Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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167th Technical Meeting

Date: May 16, 2005
Location: San Antonio, TX

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $285.00

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

193rd Technical Meeting - 2018 Spring

192nd Technical Meeting - 2017 Fall

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Paper# A

GENERAL COMPOUNDING - PROCESSING ADDITIVES

Author:
Abstract: In conjunction with the chemicals used in a rubber formulation to ensure acceptable product characteristics, a number of ingredients may be incorporated to allow or improve processing with the...


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Paper# B

CARBON BLACK: PRODUCTION, CHARACTERISTICS, TESTING, AND USE IN

Author:
Abstract: Carbon black is produced by the incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition of organic materials. It has found widespread use not only as a pigmenting agent for inks, paints, and plastics, but...


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Paper# D

Vulcanization of General Purpose Elastomers

Author:
Abstract: The process of vulcanization is a chemical change by which individual rubber molecules are linked to each other at various points throughout the polymer. The points of linkage behave as crosslinks...


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Paper# 70

ISSN: 1547-1977

Author:
Abstract: This paper is the fourth in a series of formulation optimizations taken upon a black, peroxide cured HXNBRIHNBR drill bit seal compound. Prior studies investigated the effect of ionic crosslinking...


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Paper# C

Precipitated Silica: Fundamental Technology,

Author:
Abstract: Precipitated silica is a particulate, amorphous material, typically produced by the acid neutralization ofa sodium silicate solution. Precipitated silica consumption is estimated to be in excess of...


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Paper# 68

ISSN: 1547-1977

Author:
Abstract: This paper describes the mathematical treatment of the response of a spherical elastomeric bearing to a torque about its central axis. It gives the mathematical equations to produce pad...


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Paper# H

May 16-18, 2005

Author:
Abstract: This review is focused on the mechanism of rubber silanes in silica-filled compounds and the resulting consequences. After a brief overview of the history of silanes, the general reaction of...


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Paper# I

RUBBER COMPOUND AGEING PROTECTION

Author:
Abstract: Optimization of tire performance characteristics for vehicle manufacturers has always been a major factor in the research and development process. However increased attention has recently been...


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Paper# J

The Use of Resins in Rubber Compounding

Author:
Abstract: Many different types of resins are used in compounding rubber for tire and industrial goods applications. Phenolic, hydrocarbon and other resins are used as tackifiers. Phenolic resoles are used as...


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Paper# 1

Hierarchical Structures of Filler Particles in Elastomers as Studied by a Combined Scattering Method (USANS, USAXS and SAXS)

Author:
Abstract: 1Hashimoto Polymer Phasing Project, ERATO, J ST, Japan, and 2Department of Polymer Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 661-8510, Japan...


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Paper# 2

By: Garth L. Wilkes* Department of Chemical Engineering

Author:
Abstract: 1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. 2Department of Chemistry, Koc University, Istanbul 34450, Turkey....


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Paper# 3

Rgu.b.ber Division

Author:
Abstract: Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) allows direct observation of the microscopic deformation of individual polymer network chains in strained elastomers. This paper summarizes our results of...


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Paper# 4

Structure of Carbon Black, SiC, and Diamond Nanocrystallites

Author:
Abstract: Microstructures of carbon blacks, silicon carbide and diamond powders were investigated by high resolution X-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Effects of heat treatment, compression at high...


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Paper# 5

SCANNING TRANSMISSION X-RAY MICROSCOPY OF CURATIVE AND FILLER MIGRATION OF INNER LINER COMPOUNDS

Author:
Abstract: Materials of significance in the rubber industry generally consist of a complex blend of elastomers, fillers, curing agents and other additives. Elucidating the complex microstructure-to-property...


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Paper# 6

Disclosing hidden information about the vulcanization process

Author:
Abstract: Using a purposely modified Rubber Process Analyzer, a technique has been developed to record the complete torque signal during a vulcanization test, to split it into a sequence of single harmonic...


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Paper# 7

ON PROPERTIES

Author:
Abstract: The development of thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) as a type of thermoplastic elastomers, has gained large technical and economic importance. TPVs are typically characterized by a chemically...


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Paper# 8

ELECTRON BEAM CURING OF ELASTOMERS

Author:
Abstract: Irradiation of elastomers results in the formation of a three dimensional network with crosslinks. Electron beam ( EB ) curing has become a popular method of crosslinking, because the process is...


