Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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168th Technical Meeting

Date: November 03, 2005
Location: Pittsburgh, PA

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $900.00

200th Technical Meeting - Fall 2021

198th Technical Meeting - Fall 2020

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

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Paper# 1 1

HXNBR FOR IMPROVING AGEING RESISTANCE OF NATURAL RUBBER PRODUCTS

Author: RUBBER PRODUCTS
Abstract: HXNBR is a Hydrogenated Carboxylated Nitrile rubber having very good ageing resistance and oil resistance. A novel accelerator system was designed to bring in the vulcanization of HXNBR at room...


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Paper# 2 2

Blends of HXNBR and Low Viscosity HNBR for Automotive Applications

Author: Richard J. Pazur and E.C. Campomizzi
Abstract: Hydrogenated carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene (HXNBR) provides vulcanizates possessing outstanding mechanical properties (tensile, elongation and tear) combined with excellent property...


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Paper# 3 3

Long Term Fuel & Heat Aging of Low Temperature Types of Fluoroelastomers

Author: by: Ronald D. Stevens*
Abstract: Low temperature (LT) types of peroxide cured fluoroelastomers (FKM) have been increasingly used in automotive fuel systems for the past 15 years. Now new Advanced Polymer Architecture (APA)...


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Paper# 4 Iv

Indian Rubber Industry and its Potential

Author: Manu M. Patel* and S. K. Sarkar
Abstract: The Indian Rubber goods manufacturing Industry established in 1921, has grown to occupy fourth largest producer of Natural Rubber. It is also the fourth largest consumer of Natural Rubber and...


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Paper# 4 4

Effect of Power Steering (PS) Fluid Type on the Performance of Radial Lip Seals

Author: Gabriel Osanaiye
Abstract: Hydrogenated nitrile (HNBR) is a choice elastomer used to make compounds for sealing applications in mobility vehicles. While fluids do generally affect the physico-chemical equilibrium of rubber...


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Paper# 5 5

Study on the Stabilization Systems for Rubber Compounding (Part 1)

Author: Gerrit Knobloch, Mouhcine Kanouni, Chris Fagouri *
Abstract: Antioxidants are used for synthetic rubber for various purposes. The first function is to stabilize the rubber against degradation upon production and auto-oxidation during storage, i.e. providing...


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Paper# 7 I

GLOBALIZATION IN THE RUBBER INDUSTRY: WHO IS DRIVING THIS BUS, WHERE IS IT GOING, AND HOW DO I GET A GOOD SEAT?

Author: Bill Hyde*
Abstract: For better or worse, the global economy is becoming more integrated. The Rubber Industry has not been spared from the impacts of the shifting market, nor will it be in the future. However, all is...


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Paper# 8 8

Review and the latest update of N-Nitrosamines in the rubber industry: the Regulated, the Potentially Regulated, and compounding to eliminate nitrosamine formation

Author: Leo C. Goss Jr.*, Steven F. Monthey, Dr. Hans-Martin Issel
Abstract: For several years, Germany has led the effort to eliminate the use of common nitrosamines in the rubber industry. Their TRGS 522(Nov 95) allows no more than 2.5 uglm3 emission of nitrosamines...


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Paper# 9 9

RE-USING AND RECYCLING OF END-OF-LIFE TYRES: Rubber reclaim and line rubber powder in truck tread compounds

Author: Maria Eugenia Martinez
Abstract: Retreading is the process whereby selected and inspected worn tyres receive a new tread. The worn tread is buffed off and a new tread is vulcanised onto the casing in a process very similar to the...


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Paper# 10 10

The Effect of Rotor Type and Antidegradant on the Mixing Efficiency of Various Grades of Carbon Black in Natural Rubber

Author: Frederick lgnatz-Hoover* and Byron To
Abstract: Productivity enhancements are demonstrated by the combination of mechanical and chemical technology. Five grades of carbon black (N-121, N-330, N-550, N- 660 and N-774), and natural rubber (RS8)...


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Paper# 11 11

OneSlab™: Improvements on the Cureblend Concept

Author: John Douglas* and Timothy Higgins
Abstract: In compounding rubber both special and common cause variation will be present. Special cause variation is unnatural variation due to human error, such as inaccurate weighing of individual...


