Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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170th Technical Meeting

Date: October 10, 2006
Location: Cincinnati, OH

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $900.00

198th Technical Meeting - Fall 2020

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

193rd Technical Meeting - 2018 Spring

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Paper# 3 3

ASTM F9.30 Aged Tire Durability Task Group: Effects of Dynamic Laboratory Aging

Author: June Satterfield*
Abstract: In the work leading to the TREAD Act, Congress explicitly stated that there was a need for some type of aging test on light vehicle tires. Since no industry-wide recommended practice existed, the...


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Paper# 4 4

ASTM F9.30 Aged Tire Durability Task Group: Effects of Static Laboratory Aging

Author: Walter H. Waddell
Abstract: In the work leading to the TREAD Act, Congress explicitly stated that there was a need for some type of aging test on light vehicle tires. Since no industry-wide recommended practice existed, the...


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Paper# 5 5

Study on Crosslink Network in Tire Belt-Coat Compounds

Author: Edward R Terrill*, Uday Karmarkar, and Blake E Matthies
Abstract: Aerobic aging of tire belt-coat compounds led to increased crosslink densities. Their crosslink distribution changes were tracked using wet chemistry (thiol cleavage agents). By this technique the...


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Paper# 6 6

NANOSTRUCTURE IN TRADITIONAL COMPOSITES OF NATURAL RUBBER AND REINFORCING FILLERS

Author: Atsushi KATO*
Abstract: Usual rubber products are a composite from rubber and nano-filler (e.g. carbon black, silica, etc.), and it is believed that the good dispersion of the nano-filler is the most important issue...


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Paper# 7 7

TRUE RECYCLING OF RUBBER - MYTH OR REALITY?

Author: David Brown*
Abstract: Every year, the Rubber industry scraps more than 10% of its compounds - just because they have been crosslinked. Although not normally accounted for, this material could represent additional...


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Paper# 8 8

Control of vulcanizing/devulcanizing behavior of diphenyl disulfide using microwaves as heating source

Author: Berta Vega, Laura Montero, Estanis Lincoln, Nuria Agullo*, Salvador Borros
Abstract: Diphenyl disulfide is a common agent used in devulcanization of sulfur-vulcanized goods1'5. Its activity has been tested both in real rubber samples and in model molecules, but, in the best of our...


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Paper# 9 9

RECYCLING OF CURED FLUOROELASTOMER FOR COST CONTROL AND IMPROVED PERFORMANCE

Author: *Dennis Lancaster
Abstract: Fluoroelastomer (FKM) rubber is known for its superior chemical and heat resistance. These characteristics make it an excellent choice for many critical applications in the demanding transportation...


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Paper# 10 10

Reclaim Rubber - An Alternate choice in Natural crisis

Author: Harsh Gandhi & Aasheesh Barvey
Abstract: World over the disposal of end of life tyres and other waste rubber products has been and continues to remain a topic of contention among the developed and developing countries. Unfortunately, only...


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Paper# 11 11

NOVEL ELASTMERIC MATERALS BASED ON POLYCATENANE POLYMER OBTAINED FROM SPOTANEOUS POLYMERIZATION OF CYCLIC DISULFIDES

Author: Kiyoshi Endo*
Abstract: Synthesis and characterization of polymers obtained from cyclic disulfides of l,4-dihydro-2,3- benzodithine (XDS) were investigated in detail. The polymerization of XDS proceeded at reaction...


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Paper# 12 12

Oil Swell and Low Temperature Properties of Ethylene Acrylic Elastomers and Impact on Seal Performance

Author: Douglas King* and Yun-Tai Wu
Abstract: Ethylene Acrylic Elastomers (AEM) can vary in oil swell and low temperature properties based on the level of acrylate monomer content. Use of plasticizers can improve low temperature performance...


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Paper# 13 13

LITHIATED THIOACETALS AS INITIATORS FOR LIVING ANIONIC POLYMERIZATION OF DIENE ELASTOMERS. POLYMERIZATION AND COMPOUNDING.

Author: Terrence E. Hogan,* Yuan-Yong Yan, William L. Hergenrother, David F. Lawson
Abstract: Polybutadiene and poly(butadiene-co-styrene) elastomers were prepared in high conversions using 2-lithio-2-methyl-1,3-dithiane as the initiator. Polymers were readily prepared with a polydispersity...


