal Moreland 2, Tom Hodge 2, and Kevin Wallace 2, Haskell W. Beckhams
Abstract: A new method for the surface modification of Used Tire Rubber (UTR) is being developed. The method involves treatment of ground UTR particles with trichlorosilane (TCS) under various reaction...


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Paper# 108 Burrington

CARBON BLACK COUPLER TECHNOLOGY FOR LOW HYSTERESIS TIRE

Author: James D. Burrington
Abstract: Tire construction can contribute to greater vehicle fuel economy and lower carbon dioxide emissions by reducing the rolling resistance associated with the tires. This, along with improved wet...


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Paper# 109 Mullican

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS) - WHAT AND WHY!

Author: James Mullican
Abstract: With the ever increasing focus on the environment, from global warming and greenhouse gas emissions to consumption of non-renewable energy sources (oil and coal), businesses to be competitive in...


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Paper# 110 Mcafee

ULTRAFIN E SCRAP TIRE RUBBER IN NOVEL THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS AND THERMOSET RUBBER COMPOUNDS

Author: Carl D. McAfee* and Mike Grubb
Abstract: Novel thermoplastic elastomers and thermoset compounds can be produced and manufactured on a large scale from Ultra Fine Scrap Tire Rubber (UFSTR). The key to these novel materials is the extremely...


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Paper# 111 Terrill

Quantifying Compound Aging Resistance at Service (Ambient) Temperatures

Author: Edward R Terrill*, and James T Lewis
Abstract: Oxygen consumption rate was measured on natural rubber compounds with varying levels of a standard antioxidant package. The oxygen consumption rate measurements were performed at temperatures...


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Paper# 112 Pazur

HNBR: Fulfilling the Requirements of Demanding Automotive and Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications

Author: Richard.J. Pazur and *Victor Nasreddine
Abstract: THERBAN® hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is an excellent automotive engine sealing material due to its outstanding combination of heat, oil and abrasion resistance coupled with its inherent high...


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Paper# 114 Ignatzhoover qfl

Q-Flex QDI, Quinone Diimine Antidegradant - Evidence of Competitive Chemistries During Mixing—Part II - Protecting Polymers During Mixing - Continued Developments in Diene / NR Blend Compounds

Author: Frederick lgnatz-Hoover*, Byron To, Richard Jorkasky
Abstract: Earlier work indicated Quinone diimine antidegradant reacts faster than conventional antidegradants to stabilize broken chains and minimize the oxidative chain degradation that occurs during mixing...


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Paper# 115 Joseph

CONTROLLED RELEASE OF ANTIOXIDANTS FOR IMPROVED LONG TERM AGEING RESISTANCE

Author: RANI JOSEPH * AND P.M SABURA BEGUM
Abstract: Mesoporous silica with high surface area and organized pore structure with pore sizes between 1.5-l0nm was prepared. The material was characterized by XRD and IR spectroscopy. The effectiveness of...


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Paper# 116 Jablonowski

Stabilization of Millable Polyurethane Rubber

Author: Thomas Jablonowski* & James Ahnemiller
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide stabilization information on both polyester and polyether millable polyurethane rubbers. Stabilization of polyester polyurethane with carbodiimide additives...


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Paper# 117 Nasreddine

Low Mooney Viscosity HNBR Polymers with High Acrylonitrile Content

Author: Victor Nasreddineh, John Dato, Dr. Martin Mezger, Dirk Schaeter, Dr. Juergen Wassen
Abstract: The paper will discuss the unique properties of THERBAN® AT, a portfolio of low Mooney viscosity HNBR grades. These grades have unprecedented low Mooney viscosity (ML 1+4@100°C approximately 39)...


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Paper# 118 Quirk

ANIONIC SYNTHESIS OF TRIALKOXYSILYL-FUNCTIONALIZED POLYMERS

Author: Roderic P. Quirk,* Manuela Ocampo,T Rebecca L. King, Michael J. Polce and Chrys Wesdemiotis
Abstract: A new general functionalization methodology (GFM) is applied to the synthesis of trimethoxysilyl-functionalized polymers. This GFM involves (a) the preparation of a well-defined polymeric...


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Paper# 119 Ozawa

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN TIRE ELASTOMERS FOR REDUCED ROLLING RESISTANCE

Author: Yoichi Ozawa
Abstract: Reduction of tire rolling resistance has been a major technological challenge. As one of potential solutions for this challenge, material technologies to reduce hysteresis loss of the filled...


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Paper# 120 Karmarkar

DEVELOPMENT OF WINTER TIRES: TREAD MATERIAL TEST INNOVATIONS.

Author: Uday Karmarkar*, Dr. Edward Terrill*
Abstract: We present the development of winter tire tread formulations using a variety of material testing techniques. Winter Tire treads compounds have to perform adequately under conditions of ice and...