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Paper# 13 13

Multifunctional Acrylates as Anti-Reversion Agents in Sulfur Cured Systems

Author: Steven K. Henning* and Scott A. Shapot
Abstract: Multifunctional acrylates have found utility as effective anti-reversion agents in sulfur cured applications where overcure or high temperature cure conditions exist. It has also been demonstrated...


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Paper# 14 14

SP and CST Technologies A new generation of cost saving curatives in rubber processing - Part 2

Author: Laurent KEROMNES, Alfredo DEFRANCISCI, Arnaud PREBE and Leonard H. PALYS*
Abstract: Improving the productivity of rubber compounding by increasing the mixer speed or replacing two-pass mixing with a one-pass mixing step has been a challenge when using organic peroxides. Attempting...


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Paper# 15 15

New Metal Surface Treatment for Improved Elastomer Molding

Author: Douglas King*, Klaus Kammerer, Laurent Lefebvre, Eric Renggli
Abstract: A new metal surface treatment has been developed which significantly improves the surface hardness and finish when compared to typical mold treatment (hard chromium, nickel, phase vapor deposition,...


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Paper# 16 16

TRACEABILITY AND SCRAP REDUCTION IN EXTRUDED RUBBER PRODUCTS

Author: Dean Marlin* and Kurt Olyarnik
Abstract: Since the early 1980s the rubber industry, especially automobile tire manufacturers, has desired to place real-time production and product information on in-process and final products. Marking...


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Paper# 17 17a

Fluoroelastomers for extrusion of thin wall veneers and tubes for fuel hose applications

Author: By: Christopher Grant* and Ronald Stevens
Abstract: Fluoroelastomers are used in automotive and small-engine fuel system seals and delivery components due to their superior resistance to aggressive fuel blends and heat. Fluoroelastomers also provide...


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Paper# 17 17

HPC-3: A New Coating for Extreme Protection From Hydrocarbon Fluids

Author: James R. Halladay*
Abstract: Elastomeric materials are used in numerous dynamic applications including hoses, seals, tires, mountings, and dampers. All too often, the elastomeric material of choice is not resistant to the...


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Paper# 17 17b

PROCESS ADDITIVES FOR SILICA FILLED COMPOUNDS. PROCESSING WITHOUT PROPERTY LOSS.

Author: Colin Clarke*, Manfred Hensel, Henning Umland
Abstract: Precipitated silica has been used as filler in rubber compounds for more than 60 years. The first recorded use was as cheap filler for coloured and white compounds such as shoe soles, mats, floor...


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Paper# 18 18

APPLICATION OF NR BASED LATEX RECLAIM: THE LINK BETWEEN STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES

Author: W. K. Dierkes*, V. V. Rajan and J. W. M. Noordermeer
Abstract: The reclamation of natural rubber based waste latex rubber (WLR) is carried out by a thermo-mechanical process using diphenyldisulfide as reclaiming agent. Two types of WLR differing mainly in the...


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Paper# 19 19

NONISOTHERMAL VULCANIZATION OF DEVULCANIZED GRT WITH REVERSION TYPE BEHAVIOR

Author: A. I. Isayev*, Brijesh Sujan
Abstract: Ground rubber tire (GRT) was devulcanized using a coaxial ultrasonic devulcanization reactor at different ultrasonic amplitudes. The devulcanized samples were revulcanized isothermally using a...


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Paper# 20 20

TRC - Reclaim (Devulcanization) vs. Regrind

Author: Bruce Bowers*
Abstract: The first section of this paper will discuss "reclaim" (devulcanization) vs. "regrind" and why one should consider the use of reclaim. Following this, we will discuss the proper methods to be used...


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Paper# 21 21

REACTIVE BLENDING, REINFORCEMENT AND CURING OF NR/BR/EPDM COMPOUNDS FOR TIRE SIDEWALL APPLICATIONS

Author: K. SAHAKARO, N. NASKARS, R. N. DATTA, J. W. M. NOORDERMEER*
Abstract: Tire sidewall compounds are generally formulated using NR and BR to achieve the required dynamical properties. The most widely used antiozonant, N-(l,3-dimethylbutyl)-N1 phenyl-p-phenylenediamine...