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Paper# 14 14

EFFECT OF ARCHITECTURE ON THE PROPERTIES OF POLYISOBUTYLENE-BASED TPE MATERIALS

Author: JUDIT E. PUSKAS*, LUCAS M. DOS SANTOS, MUSTAFA SEN
Abstract: This paper will discuss the design and synthesis of polyisobutylene-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) for biomedical and other specialty applications. The first generation from this class of...


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Paper# 16 16

EFFECTS OF NANOCLAY STRUCTURE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EPDM

Author: P. Yoon*, Marcus Gos, Carl McAfee
Abstract: The chemical structure and amount of organic surfactant are important parameters for the dispersion of organically modified nanoclay in rubber compounds. In this study, organoclays based on...


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Paper# 17 17

ROLE OF MATERIALS RESEARCH IN LABORATORY TIRE AGING AND DURABILITY TEST DEVELOPMENT.

Author: Uday Karrnarkar*, Abraham Pannikottu
Abstract: We present the recent evolution of tire material property testing in the last 4 years and it applicability to tire aging test development. Traditional rubber compounds have been studied extensively...


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Paper# 19 19

ASTM F9.30 Light Vehicle Equivalent Severity Roadwheel Task Group

Author: Tim Robinson*
Abstract: Roadwheel dynamometers are commonly used in the tire industry to facilitate testing of the final product to determine various performance attributes. However, the curved surface, 1.7 meter...


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Paper# 20 20

Radial Medium Truck Tire Operating Temperatures - Curved vs. Flat Surfaces

Author: Terrence Ruip
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an extensive Design of Experiment (DOE) conducted on Radial Medium Truck tires by the ASTM Committee F0930 task group on Truck]Bus Tire Test...


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Paper# 21 21

IMPACT OF INFLATION PRESSURE RETENTION ON TIRE AGING AND DURABILITY

Author: Walter H. Waddell*, R. Christopher Napier, Dirk F. Rouckhout
Abstract: Halobutyl rubber is the polymer of choice in the tire innerliner compound since it imparts excellent air and moisture impermeability, and flex-fatigue resistance. The inflation pressure of the tire...


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Paper# 22 22

CORRELATION OF LABORATORY TIRE ENDURANCE AND RUBBER

Author: David R. Bauer*, John M. Baldwin, Kevin R. Ellwood
Abstract: Tire endurance as measured by performance on the NHTSA Stepped Up Load (SUL) test is shown to be a function of both tire construction and the extent of oxidation in the skim and wedge rubber...


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Paper# 24 24

Improved Devulcanization of EPDM-Rubber

Author: K.A.J. Dijkhuis* I. Babu, J.S. Lopulissa, W.K. Dierkes, J.W.M. Noordermeer
Abstract: The extensive utilization of rubber in a wide variety of products, especially in automotive applications, causes a problem in terms of rubber waste. Recycling of end-of-life products or production...


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Paper# 25 25

THE EFFECTS OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS ON REVERSION OF RUBBER USING A SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER

Author: Donghee Kang*, Yoon Choi, Richard Farris, Joey Mead
Abstract: In this work, a general purpose single screw extrusion process as a continuous rubber recycling technology was investigated for the reversion of natural rubber crumb. Natural rubber crumb can be...


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Paper# 26 26

COMPOUNDING WITH RECYCLED RUBBER

Author: Marvin Myhre*, Michael Hefternan
Abstract: Efforts to use recycled materials have over the past 15 years spiked in interest then waned a number of times. The major drawbacks to their use are the loss of physical properties when used in...


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Paper# 26 26a

Resonant Soft X-ray Scattering and Reflectometry as a Probe of the Domain Structure and Composition of Nanoscale Phase Separated Elastomer Thin Films

Author: Cynthia F. Welch, Rex P. Hjelm*, Joseph T. Mang, Marilyn E. Hawley, Debra A. Wrobleski and E. Bruce Orler
Abstract: Determining the morphological structure and domain compositions of nanophase-separated elastomer thin films is essential to understanding their mechanical characteristics, how these are affected by...