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Paper# 9

Curing of Carboxylated

Author:
Abstract: A carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR) containing 0.075 ephr of acidity was mixed with various amounts of MgO. Since MgJ'J' is divalent, it may seem that complete neutralization should occur when the...


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Paper# 10

The Use of Coagents in Sulfur Vulcanization:

Author:
Abstract: Coagents have been successfully used in peroxide-cured elastomer systems to improve physical properties. Multifunctional acrylate monomers and oligomers increase modulus, hardness, tensile...


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Paper# 11

HETEROGENEOUS NETWORKS OF POLYISOPRENE AND 1,2-POLYBUTADIENE

Author:
Abstract: High cis, 1,4-polyisorpene (PI) and polyvinylethylene form a miscible blend, having a lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Networks of the blend were prepared by crosslinking either with...


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Paper# 12

Recent Advances in Understanding the Rubber Performance of

Author:
Abstract: In 1972, Janzen and Kraus published a seminal paper on the effect of blends of carbon black on the reinforcement of rubber. They concluded that while blends affect rubber properties, they do not...


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Paper# 66

SYNCHROTRON X-RAY TECHNIQUES FOR THE STUDY OF CLAY-BASED POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES

Author:
Abstract: Thermally-induced morphological changes in Cloisite organoclays and their nanocomposites were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), in Sim simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering...


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Paper# 14

Carbon Black in EPDM Compounds.

Author: Irene Yurovska*, Gregory Gaudet, Dave Novakoski, Ralph Dickinson
Abstract: Carbon blacks (CB) are the preferred fillers for EPDM compounds. In fact, EPDM allows higher loading of CB than other polymers. However, in spite of the wide spread application, data on compound...


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Paper# 15

By: Weidong Wang, Rikki Lamba, Charles Herd*, Deepak Tandon, Charles Edwards

Author:
Abstract: a narrow range of particle size and structure were evaluated for their thermal conductivity, fatigue life, rubber reinforcement and compound processibility in a butyl, tire-curing- bladder...


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Paper# 65

Crystallization of Semi-Crystalline Polymer in Nanotube Composites

Author:
Abstract: Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have attracted significant interest because of their extraordinary combinations of mechanical, transport and optical properties. We have recently developed a...


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Paper# 21

Field Aging of Tires, Part III

Author:
Abstract: In an attempt to better understand the mechanism of rubber aging in tires, used tires were retrieved from consumer vehicles in 6 cities located throughout the United States (Detroit, MI, Hartford,...


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Paper# 22

Correlation of Rubber Properties Between Field Aged Tires and Laboratory Aged Tires. Part II.

Author:
Abstract: The kinetics of aging of key rubber properties determined from sets of 6 different tire types and brands collected from the field and from exposure in laboratory ovens are compared to show that...


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Paper# 23

IMPACT OF HALOBUTYL RUBBER INNERLINERS ON TIRE PERFORMANCE

Author:
Abstract: Halobutyl rubber is the polymer of choice in the tire innerliner compound due to its excellent air and moisture impermeability, and excellent flex-fatigue resistance. The inflation pressure of the...


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Paper# 24

* Speaker

Author:
Abstract: Because tires spend most of their lives at ambient temperature, knowledge of oxidation kinetics in this temperature regime is very important. Oxidation has been shown to be a key degradation...


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Paper# 25

A Finite Element Model for Oven Aged Tires

Author:
Abstract: ABSTRACT: A finite element kinetic model has been developed to interpret issues related to accelerated aging of tires. The model is based on the Basic Autoxidation Scheme and incorporates mass...


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Paper# 26

A Fundamental Kinetic Model for Accelerated Sulfur Vulcanization of Elastomers

Author:
Abstract: Formulated rubbers are an important class of engineering materials, exhibiting a range of physical properties that can be controlled via the formulation and processing conditions. A formulated...


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Paper# 27

Thiourea Accelerators in the Vulcanization of Butyl Elastomers

Author:
Abstract: The vulcanization of butyl rubber using sulfur and organic accelerators is facilitated by the presence ofa carbon-carbon double bond in the polymer isoprene unit. However, the low degree of...