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Paper# 22 22

CONTINUOUS ULTRASOUND DEVULCANIZATION: COMPARISON OF SYNTHETIC ISOPRENE AND NATURAL

Author: Ximei Sun* and A. I. Isayev
Abstract: Sulfur-cured Vulcanizates of unfilled synthetic isoprene rubber (IR) were prepared and successfully devulcanized in a continuous co-axial ultrasonic reactor. Die pressure characteristics and...


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Paper# 23 23

EFFECT OF RECYCLED MATERIAL ON PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF NATURAL RUBBER BASED TYRE TREAD CONIPOUND

Author: S. Bandyopadhyay, S. L. Agrawal, S. Dasgupta and R. Mukhopadhyay*
Abstract: For both environmental and economic reasons, there is a continuing broad-based interest in the recycling of scrap rubber and therefore in the development of recycling technologies. In the present...


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Paper# 25 25

Materials Characterization in the Design of Castable Polyurethane Parts

Author: Richard Palinkas
Abstract: Polyurethane chemistry permits an almost infinite number of combinations of material properties. There is no unique perfect prepolymer for all applications. However, there is usually a material...


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Paper# 26 26

Application of Diene-Based Thermoplastic Urethanes in Rubber Compounding

Author: Steven K. Henning,* Herbert Chao, and Jindrich Pytela
Abstract: New grades of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) product based on difunctional hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene resins offer unique application possibilities in traditional rubber compounding. The...


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Paper# 27 27

Adhesives for Bonding Castable Polyurethane-to-Metal for Industrial Molded Goods

Author: Jeffrey D. Means
Abstract: Castable polyurethanes continue to be utilized throughout the rubber-to-metal bonding industry to manufacture a variety of industrial molded goods. These polyurethane-to-metal goods may be...


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Paper# 28 28

TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN POLYURETHANE PROCESSING EQUIPMENT

Author: Theron Sherman*
Abstract: This paper will highlight the latest technological developments in polyurethane machinery and processing innovations. This equipment is used across many industries from automotivelappliance to...


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Paper# 29 29

Polyurethanes to be moditied with Micromorphs - a polymeric additive displaying interesting features in widespread applications

Author: C. Boivin, Th. Frueh*, T. Ziser
Abstract: Polyurethanes are widely used in rubber industry, TPU and thermoplastic industry. Indeed, these polymers are unique, as simply by exchanging the monomers or by adjusting the amount of a specific...


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Paper# 30 30

NEW ADVANCES IN MILLABLE URETHANES

Author: Thomas L. Jablonowski* and Curt Reichel
Abstract: Millable urethanes are polymers that are known for their excellent abrasion and strength properties while being able to be processed on conventional rubber equipment. Existing millable urethanes...


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Paper# 31 31

HIGH PERFORMANCE POLYURETHANE ELASTOMERS

Author: Zhenya Zhu* Ronald O. Rosenberg, Vince J. Gajewski, George H. Nybakken and Mark P. Ferrandino
Abstract: Novel polyurethane elastomers are developed based on p-phenylene diisocyanate (PPDI). These PPDI urethane elastomers have exceptional property retention at temperature up to 150C, after 6 weeks...


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Paper# 32 32

Quick Test for State of Cure in AEM Polymers

Author: E. McBride
Abstract: A typical AEM (Vamac@) compound is cured in two steps. The initial press cure is followed by a post cure step. A key concern of end users is whether or not the part has gone through the post cure...


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Paper# 33 33

NEW CONCEPT OF CO-AGENTS FOR SCORCH DELAY AND PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT IN PEROXIDE VULCANIZATION

Author: M.M. Alvarez Grima*, A.G. Talma, R.N. Datta, J Noordermeer
Abstract: Peroxide cure is an important and widely used cure system for rubber next to sulfur vulcanization. Several properties obtained via peroxide vulcanization are superior and not achievable with sulfur...