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Paper# 27 27

Improving Aramid Fiber Dispersion in Elastomeric Compounds Using the Next Generation of Polymer Bound Predispersion

Author: S. Monthey
Abstract: In the past several years, aramid pulp and short fibers have been used to reinforce power transmission belts. Now, other industrial and even tire applications are investigating the value of using...


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Paper# 29 29

High-Performance HT-ACM Elastomers for Automotive Molded and Extruded Applications

Author: Andy Anderson, Paul Manley*, John Moore, Peter Abraham, Ivan Burczak, Jeff Dickerhoof, Yoshiaki Aimura
Abstract: ACM (polyacrylic) elastomers have undergone continuous development to enhance long- terrn performance, resulting in an important position in the manufacture of heat and oil resistant gaskets and...


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Paper# 30 30

Partially Exfoliated Nanoclay/NBR Composites

Author: Roger Faulkner*, James F. Reilly, Carl McAfee
Abstract: This paper compares the properties of compounds based on four compositionally identical NBR masterbatches, which have been mixed differently. All the masterbatches comprise 70% by weight NBR...


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Paper# 31 31

THERMOPLASTIC VULCANIZATES BY REACTION-INDUCED PHASE SEPARATION OF A MISCIBLE POLY(8-CAPROLACTONE)lEPOXY SYSTEM

Author: R. M. A. l’Abee, J. G. P. Goossens, M. van Duin
Abstract: A new method for the preparation of thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) wassuccessfully applied. Starting with a miscible system of a semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer and an elastomer...


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Paper# 32 32

RUBBER AT HIGH RATES OF STRAIN

Author: C.M. Roland* and R. Bogoslovov
Abstract: Rubber coatings can be used to mitigate the effects of mechanical impact on the underlying substrate, although the operative mechanism Varies with impact conditions. One factor that can contribute...


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Paper# 33 33

Effects of Processing & Test Parameters on Compression Set

Author: R. J. Del Vecchio* and Ernest Ferro, Jr.
Abstract: ASTM D395 describes the specimens to be used in compression set testing of rubber compounds, and the general method of testing. But both the conditions under which compression set specimens are...


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Paper# 34 34

NETWORK STRUCTURES AND STRAIN-INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION IN NATURAL RUBBER AND SYNTHETIC POLYISOPRENE BY IN-SITU SYNCHROTRON X-RAY STUDY

Author: Shigeyuki Toki*, Igors Sics, Benjamin S. Hsiao
Abstract: Strain-induced crystallization and molecular orientation in un-vulcanized natural rubber (NR), un-vulcanized synthetic poly-isoprene (IR), vulcanized NR and vulcanized IR during deformation have...


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Paper# 35 35

AGING WITH APPLIED STRAIN OF A BLACK-FILLED NATURAL RUBBER VULCANIZATE: PART I. NETWORK CHANGES

Author: Crittenden J. Ohlemacher* Gary R. Hamed
Abstract: Black-filled natural rubber, with an inefficient sulfur cure, was aged at 900C and ll0OC under nitrogen, with and without applied strain. Samples aged under strain became ffdouble networksla and...


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Paper# 36 36

THE EFFECT OF A DWELL PERIOD ON FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RATES IN FILLED SBR AND NR

Author: R. Harbour*, A. Fatemi, W. V. Mars
Abstract: Loading conditions for rubber components are often more complex than the constant amplitude signals used in material characterization. During a series of uniaxial fatigue crack growth experiments...


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Paper# 37 37

ASSIGNMENT OF SIGNALS IN ALIPHATIC REGION OF 1H-NMR SPECTRUM

Author: Takayuki Saito*, Warunee Klinklai and Seiichi Kawahara
Abstract: Assignment of signals in aliphatic region of 1H-NMR spectrum for epoxidized natural rubber was carried out through NMR spectroscopy. The epoxidized natural rubber was prepared by epoxidation of...


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Paper# 39 39

DESIGNED EXPERIMENT USE IN FLUOROELASTOMER CUSTOM COMPOUNDING

Author: Gary D. DiAbate*
Abstract: The design of experiments is a well-known technique to determine effects of compounding variables on compound physical properties. However, designed experiments, especially designed experiments...