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Paper# 28

Thermal Limitations of BPAF cured and TAIC cured Fluoroelastomers Evaluated using Strain Energy Density

Author:
Abstract: Fluoroelastomers are characterized by excellent heat stability, thus suitable for sealing applications where high temperature performance is required. However, thermal excursions, defined as...


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Paper# 29

* Speaker

Author:
Abstract: Electron beam radiation is an ionizing type of radiation that is capable of introducing profound changes of organic matter. It ajfects the electron shells of atoms without having any significant...


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Paper# 30

Peroxide cured HNBFllMethacrylate blends with improved low temperature performance

Author:
Abstract: Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (HNBR) zinc dimethacrylate (ZDMA) blends have been available for many years now and the improved mechanical properties that are offered are well recognised...


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Paper# 31

ISSN: 1547-1977

Author:
Abstract: A review with 36 references discussing the chemistry and the structure- property relationship of elastomers cured with two cross-linking systems of different chain lengths such as sulfur and the...


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Paper# 31a

iiDesigning Alternate Cure Systems to Eliminate Restricted Substances for Chlorinated Polymersii

Author:
Abstract: Historically, several products have been used to crosslink chlorinated polymers that are now either restricted or soon to be prohibited for use by the Automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers....


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Paper# 33

NANO-STRUCTURAL ELUCIDATION IN CARBON BLACK LOADED NR VULCANIZATE BY 3D-TEM AND IN SITU WAXD MEASUREMENTS

Author:
Abstract: Three dimensional (3D) visualization of nanometer structure of carbon black dispersion in rubbery matrix has successfully been studied and reported in this paper. Use of 3D-TEM, which is electron...


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Paper# 32

SYN CHROTRON X-RAY STUDIES OF VULCANIZED RUBBERS AND THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS

Author:
Abstract: Strain-induced crystallization and molecular orientation in vulcanized natural and synthetic rubbers and thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) during deformation can be studied in real time by synchrotron...


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Paper# 34

Tzu-Chi Kuo1, David Henton2, Timothy Vanyoz, Daniel Sawyer3 1 The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI

Author:
Abstract: Wide-Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) is widely used for characterization of crystal structure, crystallinity, crystal size and crystal orientation. Amorphous orientation in some cases is...


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Paper# 35

NANOCOMPOSITE POLYMERS

Author:
Abstract: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 Cynthia F. Welch, * E. Bruce Orler, * Debra A. Wrobleski, * Joseph T. Mang,* Marilyn E. Hawley* and Jeffrey B. KortrightII * Los Alamos...


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Paper# 36

Filler Distribution and Domain Size of Elastomer Compounds by Solid-State NMR and AFM

Author:
Abstract: Solid-state NMR methods were used to characterize the filler distribution in rubber blends and domain size of thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV). Correlation between filler content and magic angle...


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Paper# 37

Production, Classification, and Progerties of Natural Rubber

Author:
Abstract: Natural rubber is among the most important elastomers used in the manufacturing of products such as tires and conveyor belts. The polymer imparts many unique properties such as high tensile...


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Paper# 38

PRINCIPLES OF RUBBER REINFORCEMENT

Author:
Abstract: A typical amorphous elastomer (e.g., SBR) is composed of highly entangled Gaussian chains, whose average coil size is of order 10 nm. The simplest three dimensional network is formed when chains...


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Paper# 39

STRESS INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION AND REINFORCEMENT IN FILLED NATURAL RUBBERS

Author:
Abstract: By: Jacques Flault* CNRS, Physique des Solides Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay , France Jeanne Man-chal*, Pierre Antoine AIbouy1, Patrick Judeinsteinz Universite Paris-Sud, LPS (1), LCSO (2), Orsay ,...


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Paper# 40

13C-NMR Spectroscopy of Natural Rubber Vulcanizates

Author:
Abstract: Crosslinking points of natural rubber vulcanizates were characterized by high-resolution latex-state 130-NMR spectroscopy. Vulcanized natural rubber latex was prepared by vulcanization of high...


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Paper# 41

An Evaluation of Deproteinsed Natural Rubber for Engineering Applications

Author:
Abstract: Natural Rubber (NR) is widely used for many engineering applications. In situations, where good resistance to creep deformation and stress relaxation are primary requirements, synthetic...