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Paper# 121 Niedermeier

Wet Traction Behavior and Prediction of Silica and Carbon Black filled Compounds

Author: Volker Hermann and Werner Niedermeier*
Abstract: The prediction of wet traction behavior of tire tread compounds is still a subject of intensive investigations and scientific discussions. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms occurring at...


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Paper# 122 Chapmana

PREFERENTIAL LOCATION OF SILICA FILLER IN ENRIBR AND ENRINR BLENDS FOR TIRE TREAD APPLICATIONS

Author: By Stuart Cook, Andrew. V. Chapman*, Andrew J. Tinker and L. Oleksik
Abstract: Strong interaction between silica and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR), without recourse to coupling agents, has long been proposed to be the key factor responsible for the improved rolling...


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Paper# 123 Onbilger

ARAMID YARN AS A TENSILE MEMBER IN RUBBER PRODUCTS

Author: Derya Gulsen Onbilger* and Florencio Gopez
Abstract: The key properties of DuPont KEVLARCIE) product technology and product offerings are discussed. Alternative ways of making cords are discussed, e.g., Core Insertion Technology and Hybrid Cord...


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Paper# 124 Nortey

Improved Mixing Performance Using Optimized Stretch-Intermeshing Mixers

Author: Nak Nortey*
Abstract: Batch mixing has come a long way from the two-roll mills to the current complete automatically operated internal mixers. There are three original internal mixer technologies in production today....


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Paper# 125 Moribe

ADVANCED MIXING TECHNOLOGIES OF INTERMESHING MIXER FOR SILICA FILLED COMPOUNDS

Author: Takashi Moribe*
Abstract: Intemal mixers have been dominant as rubber mixing devices for more than a century. In the recent decade, new materials and compounds have been developed such as silicalsilane reinforced tire tread...


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Paper# 126 Bava

TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED DISPERSION OF POLY(N-ISOPROPYL ACRYLAMIDE) TREATED SILICA CLUSTERS

Author: Luciana Bava, Donald L. Feke, Ica Manas-Zloczower and Stuart J. Rowan
Abstract: The dispersion of particle agglomerates is affected by the presence of any chemical additives incorporated within the agglomerate structure. Traditional additives change the particle-particle and...


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Paper# 127 Edirisinghe

EFFECT OF INTERNAL MIXER ROTOR SPEED AND INITIAL MIXING TEMPERATURE OF NBR ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF NR / NBR / CARBON BLACK COMPOSITES

Author: D.G. Edirisinghe, J. Clarke, P.K. Freakley
Abstract: Single-stage blending of natural rubber (NR) and high acrylonitrile - butadiene rubber (NBR) was carried out in an inteimeshing rotor internal mixer according to a two-level, two-variable factorial...


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Paper# 128 Palys

TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVING ELASTOMER PROCESSING AND CROSSLINKING PERFORMANCE

Author: Leonard H. PaIys*, Fabien Debaud, Laurent Keromnes and Joseph Brennan
Abstract: There are a myriad of elastorners employed by the rubber industry, each with its own concerns regarding processing and crosslinking performance. When compounding low Durometer and low Mooney...


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Paper# 132 Lin

Reduction of Volatile Organic Compound Emission: Use of Alkoxy-modified Silsesquioxane for Compounding Silica-filled Rubbers

Author: Chenchy J. Lin*, William L. Hergenrother, T.E. Hogan, and Ashley S. Hilton
Abstract: A class of alkoxy-modified silsesquioxane (AMS) containing less than 5 weight % of latent alcohol that can be used for compounding silica-filled rubbers is described. The AMS derived from...


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Paper# 133 Isono

FILLER NETWORK CHANGE AND NONLINEAR VISCOELASTICITY OF CARBON BLACK FILLED, UNCURED RUBBERS

Author: Yoshinobu lsono*, Yoshitomo Satoh, Youji Satoh, and Shuji Fujii
Abstract: Correspondence between nonlinear viscoelastic properties and change in various networks in carbon black (CB) filled, uncured SBRs have been studied by using combined measurements of relaxation...


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Paper# 134 Dick

NEW METHOD FOR MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF POST-CURE OR AEROBIC HEAT AGING ON COMPOUND DYNAMIC PROPERTIES

Author: John 8. Dick*, Henry A. Pawlowski, Jack Kuykendall
Abstract: With Rubber Process Analyzer (RPA) technology, one can easily measure after-cure dynamic properties quickly by dropping the die temperature to a lower level and performing a rapid strain sweep....


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Paper# 135 Takao

The new crosslinking system of FKM with excellent heat resistance

Author: Keiko Takao,* Meiten Koh, Hirokazu Aoyama
Abstract: Copolymers of vinylidene fluoride (VDF) and hexafluoropropylene (HFP) and terpolymers of VDF, HFP and tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) or VDF, TFE and perfluoromethyl vinyl ether (PMVE) are widely used...