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Paper# 40 40

TYRE TECHNOLOGY--RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE TRENDS

Author: Arup K. Chandra
Abstract: Born at 1888 in the hand of J. B. Dunlop, tyre technology has undergone a series of changes over the decades and graduated to a high technological product. Basic function of a tyre which include...


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Paper# 41 41

DVA INNERLINERS

Author: Donald S. Tracey*, Andy H. Tsou
Abstract: A dynamic vulcanized alloy (DVA) of nylon with brominated poly(isobutylene -co- p-methylstyrene), BIMSM, rubber, has excellent impermeability and superior flexibility and toughness for use as a...


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Paper# 44 44

The Effects of Mixing and Polymer-Filler Interactions on the Filler Micro Dispersion and Viscoelastic Properties of Silica Filled Rubbers

Author: Alberto Scurati, William L. Hergenrother, and Chenchy J. Lin*
Abstract: The effect of mixing and polymer-filler (P-F) interactions on the state of filler micro-dispersion as an index (d(x)) and viscoelastic properties of silica-filled rubbers were studied. The rubbers...


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Paper# 45 45

STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF ULTRASONICALLY TREATED ISOPRENE RUBBER

Author: Avraam I. lsayev * Ximei Sun
Abstract: High power ultrasonic treatment is applied to virgin isoprene rubber (IR) gum and the process characteristics, the structure and properties of untreated and treated rubber gums are investigated....


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Paper# 47 47

Automated Bulk Handling and Feeding of Gas-Phase Granular NORDEL™ MG Hydrocarbon Rubber (EPDM)

Author: A. U. Paeglis*, S. H. Tang, L. K. Cantu, R. C. Abel, Jr
Abstract: The Dow Chemical Co. has achieved significant developments in combining the strengths of proprietary INSITE™ metallocene catalyst with a gas-phase manufacturing process to produce a unique and...


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Paper# 49 49

OneSlab™: IMPROVING QUALITY AND EFFICIENCY THROUGH CURATIVE DISPERSION TECHNOLOGY

Author: Timothy John Higgins
Abstract: As for many years in the rubber industry the most significant developments have occurred relating to quality and efficiency. Processing is approached with efforts to minimize variation and achieve...


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Paper# 50 50

Luperox SP2 Technology: The Ultimate Scorch Protection for Peroxide Crosslinking

Author: Fabien DEBAUD, Laurent KEROMNES, Alfredo DEFRANCISCI, Joseph M. BRENNAN, and Leonard H. PALYS
Abstract: Scorch protection over a wide temperature range is critical to improving compounding, crosslinking and productivity when curing elastomers with organic peroxides. Previously1' 2, Arkema S.A....


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Paper# 51 51

ADVANCURE, A NEW CURATIVE FOR VAMAC®

Author: Bonnie L. Stuck*, Kim Boyd, Patricia Czomba, Becky Freeman, Edward McBride, Alice Uminska, Kevin Dominic
Abstract: DuPont Vamac® ethylene acrylic elastomers are designed to withstand high and low temperatures and aggressive new automotive fluids in under hood automotive applications such as seals, gaskets,...


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Paper# 52 52

Therban® AT: The Low Viscosity HNBR Product Line by LANXESS

Author: Dr. Victor Nasreddine*
Abstract: LANXESS has recently developed a novel technology that makes a true low Mooney viscosity [39 Mooney viscosity (ML 1+4@100°C)] HNBR (Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber). The new product line is...


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Paper# 54 54

CONTROL OF BOTH 1,4-CIS SELECTIVITY AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF POLYMER IN POLYMERIZATION OF 1,3-BUTADIENE WITH METALLOSALENE COMPLEXES

Author: Kiyoshi Endo*, Takayuki Kitagawa, Kenji Nakatani
Abstract: Polymerization of 1,3-butadiene (Bd) with metallosalenes [metal=Co, Ni, Fe, V, Ti', salen: N,NT-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine] in combination with methylaluminoxane (MAO) was investigated. The...


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Paper# 55 55

METAL OXIDE ACTIVATION SYSTEMS FOR IMPROVED AGING IN EPICHLOROHYDRIN TERPOLYMER COMPOUNDS

Author: Samuel C. Harber
Abstract: The use of zinc oxide as an activator in Hydrin@ lECO terpolymer compounds is known to cause poor hot air oven aging results. Given this, zinc oxide has not been recommended for compounds where the...