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Paper# 64

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SINGLE-WALL CARBON NANOTUBE - POLYETHYLENE NANOCOMPOSITES

Author:
Abstract: Nanocomposites with single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are being investigated to take advantage of the superior properties of SWNTs. While notable successes have been reported for the...


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Paper# 43

ISSN: 1547-1977

Author:
Abstract: For a better understanding of the mechanism of rubber reinforcement by active fillers and furthermore of the properties required for rubber products and their practical usage it is helpful to study...


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Paper# 44

L.A.E.M. Reuvekamp, M. Debowski, P.J. van Swaaij, J. Vancso and J .W.M. Noordermeer

Author:
Abstract: The influence of macro- as well as micro-dispersion of silicas in tire tread compounds on rolling resistance was investigated. The discharge or dump temperature after compound mixing does not have...


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Paper# 45

MAY 16 -18, 2005 ISSN: 1547-1977'

Author:
Abstract: By Gerd Schmaucks' Bernd Friede, Anders Serhuus, Jan Olaf Roszinski Elkem ASA, Materials Kristiansand (Norway), Pittsburgh PA (USA) and H. Geisler, J. Hamann Deutsches lnstitut fiir...


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Paper# 63

MORPHOLOGY-DEFORMATION CORRELATIONS IN NANOCOMPOSITE

Author:
Abstract: Addition of small amounts (0.5-10 vol%) of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT) to thermoplastic elastomer polyurethane produced nanocomposites with high electrical conductivity (5 -v 1-10 Slcm), low...


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Paper# 60

MAGNESIUM REGULATION OF IN VITRO RUBBER SYNTHESIS BY HE VEA BRASILIENSIS AND PART HENI UM ARGENT AT UM

Author:
Abstract: Natural rubber is produced by a cis-prenyl transferase (rubber transferase). It is known that rubber transferase uses allylic pyrophosphate to initiate the rubber molecule and isopentenyl...


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Paper# 48

ISSN: 1547-1977

Author:
Abstract: Elastomeric components under dynamic service conditions are submitted to excitations over a broad range of temperatures. Classical laboratory tests, which are usually applied to the dynamic...


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Paper# 49

Effect of Surface Area of Fumed Silica on Silicone Rubber Reinforcement

Author:
Abstract: The effects of fumed silica on the processability and Vulcanizate properties of silicone rubber have been studied using silicas with surface areas ranging from 90 to 417 mzlg at a constant loading...


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Paper# 58

Author:
Abstract:


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Paper# 51

ISSN: 1547-1977

Author:
Abstract: The effects of heat and age on the development and growth of belt edge disbonds and other defects in tires are well established. While microwave, shearography, X-ray and ultrasonic techniques have...


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Paper# 52

A LABORATORY METHOD TO EVALUATE COMPREHENSIVELY ABRASION, TRACTION

Author:
Abstract: The laboratory test instrument consists of a rotating abrasive disk against which a rubber sample wheel runs under a given load, slip angle and speed. All three force components acting on the wheel...


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Paper# 53

Event Driven DMRT Analysis

Author:
Abstract: The development of oscillatory curemeters in the 1960*s changed the philosophy and practice ofquality control testing in the rubber factory. A single test has been performed which indicates three...


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Paper# 54

Dynamic Testing of Rubber Compounds Using Oscillatory Shear and Dynamic Compression

Author:
Abstract: Traditional dynamic testing of cured rubber samples has been performed in cyclic compression using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzers and Goodrich Flexometers. More recently Dynamic Mechanical...


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Paper# 59

Quantifying natural rubber in Helianthus annuus L. using the Dionex ASE 200

Author:
Abstract: By Donna J. Rath*and Calvin H. Pearson, Colorado State University, Fruita, CO, Katrina Cornish, Yulex Corporation, Carlsbad CA, Colleen M. McMahan and Deborah J. Scott, USDA-ARS Western Regional...


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Paper# 56

Lead-Free Rubber-to-Metal Bonding Agents: The Next Generation of Environmentally-Friendly Adhesives

Author:
Abstract: The dynamic climate of the rubber to metal bonding industry has seen many changes over the last decade and promises to see even more in the foreseeable future. Changes have included mandates for...


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Paper# 57

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC RUBBER-PRODUCING CROPS.

Author:
Abstract: 1YU.l6X Corporation, Carlsbad, CA 92008 2 Western Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, Albany, CA 94710 3Western Colorado Research Center - Fruita, Colorado State University, Fruita, CO 81521...