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Paper# 136 Mathewl

AGEING AND DEGRADATION BEHAVIOUR OF SHORT ISORA FIBRE REINFORCED NATURAL RUBBER COMPOSITES

Author: LOVELY MATHEW AND RANI JOSEPHZ
Abstract: The use of polymeric materials under the influence of degrading agents such as ozonised air, gamma radiations, and heat has increased rapidly in recent years. Hence it is important to study the...


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Paper# 137 Noordermeer

IMPROVED AGING PERFORMANCE OF VIRGIN EPDM ROOF-SHEETING COMPOUNDS WITH AMINE-DEVULCANIZED EPDM WEATHERSTRIP MATERIAL

Author: K.A.J. Dijkhuis, P. Sutanto, W.K. Dierkes and J.W.M. Noordermeer*
Abstract: Sulfur-cured EPDM building-profile material was reclaimed in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder using hexadecylamine as reclaiming aid. This reclaim was blended with increasing amounts of a virgin...


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Paper# 138 Bhowmick

HEAT AGING BEHAVIOR OF A NOVEL POLY (PHENYLENE-ETHER) BASED THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMER

Author: SAMIK GUPTA, RADHA KAMALAKARAN, AVDHUT MALDIKAR, ASHOK MENON, ANIL K. BHOWMICK
Abstract: The heat aging performance of a series of novel poly (phenylene ether) (PPE) based thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) from styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS)/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and...


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Paper# 139 Henning

Using Zinc Monomethacrylate to Activate Accelerated Sulfur Vulcanization and Reduce Zinc Loading

Author: Steven K. Henning
Abstract: Zinc monomethacrylate (ZMMA) can be used in place of traditional zinc oxidelstearic acid activating systems in the sulfur vulcanization of diene elastomers. ZMMA effects more efficient activation,...


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Paper# 140 Sugano

DECHLORINATION AND STABILIZATION OF RADICALS OF BOTH CHLORINATED RUBBER AND VULCANIZED RUBBER BY CO-LIQUEFACTION

Author: Motoyuki Sugano*, Masafumi Tsubosaka, Seiko Shimizu, Masaharu Fujita**, Tsutomu Fukumoto**, Katsumi Hirano, Kiyoshi Mashimo
Abstract: The chloroprene rubber (CR) is widely used as the multi-functional materials, such as suspension, engine mount and tubes in automobile. During the thermal recovery process of waste rubber, the...


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Paper# 141 Metwally

DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTATIONALLY FAST VISCOELASTIC MODEL AND VALIDATION FOR RUBBER GARVEY PROFILE EXTRUSION

Author: Jerome Mallet, Hossarn Metwally*, Antoine Dozolrne and Benoit Debbaut
Abstract: Extrusion is an important conversion process for obtaining semi-finished or finished profiles in the rubber and polymer industry. However, the flow properties of materials involved and the flow...


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Paper# 142 Lu

FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE SEALS

Author: Mike E Anderson, David A Nash
Abstract: Finite element modeling has been used extensively in designing automotive engines and subsystems for evaluating their structural and noiselvibrationlharshness (NVH) performance. However, the...


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Paper# 147 Perera

MECHANICAL PROPERTY EVALUATION OF ROOM TEMPERATURE PRE-VULCANIZED NATURAL RUBBER LATEX CAST FILMS OF DIFFERENT ACCELERATOR COMBINATIONS

Author: G.M. Priyanthi Perera, D.G. Edirisinghe, H. Chintaka
Abstract: Natural rubber (NR) latex compounds were prepared using three different combinations of three common accelerators. These latex compounds were allowed to vulcanize at room temperature, while...


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Paper# 148 Glasser

POST-MIXER, BATCH PROCESSING OPTIONS

Author: Pete Glasser
Abstract: The increasingly competitive environment in which many rubber goods manufacturers operate is placing more demand on improving productivity and efficiency. Flubber Machinery manufacturers have...


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Paper# 149 Mcbride

Computer Model of Extrusion Process for AEM Elastomers

Author: E. McBride*, B.A. Morris, C.S. Grant
Abstract: The key piece of process equipment for producing hoses made from AEM compounds is an extruder. The performance of the extruder is influenced by many factors including the type of screw, the...


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Paper# 150 Mcnabb

ES 30 QUALITY EXTRUDER for TESTING & COMPARING COMPOUND SURFACE ROUGHNESS & GENERATING EXTRUSION RHEOMETER DATA for ELASTOMERIC COMPOUNDS

Author: Robert W. McNabb
Abstract: At the end of the production process, quality control tests frequently show significantly higher scrap rates than the average of 1% recorded in the mixing room. Current mixing room test methods are...