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Paper# 56 56

THERMOREVERSIBLE CROSS-LINKING OF MALEATED ETHYLENE7PROPYLENE RUBBER USING IONIC INTERACTIONS, HYDROGEN BONDING AND A COMBINATION THEREOF

Author: M. A. J. van der Mee*, J. G. P. Goossens and M. van Duin
Abstract: Maleated ethylene/propylene copolymer (MAn-g-EPM) was thermoreversibly cross-linked using different routes, i.e., ionic interactions (ionomers), hydrogen bonding and a combination thereof....


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Paper# 57 57

Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber for Use in Oilfield Applications

Author: John E. Dato*
Abstract: HNBR is a heat- and oil-resistant elastomer produced by the selective hydrogenation of acrylonitrile butadiene copolymer. In addition to its good heat, oil, fuel and chemical resistance, HNBR...


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Paper# 58 58

MISCIBILITY OF LIQUID DEPROTEINIZED NATURAL RUBBER HAVING EPOXY GROUP (LEDPNR) I POLY (L-LACTIDE) BLEND

Author: Phan Trung Nghia*, Seiichi Kawahara, Niti Siripitakcha
Abstract: Reactive mixing of epoxidized natural rubber f poly(L-lactide) blend was performed to enhance the compatibility of the blend. The epoxidized nat- ural rubber was prepared by epoxidation of...


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Paper# 59 59

Optimization of Manufacturing Processes for Elastomer Components Using Dynamic Characterization

Author: Dhawal Dharaiya, Edward R. Terrill, Blake E. Matthies*, and James T. Lewis
Abstract: A new technique has been developed using a Metravib VAZOOO ViscoanalyzerTM to evaluate the quality and consistency of manufactured rubber goods. This is done by monitoring the moduli and damping...


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Paper# 60 60

State-of-Cure of Elastomer Components Using a Unique Dynamic Cycling Test

Author: Blake E. Matthies*, C. Robert Samples, Edwin Goyzueta, and Abraham Pannikottu
Abstract: A new technique and instrument have been developed to evaluate the quality and consistency of manufactured rubber goods. Called the ifState of Cureii instrument, the material properties of up to...


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Paper# 61 61

STATE OF CURE FINGERPRINTING USING PULSED PROTON NMR FOR AUTOMOTIVE ELASTOMERS.

Author: Uday Karrnarkar*
Abstract: We present the development of Pulsed proton Nuclear magnetic resonance technique for determining the state of cure of polymeric materials. Traditionally crosslink density by swelling technique has...


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Paper# 62 62

Material and Rheological Characterization for Rapid Prototyping of Elastomer Components

Author: Kartik Srinivas* and Dhawal Dharaiya
Abstract: Finite element analysis (FEA) and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are the major computer aided Engineering (CAE) applications used for virtual product development. The quality of the CAE carried...


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Paper# 63 63

ON EFFECTIVE MODELING OF LAMINATED CORD-RUBBER COMPOSITES

Author: Mark R. Gurvich
Abstract: The major challenge in modeling of laminated cord-rubber composites (CRC) is to achieve desired predictive accuracy as well as maintain computational efficiency of corresponding numerical...


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Paper# 65 65

SILANES COUPLING AGENTS FOR TIRES: A DIFFERENT APPROACH

Author: Dr. L. SteIandre* Dr. M.W. Backer
Abstract: Since the introduction of ffGreen Tire Technologyll in the early 90ls, R&D in this field has focused on delivering higher performing raw materials (silica, polymers...) and on gathering internal...


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Paper# 66 66

Novel Cis Polybutadienes Functionalized with Alkoxysilane and Their Properties in Silica Filled Compounds

Author: Yoichi Ozawa
Abstract: A MAO-cocatalyzed rare earth-based catalyst system allowed relatively "living" polymerization of 1,3-butadiene. Living nature of the polymerization was investigated with step addition of monomer...


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Paper# 67 67

RF PLASMA POLYMERIZATION FOR SURFACE MODIFICATION OF CARBON BLACK RUBBER FILLER

Author: Young C. Kang*, Wim J. van Ooij
Abstract: Carbon black is well known as rubber filler. Carbon black has few percentages of surface functional groups. Therefore chemical interactions between the filler and rubber are comparatively less than...