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Paper# 34 34

Enhancing Compound Properties and Aging Resistance by using Low Viscosity HNBR

Author: Ezio C. Campomizzi *, L.P. Ferrari and R.J. Pazur
Abstract: Recent advances in HNBR, technology have led to the development of low mooney viscosity (39 MU, ML1+4@100C), easy to process HNBR polymers. Compounds based on the low mooney viscosity HNBR polymer...


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Paper# 35 35

Long Term 150°C Stress Relaxation Resistance of GLT-S Fluoroelastomer

Author: Ronald D. Stevens*
Abstract: New Advanced Polymer Architecture (APA) technology and its use to make low temperature FKM GLT-S was documented in a previous 2001 Rubber Division paper. At that time it was noted that the APA...


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Paper# 36 36

Thermal Characterization of the Interaction of a Silane Adhesive and Dihydroxy Vulcanized Fluoroelastomers

Author: Michael Benjamin Sands*, Vijay Subramanian and Guangzhao Mao
Abstract: The activity of an Aminosilane and Vinylsilane with a dihydroxy (Bisphenol AF) crosslinkable fluoroelastomer containing only Vinylidene Fluoride (VF2) and Hexafluoropropylene (HFP) was monitored...


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Paper# 37 37

Levapren®: Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymers For Automotive Sealing Applications

Author: Susmita Bhattacharjee*, Juergen lsmeier, Stefan Kelbch, Hans Magg, Frank Taschner, Achim Welle, Claus Wrana
Abstract: Levapren®, a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, is a heat and oil resistant elastomer which offers a good balance of physical properties. The paper describes the compounding formulations of...


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Paper# 38 38 39

The Evolution of Reinforcement in Black-Filled Natural Rubber

Author: Gary R. Hamed*, A.A. Al-Sheneper and H. Cho
Abstract: In a previous paperl, NR vulcanizates containing 0-75 phr of N1 15 carbon black were prepared and tensile strengths of uncut (normal) and edge pre-cut specimens determined. Normal tensile strengths...


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Paper# 40 40

THREE-DIMENSIONL MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON BLACK IN NR VULCANIZATES AS REVEALD BY 3D-TEM AND DIELECTRIC MEASUREMENTS

Author: Atsushi KATO*
Abstract: Usual rubber products are a composite from rubber and nano-filler (e.g. carbon black, silica, etc.), and it is believed that the good dispersion of the nano-filler is the most important issue...


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Paper# 41 41

FTIR INVESTIGATION OF DEGRADATION OF POLYMER COMPOSITES

Author: R. Rich,T. W. Zerda , W. H. Waddell
Abstract: Due to large absorption coefficient of carbon blackfilled polymers, transmission FTIR spectroscopy has not been well suited to study polymer blend. Recent developments in Attenuated Total...


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Paper# 42 42

Characterization of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube/NaturaI Rubber Nanocomposites

Author: A. M. Shanmugharaj and Sung Hun Ryu*
Abstract: In the present work, surface functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotube was carried out by introducing multifunctional silane like 3- aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The chemical interaction of...


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Paper# 43 43

Nanoscale Rubber Reinforcement: A Route to Enhanced lntercalation in Rubber- Silicate Nanocomposites

Author: Faisal Al-Yamani and Lloyd A. Goettler*
Abstract: Addition of organo-modified layered silicates (e.g., montmorillonite clay) to polymer matrices can produce effective polymer nanocomposites by intercalation of macromolecules into the interlayer...


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Paper# 44 44

Small Indentations of Rubber Blocks: Effect of Size and Shape of Block

Author: A. N. Gent* and O. H. Yeoh
Abstract: Many gaskets and seals consist of a long rubber strip or thin-walled ring, placed on a flat rigid surface and indented by a flat-ended rigid indenter. We have examined their resistance to small...


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Paper# 46 46

ON CHALLENGES IN STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF RUBBER COMPONENTS: FRICTIONAL CONTACT

Author: Mark R. Gurvich*
Abstract: Structural analysis of rubber and rubber-like components can be considered as one of the most challenging areas in solid mechanics. Among others, severe computational challenges are primarily...