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Paper# 152 Manas

MOLDING CAVITY FILLING PROCESS

Author: Miroslav Manas*, Michal Stanek, David Manas and Tomas Drga
Abstract: Injection molding is one of the most extended plastic processing technologies. Delivery of polymer melts into the mold cavity is the most important stage of the injection molding process. In the...


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Paper# 153 Clayfield

FINDING THE SWEET SPOT: HIGHLY FILLED COMPOUNDS FOR BUILDING PROFILES AND PIPE SEALS

Author: Tim E. Clayfield*, Solomon H.K. Tang, and Cyrille Billouard
Abstract: Building profiles are governed by national norms so that opportunities for differentiation of the performance of the compounds are limited therefore the key to profitability for profile producers...


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Paper# 155 Tang

Use of Very High Molecular Weight Gas Phase EPDM in Load Bearing Dynamic Applications

Author: Solomon H. K. Tang* and Rajan G. Vara
Abstract: EPDM compounds provide excellent heat aging and good dynamic performance over a wide range of temperatures. EPDM is finding increasing attention in automotive dynamic applications due to its heat...


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Paper# 156 Robertson

EFFECTS OF PARTICLE SIZE AND POLYMER-FILLER COUPLING ON VISCOELASTIC GLASS TRANSITION OF PARTICLE-REINFORCED POLYMERS

Author: C. G. Robertson*, C. J. Lin, M. Rackaitis, and C. M. Roland
Abstract: The viscoelastic glass-to-rubber softening transition is analyzed for various crosslinked polymers reinforced with filler particles. We find that the loss modulus peak corresponding to the...


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Paper# 157 Harber

A STUDY IN THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF A NEW POLYPROPYLENE OXIDE POLYMER HAVING AN ULTRA-LOW TG, EXCELLENT RESISTANCE TO FLEX FATIGUE, AND BROAD RANGE OF NVH CAPABILITY

Author: Samuel C. Harber
Abstract: Zeon Chemicals L.P. has recently developed a new polymer designated Hydrin@ T6000. Polymerized mainly using propylene oxide, it has commensurate NVH properties such as excellent dynamic response...


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Paper# 158 Hudec

SURFACE MODIFICATION OF TEXTILE REINFORCING MATERIALS BY PLASMA

Author: Ivan Hudec∗ , Ihssan Amir , Michal Jasso, Henrich Krump and Mirko Černák
Abstract: In this paper the results of different type of surface modification - plasma polymerization and plasma treatment of polyester reinforcing materials are presented. Plasma was generated by diffusion...


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Paper# 159 Fukuoka

Introduction to New Peroxide Curable FKM With Excellent Seal Property

Author: Shoji Fukuoka*, Mitsuru Kishine, Mitsuhiro Ohtani
Abstract: Fluorocarbon elastomers, (FKM) are known for excellent retention of physical properties at elevated temperature, and for fuel and chemical resistance due to the electronegativity of the fluorine...


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Paper# 160 Rodgers

Alkylphenol Disulfide Polymer Accelerators and the Vulcanization of lsobutylene Based Elastomers

Author: Brendan Rodgers*, Nitin Tambe, Scott Solis, and Bharat B. Sharma
Abstract: vulcanization of isobutylenefisoprene copolymer (butyl rubber) using sulfur and organic accelerators is facilitated by the presence of the carbon-carbon double bond in the copolymer isoprenyl unit....


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Paper# 161 Kuta

VERY FAST SULFUR-CURING SYSTEMS FOR SBR

Author: Antonin Kuta*, Zdenek Hrdlicka and Vratislav Duchacek
Abstract: Sulfur curing systems with zinc isopropyl xanthate (ZIX) and zinc diethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDEC) have been used for dry natural rubber (NR) and three synthetic rubbers: butadiene rubber (BR),...


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Paper# 163 Backer

SULFIDO SILANES IN TIRES: FURTHER DOWN THE ROAD TO LOW VOC

Author: Michael W. Backer, Manfred Gloeggler
Abstract: Organofunctional Silanes are essential coupling agents between a variety of fillers and various elastomeric matrices in numerous industrial applications. Sulfur containing silanes, e.g. tetra- and...


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Paper# 104A Komori

Structure in Liquid Polyisoprene Vulcanizates Studied by Solution NMR Spectroscopy

Author: Yoshihiko KOMORI*, Fiyuichi TOKIMUNE, Makiko SUGIURA
Abstract: The structures in polyisoprene vulcanizate are so complicated that there are many controversial points. We have investigated the cross-linked points in liquid polyisoprene vulcanizate by solution...


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Paper# 51 A Nagaraj

A Unique One Component Urethane System for the Elastomer Market

Author: Phani Nagaraj *, Mark Ferrandino and Ronald Emanuel Jr
Abstract: A unique, one component urethane system offers a unique combination of processing advantages versus two component urethanes. The new system is based on a low free TDI prepolymer and a blocked...


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