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Paper# 68 68

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RUBBERS REINFORCED WITH PORCELLINITE- DERIVED PRECIPITATED SILICA

Author: Doug J. Kohls* and Dale W. Schaefer
Abstract: The reinforcing properties of a newly developed precipitated silica (Dimosil@, Dimona Silica Industries) are studied in model tire compounds. Rheometry and mechanical testing data are correlated...


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Paper# 69 69

NEW GENERATION PRECIPITATED SILICA FOR ELASTOMER REINFORCEMENT

Author: Dale W. Schaefer*, Doug J. Kohls, Ephraim Feinblum and Andrey Vorobiev
Abstract: An efficient method is described for the production of reinforcing silica from porcellanite, a mineral rich in amorphous silica. The resulting silica, Dimosil®, is produce by a low-temperature...


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Paper# 72 72

THE USE OF RHEOLOGICAL TESTING FOR PREDICTING PROCESSABILITY

Author: Matthew C. Putman* Peter Richter
Abstract: The design and manufacturing of rubber products have often focused on the use of rheology to interpret its flow and curing characteristics. After the product is designed it is standard procedure in...


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Paper# 73 73

ADVANCEMENTS IN MIXING TECHNOLOGIES

Author: Frank Borzenski
Abstract: Since the introduction of the Banbury ® Mixer in 1916 and the introduction of the Intermix® in 1934, both machines have acquired an excellent reputation as being rugged and effective compounding...


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Paper# 74 74

TIRE RETREADING - THE RATIONALE AND A REVIEW OF TECHNOLOGIES

Author: David L. Bender
Abstract: Retreading is a means to extend the useful life of a tire after the original tread is worn away, providing both economical and ecological benefits to markets around the world. The process of...


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Paper# 75 75

New AEM Polymer with Good Heat Resistance, Good Low Temperature Properties and Good Dynamic Properties

Author: E. McBride, Y.T. Wu, M.A. Stewart
Abstract: Compounds made from a new AEM polymer have a combination of good high temperature properties, good low temperature properties, good grease resistance and good dynamic properties. A traditional way...


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Paper# 76 76

Compounding Techniques for Improved Processing of Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber Compounds

Author: Mark Jones and Andy Anderson*
Abstract: With continual pressure for cost down in todayis global markets, manufacturers are looking for ways to reduce overall part cost. Shorter cycle times coupled with improved processability without...


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Paper# 77 77

Telechelic Poly(butadiene) Diacrylate for the Radical Cure of Elastomers

Author: Steven K. Henning* and Jeffrey Klang
Abstract: Coagents are multifunctional compounds that react readily with radicals and promote crosslinking between polymer chains. For this reason, they are typically used with organic peroxides to cure...


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Paper# 78 78

Ethylene-co-Vinyl Acetate Elastomer for Automotive Transmission and Heavy Duty Sealing Applications

Author: Richard.J. Pazur*
Abstract: Ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVM) copolymers are manufactured by LANXESS and known to the rubber industry under the name of LEVAPREN®. These elastomers are gel-free, random copolymers possessing...


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Paper# 79 79

RECENT ADVANCES IN CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE TECHNOLOGY FOR THERMOSET ELASTOMER APPLICATIONS

Author: Ray Laakso*, Gary Marchand, Virginia Guffey, Rajan Vara
Abstract: Chlorinated polyethylene (CM), with its saturated backbone and polar halogen groups, provides a combination of heat, ozone and oil resistance in crosslinked elastomer compounds. CM has been used in...


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Paper# 81 81

NANOSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF RUBBER VULCANIZATES

Author: Hidehiko Dohi* and Shin Horiuchi
Abstract: The behavior of polymer and filler in stretched rubber has been studied. Using AFM (atomic force microscopy), it was found that a mesh structure of rubber is formed on the stretched rubber...


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Paper# 82 82

PREPARATION OF NANO-MATRIX-DISPERSED NATURAL RUBBER

Author: Seiichi Kawahara, Toshiaki Kitai and Nanthaporn Pukkate*
Abstract: Nano-matrix-dispersed natural rubber was prepared by graft-copolymerization of urea-deproteinized natural rubber (U-DPNR) latex with styrene. The grafted U-DPNR was characterized by FT-IR...