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Paper# 50

RECOVERY OF SHEAR MODIFIED POLYBUTADIENE SOLUTIONS

Author:
Abstract: C.M. Rolandlf and C.G. Robertsonz 1NaVal Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Washington DC 20375-5342 2Bridgestone Americas Center for Research and Technology 1200 Firestone...


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Paper# 13 13

Role of Fillers in Elastomeric Matrices. New Advanced Testing Methods.

Author: Leszek Nikiel*, Henry Yang, Thomas Carlson, and Wesley Wampler
Abstract: The reinforcing properties of carbon black in rubber are well documented in the literature. Advances in filler technology and more demanding applications, however require continuous improvement in...


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Paper# 20 20

ASTM F9.30 DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDUSTRY TEST STANDARD FOR AGED TIRE DURABILITY

Author: June Satterfield*
Abstract: In the work leading to the TREAD Act, Congress explicitly stated that there was a need for some type of aging test on light vehicle tires. Since no industry-wide recommended practice exists for...


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Paper# 42 42

PROTEIN LEVELS AFFECT THE CURE EFFICIENCY AND ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF POLYISOPRENE LATICES

Author: W. W. Schloman
Abstract: In contrast to guayule (GR) latex, commercial NR latex has a higher total protein content. Some NR proteins are allergens bound to the rubber particle surface. Washing NR latex with a non-ionic...


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Paper# 46 46

A CHEMICAL ENGINEERING MODEL OF ETHANOL-DEVOLATILIZATION OF SILICAISILANE-COMPOUNDS IN AN INTERNAL MIXER

Author: Wilma Dierkes, Jacques W.M. Noordermeer*
Abstract: During mixing of a rubber compound containing silica and silane, the mixer is not only used for the dispersion of the filler and other ingredients, but also for a chemical reaction. These two...


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Paper# 47 47

LOW VOC SILANES FOR SILICA TIRES

Author: Prashant G. Joshi
Abstract: Ethanol emissions have become an environmental concern related to tires and tire manufacturing. Ethanol generated from silanes used as coupling agents in silica-reinforced tire components can be a...


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Paper# 55 55

New Primerless Waterborne Flock Adhesive for Bonding to Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE/TPV) for Automotive Weather-strip

Author: James P. Weir*
Abstract: As the Automotive OEM's are driving the Weatherstrip market to move to new materials like plastics and TPE/TPV's for cost reductions, the traditional flock adhesives are not able to adhere to the...


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Paper# 62 62

Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Latex Films

Author: Colleen M. McMahan, Katrina Cornish, Henry A. Pawlowski, Jali Williams,
Abstract: Commercial application of natural rubber latex from Parthenium argenmmm (guayule) requires an understanding of the behavior of that latex when compounded into formulations modeling those currently...


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Paper# 67 67

Dispersion of Layered Organosilicates in Isobutylene-Based Elastomers

Author: Andy H. Tsou and Matthew B. Measmer
Abstract: Dispersion morphologies of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites based on either brominated poly(isobutylene-co-para-methylstyrene), BIMS, or brominated poly(isobutylene-co-isoprene), BIIR, and...


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Paper# 71 71

Characterization of a New Type of Bisphenol Cured Fluoroelastomer for Use in the Chemical Process Industry

Author: Steven Jagels*
Abstract: A new polymerization technology has resulted in a new class of VDF-HFP containing fluoroelastomer called HS technology. This fluoroelastomer develops improved compression set resistance and...


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Paper# E E

Fundamentals of Curing Elastomers with Peroxides and Coagents

Author: Steven K. Henning* and Richard Costin
Abstract: This paper reviews the fundamentals of curing elastomers with peroxides, with an emphasis on coagent selection for optimum performance. Peroxide curing is an alternative to sulfur vulcanization...


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Paper# F F

A Review of the Vulcanization of lsobutylene- Based Elastomers

Author: Scott Solis*, Brendan Rodgers, Nitin Tambe#, Bharat B. Sharma and Walter H. Waddell
Abstract: The vulcanization of isobutylene-co-isoprene rubber (IIR), brominated isobutylene-co-isoprene rubber (BIIR), chlorinated isobutylene-co-isoprene rubber (CIIR), and brominated...


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