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Paper# 47 47

STATISTICAL THEORY OF STRESSES IN RUBBER-LIKE MATERIALS

Author: Nicolae Mazilu*, John L. Turner, James D. Ulmer
Abstract: The general theoretical equation representing principal stresses gives them in the form: σ = σˇm + σˇa tanφ where σˇm represents the mean stress, σˇa represents the intensity of shear stresses...


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Paper# 48 48

DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF FILLED RUBBER - EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND FE SIMULATED RESULTS

Author: H.R. Ahmadi, J.G.R. Kingston* and A.H. Muhr
Abstract: A simple "viscoplastic" model has been used here to model a filled SBR vulcanizate, the objective is to predict dynamic properties, in particular the Fletcher- Gent or Payne effect, from non-cyclic...


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Paper# 50 50

THE USE OF A TETRA-ALKYL THIURAM DISULFIDE, WITH AN ACTIVATOR, FOR IMPROVED ROLLING RESISTANCE OF A NR TREAD FORMULATION

Author: Bob 0hm*
Abstract: The use of precipitated silica with a silane is used for improved rolling resistance in tread formulations based on solution SBR. This combination has not been used in natural rubber (NR)...


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Paper# 51 51

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN DRYING OF NATURAL RUBBER FOAM

Author: Nattapong Nithi-Uthai*
Abstract: In this research, drying of natural rubber foam was studied. Natural rubber foam were prepared and wetted to desire moisture content consequently were dried using hot air oven. Drying mechanism was...


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Paper# 52 52

RESISTANCE OF NATURAL RUBBER ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Author: Orasa Patarapaiboolchai and Saifon Keawsom
Abstract: Four forms of natural rubber, such as STR SL, 20, RSS-3 and ADS were used in rubber formulations. It was found that ozone cracking in rib smoked sheet is less than block rubber, especially RSS-3...


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Paper# 54 45

Numerical Simulation of Tire Traction on Various Road Conditions

Author: Yukio Nakajima
Abstract: The tire is the only point of contact between the car and the road and the traction is drastically changed by the road condition. Since the critical functions pe1formed by the tire are determined...


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Paper# 54 54

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIOPAQUE NATURAL RUBBER

Author: Nisha V.S and Rani Joseph*
Abstract: Currently radiopaque polymers are of great interest to medicine and dentistry because of their wide area of applications such as catheters, surgical tools, dental products, radiation shielders etc....


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Paper# 55 55

Effect of Cure System on Electrospun Butyl Rubber Nonwoven Mats

Author: Dan Murphy*
Abstract: Electrospinning of thermosetting elastomers is a method for developing nonwoven membranes with a microporous structure, for use in dynamic applications (i.e. stretchable). These membranes have...


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Paper# 57 57

Unconventional Silica - A New Way to Optimize the Performance of High Value Materials

Author: Gerd Schmaucks*, Bernd Friede, Anders Sarhuus, Jan Olaf Roszinski
Abstract: Precipitated and fumed silica are traditional reinforcing fillers for elastomers, giving high strength and other advantages. Their effect depends on the specific surface area (BET), the surface...


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Paper# 58 58

Advances in Tire lnnerliner Technologies

Author: Brendan Rodgers*, Robert N Webb, Weiqing Weng.
Abstract: Improvements in tire performance over the last 15 years have been dramatic. Significant enhancements in tire tread wear and traction, reductions in rolling resistance, and improvements in...


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Paper# 60 60

MECHANISTIC STUDY ON THE ROLE OF SULFURIZED PARA-ARAMID SHORT FIBERS IN RUBBER TO BRASS ADHESION

Author: R. N. Datta
Abstract: Adhesion between steel cord and rubber is an important factor determining the durability of tires, conveyer belts, hoses and other rubber based products using steel cord as reinforcement With the...


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Paper# 61 61

IBER STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTROSPUN BUTYL RUBBER WITH DIFFERENT CARBON BLACK TYPES

Author: Poonsub Threepopnatkul*
Abstract: Breathable butyl rubber nonwoven mats have been successfully produced by the electrospinning technique, providing a fibrous membrane with controlled porosity and surface area. These properties are...