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Paper# 83 83

Functional Properties of Nano-matrix-dispersed Natural Rubber

Author: Seiichi Kawahara* and Takumi Sawada
Abstract: Functional properties of nano-matrix-dispersed natural rubber were investigated in relation to morphology of the rubber. The nano-matrix-dispersed natural rubber was prepared by...


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Paper# 84 84

RUBBER BASED NANOCOMPOSITES FROM SYNTHETIC NANOCLAYS

Author: Madhuchhanda Maiti and Anil K. Bhowmick*
Abstract: Polymer-clay nanocomposite is the most interesting research area since last two decades. Smectite group of clays are commonly used nanofillers in the preparation of the nanocomposites. In the...


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Paper# 85 85

REINFORCEMENT OF RUBBER BY REACTIVE IMPREGNATION GLASS CORDS

Author: Christopher A Stevens*, Philip J Martin, Mitsuharu Akiyama
Abstract: Rubber strips can have very effective reinforcement by rubber impregnated glass cords. For EPDM weather-strip sealing profiles, inclusion of a glass cord allows improved cutting and significant...


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Paper# 86 86

MECHANISTIC STUDIES INTO THE NEW CONCEPT OF CO-AGENTS FOR SCORCH DELAY AND PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT IN PEROXIDE VULCANIZATION

Author: M.M. Alvarez Grima, J .G. Eriksson, A.G. Talma, R.N. Datta, J Noordermeer
Abstract: In previous studies a new concept of a peroxide cure system for rubber has been reported where scorch safety and mechanical properties are improved at the same time.1 This new system consists of...


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Paper# 87 87

MECHANISTIC INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE ADHESION BETWEEN RFL-TREATED CORDS AND RUBBER: THE INFLUENCE OF THE VINYL-PYRIDINE CONTENT OF THE RFL-LATEX

Author: W.B. WENNEKE*, R.N. DATTA, J .W.M. NOORDERMEER
Abstract: The adhesion between virgin textile cords and rubber is always weak, because of significant differences between fibre and rubber in modulus, elongation, polarity as well as reactivity. In order to...


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Paper# 88 88

Phosphate Accelerators in the Vulcanization of Isobutylene Based Elastomers

Author: Nitin Tambe *, Brendan Rodgers, Scott Solis, Bharat B. Sharma and Walter.H. Waddell
Abstract: Vulcanization of isobutylenelisoprene copolymer (butyl rubber) using sulfur and organic accelerators is facilitated by the presence of the carbon-carbon double bond in the polymer isoprenyl unit....


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Paper# 89 89

SURFACE MODIFICATION OF CLAY FILLERS BY RF PLASMA POLYMERIZATION

Author: S. K. Lee, Wim J. van Ooij *
Abstract: In this study, the surface coatings of M&D clay, organoclay and exfoliated clay prepared by the sol-gel process were done by RF plasma polymerization to improve the surface activity of the clay...


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Paper# 91 91

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE INITIAL STAGE OF THERMAL OXIDATION OF RUBBERS BY CHEMILUMINESCENCE

Author: M. Santoso, U. Giese, and R. H. Schuster*
Abstract: The initial stage of thermal oxidation ageing process of polydienes (NR, BR, and SBRs) and polyolefine (EPDM) were investigated using chemiluminescence (CL) method. CL method detects the low...


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Paper# 92 92

THE EVOLUTION OF COLORED SMOKE TIRES

Author: Jim Palombo*
Abstract: The contribution of tires to motor-sports competition is well known as tire producers often make special tires to perform competitively in various types of events. The real purpose of motor-sports,...


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Paper# 94 94

Tire Halobutyl Rubber lnnerliner

Author: Bharat B. Sharrna*, Brendan Rodgers, Don Tracey, Nitin Tambe, and Dirk Rouckhout
Abstract: Use of halobutyl innerliners in tires allow significant improvement in air retention properties and, in turn, tire durability. Tires with higher halobutyl content in the innerliner tend to display...


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Paper# 95 95

We Have ISO9001, Now What Do We Do With It?

Author: Tim Brown
Abstract: The audit is complete. Let the parties begin! Now that the company has been analyzed as to what they do best and now that they have received ISO900l :2000 certification, what do they do now.7 Many...