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Paper# 62 62

SUITABILITY OF LOW IODINE HAF FOR TYRE CARCASS

Author: D. Mahapatra*, B. Arun & V. Taneja
Abstract: In order to meet the extensive severity and retreadability during service life of carcass of a tire, the suitability of HAF black has been explored in laboratory scale. The low iodine HAF black in...


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Paper# 63 63

MODERN FATIGUE TESTING FOR COMMERCIAL RUBBER APPLICATIONS

Author: Donald G. Young
Abstract: There have been a significant number of papers since the l9705s showing the successful application of energy based fatigue and fracture technology to model specific rubber applications and define...


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Paper# 64 64

The Correlation of Fatigue Crack Growth Rates in Rubber Subjected to Multiaxial Loading Using

Author: W. V. Mars*, A. Fatemi
Abstract: Although both the crack nucleation and growth stages of the fatigue failure process in rubber are manifestations of the same characteristic material behavior, the nucleation stage deserves special...


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Paper# 65 65

ENGINEERING DESIGN OF ELASTOMERIC COMPONENTS

Author: Kenneth Reifsnider * Xinyu Huang, Roham Solasi, and Matthew Feshler
Abstract: Earlier work has shown that the strength and growth of defects in elastomers is greatly affected by microstructure and mechanical constraint.[l] Current work is focused on ionomeric materials which...


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Paper# 66 66

Mechanical Behaviour and Damage Mechanism by x-ray Computed Tomography

Author: C. Bathias
Abstract: The study of microstructural network and damage mechanism of polymer and rubber, although deceptively simple, involves a complex interplay between material properties and service conditions. In...


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Paper# 67 67

Experimental determination of fatigue crack growth behavior and surface strain distribution of "faint waist pure shear" specimens with different crack tip radii.

Author: Christian Feichter, Zoltan Major*, Reinhold W. Lang
Abstract: The influence of the initial crack tip radius on the fatigue behavior and the strain distribution in the vicinity of the blunted crack tip was determined experimentally by a servo-hydraulic testing...


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Paper# 68 68

Effect of Aging and Crosslink Distribution on Physical Properties of Rubber Compounds

Author: Blake E. Matthies*, Edward R. Terrill, Abraham Pannikottu, C. Robert Samples, and James T. Lewis
Abstract: A new technique has been developed to evaluate the fatigue crack growth resistance of rubber compounds extracted from engineered components. Based on the standard DeMattia test, the iiMiniii...


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Paper# 69 69

PRODUCTION AND PROPERTIES OF GUAYULE LATEX - THE NATURAL SOLUTION T0 LATEX ALLERGY

Author: Katrina Cornish*, Jali Williams, Juiie L. Hall
Abstract: Natural rubber is an irreplaceable raw material vital to industry, transportation, medicine and defense, largely produced from clonal plantations of Hevea brasz'Zz'en.s'zls' in South-east...


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Paper# 70 70

The Evaluation of Injection Molding Capability for FKM

Author: Mitsuhiro Otani*, Yukihiko Hasegawa*, Motoko Osawa, James Jacks
Abstract: By Mitsuhiro Otani* Daikin Industries, Ltd. Osaka, Japan Yukihiko Hasegawa* Sanyu Industries, Ltd. Aichi-pref. Japan Motoko Osawa Sanyu USA, Inc. Maumee, OH James Jacks Daikin America Inc....


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Paper# 71 71

RPA 2000 PROCESS TROUBLE SHOOTING FOR ELIMINATION OF INJECTION MOLDING NON-FILLS WITH ASTM D6204

Author: Gary Veselica*, Mickey Condon
Abstract: Trouble shooting injection molding problems can be frustrating and time consuming. When an injection molded job is first started up on the production plant floor, many process parameters have to be...


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Paper# 72 72

Measurement of Scorch and Cure Properties using a Controlled Stress Curemeter

Author: Henry Pawlowski* and John Dick
Abstract: Scorch properties often have a direct effect on the processability of rubber compounds. The high temperatures that are popular for curemeter test temperatures today reduce the sensitivity of the...


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Paper# 73 73

The Effect of Silica Dispersion on Physical Properties

Author: Matthew C. Putman* and John B. Putman
Abstract: Rubber mixing has traditionally been optimized by testing, and relating physical properties to mixing conditions. A larger number of studies have focused on carbon black dispersion, and its effects...


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Paper# 75 75

STRAIN-INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION IN UN-VULCANIZED NATURAL RUBBERS BY SYNCHROTRON X-RAY STUDY

Author: Shigeyuki Toki*, Igors Sics ,Benjamin S. Hsiao , Sureerut Amnuaypornsri and Seiichi Kawahara
Abstract: Strain-induced crystallization and molecular orientation in un-vulcanized natural rubber (NR) during deformation have been studied in real time by synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques....


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Paper# 77 77

The Effect of Gas Phase Polymerized EPDM Particle Size and Structure on Crystallinity

Author: Robert T. Johnston*, Bruce T. Nakata, Susan G. James
Abstract: EPDM rubber was produced in a gas phase fluidized bed reactor where carbon black was used as a partitioning agent. This process created uniquely structured carbon black-EPDM particles with...


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Paper# 78 78

Oil Absorption Kinetics of Gas Phase Polymerized EPDM Particles

Author: Robert T. Johnston* and Susan G. James
Abstract: Since many rubber formulations contain oil, one approach to continuously compounding particulate forms of rubber is to dry-blend the particles and oil (and perhaps other ingredients) prior to...


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Paper# 79 79

THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS (TGA) AND DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS (DMA) OF ELASTOMERIC POLYMERS

Author: Henry Ashton* and Lynn Mclntyre
Abstract: Developments in modern analytical instrumentation allow measurements to be refined and provide improvements in accuracy and resolution. This paper covers the use of two such techniques, High...


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Paper# 81 81

Virtual Testing of the Performance of Scaling Elements in Wellhead Isolation Tools

Author: Allan Zhong*, Gero Testa
Abstract: The Wellhead Isolation Tool (WIT) isolates the wellhead from exposure to treating fluids and pressures. The WIT contains a seal element (cup) and mandrel that are inserted through the existing...


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Paper# 83 83

NONLINEAR HYPERELASTIC ANALYSIS OF A RUBBER BOOT - CASE STUDY

Author: Andrzej Kolinski*, Andrew Haber, Douglas Gagne
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present a case study reviewing the finite element methodology used to design rubber parts. NRI Industries Inc. performed a nonlinear hyperelastic finite element...


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Paper# 84 84

Fluorocarbon Elastomeric Coatings: A New Approach to Oil and Fuel Protection

Author: James R. Halladay*
Abstract: Part of a design engineer's job is to ensure that the parts he or she designs are protected against the environments to which they will be exposed. Elastomeric materials are utilized in numerous...


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Paper# 85 85

Effect of Preheat Temperature on the Location of the Minimum State of Cure in a Molded Component

Author: Russell L. Warley*
Abstract: The distribution of state of cure in a molded rubber component is usually non-uniform due to slow heat transfer processes involved in the molding cooling cycle. The minimum in the distribution...


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Paper# 86 86

EVELOPMENT OF TUNABLE VIBRATION ABSORBERS USING MAGNETHORHEOLOGICAL ELASTOMERS WITH BIMODAL PARTICLE DISTRIBUTIONS

Author: Paris R. von Lockette*, Jennifer Kadlowec, Jeong-Hoi Koo
Abstract: Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are state-of-the-art elastomagnetic composites comprised of magnetic particles embedded in an elastomer matrix. MREs offer enormous flexibility given that...


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Paper# 87 87

BATCH VISCOSITY CONTROL USING ASTM D 6204 PROCESSABILITY TEST WITH THE RUBBER PROCESS ANALYZER

Author: John Olson*
Abstract: In the Gates-Galesburg, IL batch control lab, a new quality control procedure has been implemented using the RPA 2000 Rubber Process Analyzer to run the ASTM D6204 processability test for measuring...