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Paper# 96 96

LEAN QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Author: John M. Cachat
Abstract: “Lean” is a hot buzzword in today’s manufacturing marketplace. Leading company’s like Toyota have used this to successfully gain market share, cut waste and costs and maintain their dominance in...


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Paper# 98 98

An Assessment of the Available Adhesive Processing Options in Light of Emerging Regulatory Conditions in North America, Europe, China and Japan: Meeting Today's Ever-Changing Global Regulations

Author: Andrew Kintz*, Brian Sharp, Karen Bond
Abstract: A review of the current and emerging regulatory landscape in North America, Western Europe, China and Japan for rubber-to-metal bonding adhesives is presented. The author defines the three main...


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Paper# 100 100

INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY BY STATE OF THE ART SEMI- PERMANENT MOULD RELEASE AGENTS

Author: By K. Menting*, M. Hensel
Abstract: Traditional mould release agents like oils, waxes and silicone emulsions are still widely used in the rubber industry. Their low price per kilogram is overcompensated by the necessity of frequent...


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Paper# 101 101

SELECTED PROCESS ADDITIVES FOR USE WITH SOPHISTICATED ELASTOMERS. IMPROVED PROCESSING WITHOUT COMPROMISE OF SERVICE PERFORMANCE

Author: Colin Clarke*, Jenny Bruhn, Manfred Hensel
Abstract: The use of process additives as speciality chemicals in order to achieve improved processability of rubber compounds is not new. Many products used today are based on simple metal salts, for...


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Paper# 102 102

GLASS FLAKE PARTICLES FOR ENHANCED PERMEATION RESISTANCE OF ELASTOMER COMPOUNDS

Author: Christopher A Stevens*, David W Mason
Abstract: Many high performance elastomer compounds are used in sealing and barrier applications that require low permeation. Two examples are nitrile rubber for fuel containment and chloroprene rubber for...


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Paper# 105 105

OIL DISTRIBUTION IN iPP/EPDM THERMOPLASTIC VULCANIZATES

Author: Tonson Abraham*, Norman G. Barber, and Michael P. Mallamaci
Abstract: Scanning Probe Nlicroscopy (SPM) was used to determine the volume fraction of oil-swollen particulate rubber and oil-swollen plastic in thennoplastic vulcanizates (TPVS) produced from iPP and EPDM...


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Paper# 106 106

A Technique to Reduce Tire Component Cost

Author: B. Thorburn, Y. Hoshi, Y. Yada, L. Strang
Abstract: Precuring tire components using energetic electrons is a proven technology that can provide the manufacturer with substantial cost reductions. In many cases we believe equipment investment can be...


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Paper# 107 107

AN OVERVIEW OF CAPILLARY RHEOMETRY FOR THE NEEDS OF THE RUBBER INDUSTRY

Author: John S. Dick*
Abstract: The capillary rheometer has been consistently used in the rubber industry for the past 30 years. Even though newer test methods have evolved for measuring rubber processability, the capillary...


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Paper# 108 108

Synchronize To Survive, and Thrive - A World Class Management Strategy For Global Competitiveness

Author: Vincent G. Whitelock
Abstract: The 21st Century brings many opportunities and challenges to Small Business Leaders, Small-To-Medium-Size Manufacturers (SMMs), Historically Underutilized Businesses, Minority Business...


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Paper# 86-A 86a

Fuel and Permeation Resistance of Fluoroelastomers to Ethanol Blends

Author: Ronald D. Stevens*
Abstract: Ethanol is a common, oxygen containing, pollution control additive used in automotive gasoline, typically at a level of 6 - 10%. Ethanol usage has been largely limited to the midwestern part of...


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Paper# 97-A 97a

NXT Z* SILANE - PROCESSING AND PROPERTIES OF A NEW VIRTUALLY ZERO VOC SILANE

Author: Daniel Gurovich*, Robert Christie, Wesley Sloan, Robert Pickwell, Antonio Chaves, Lesley Hwang, Linda Vecere
Abstract: GE recently introduced NXT Z* silane that releases almost no ethanol during the manufacture, storage, and use of silica tread compounds for silica tires. This silane contains both free and blocked...


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