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Paper# 88 88

Considerations and Comparisons for Compression Set vs. Compression Stress Relaxation (CSR)

Author: Paul F. Tuckner
Abstract: Compression Set is a test that has been used to characterize elastomers for their ability to seal or retain their shape after conditions of deformation and exposure to different environmental...


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Paper# 91 91

Physical Testing Procedure of Extruded Products with Complex Geometries

Author: John B. Putman*, Matthew C. Putman, Julie A. Orlando
Abstract: Determining optimal cure time and precise quality control testing of profiles with complex extruded geometries presents unique challenges. Modulus provides a good indication oftinal properties,...


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Paper# 92 92

TWO IN ONE – A MODERN UNIVERSAL FLEXOMETER (ACCORDING TO GOODRICH) AND A DYNAMIC MECHANIC THERMAL SPECTROMETER (DMTS)- HEAT BUILD-UP AND VISCOELASTIC DATA WITH ONE TEST EQUIPMENT

Author: Horst Deckmann*
Abstract: Recently, GABO QUALIMETER Testanlagen GmbH, Germany, introduced a new modern generation of tlexometer test equipment. The progress in technology compared to the well established conventional...


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Paper# 93 93

A NEW APPROACH TO OPTIMISE CURE CYCLE OF A TYRE USING DSC

Author: Arup K. Chandra*, Tapas Mandal, Bijan Kumar Roy and P. K. Mohamed
Abstract: The extent of cure provided to a tyre compound plays an important role in its performance. An attempt has been made to apply differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique to understand the...


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Paper# 94 94

Xanthate Accelerators in the Vulcanization of lsobutylene-based Elastomers

Author: Nitin Tambe*, Scott Solis, Brendan Rodgers, Bharat B. Sharma and Walter.H. Waddell
Abstract: Vulcanization of isobutylenelisoprene copolymer (butyl rubber) using sulfur and organic accelerators is facilitated by the presence of the carbon-carbon double bond in the polymer isoprenyl unit....


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Paper# 95 95

NON-CARCINOGENIC TIRE EXTENDER OILS PROVIDING GOOD DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE

Author: Marika Joona*
Abstract: Non-carcinogenic mineral oil based plasticizers and extender oils are utilized more and more in rubber and tire compounds due to health and environmental consciousness as well as due to the...


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Paper# 96 96

Advanced Tackifiers for Rubber Compounding

Author: Timothy E. Banach*, L. Scott Howard, Mark Belill
Abstract: ABSTRACT Ongoing development efforts for new, higher performing tackifiers have resulted in some novel research in this area. The results for one class of new materials will be presented that shows...


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Paper# 97 97

Innovative Resins for Rubber to Metal Adhesion

Author: Timothy E. Banach, L. Scott Howard*, Mark Belill
Abstract: There has been a strong desire in the rubber manufacturing sector to obtain rubber to metal adhesion agents that exhibit improved processing and fewer EH&S issues over current materials, without a...


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Paper# 98 98

Rubber to Metal Adhesives Designed to Address Unique Bonding Challenges

Author: Thad Plasczynski*
Abstract: Throughout the twentieth century the task of bonding rubber to a rigid substrate has taken on a higher level of complexity due to numerous advances(changes) brought about by new material...


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Paper# 99 99

Analytical Methods used to Determine Failure Modes in Rubber to Metal Bonded Parts

Author: Michaeleen L. Pacholski*
Abstract: Determination of the cause of bond failure can require the use of many analytical techniques. Of primary importance is the determination of the interface of failure (adhesive, cohesive, primer,...


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Paper# 100 100

On the Carbon Black Network Junction Model Interpretation for the Payne Effect

Author: George B. Ouyang
Abstract: The non-linearity of dynamic modulus of filled vulcanizate at small strains, generally known as the Payne effect, is of practical and scientific interests. Payne systematically investigated this...


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Paper# 101 101

MODELING THE EQUILIBRIUM COMPRESSED VOID VOLUME OF CARBON BLACK

Author: George A Joyce* and William M Henry
Abstract: In this study, a broad range of furnace carbon blacks from very low to very high structure and fineness were evaluated for compressed void volume, colloidal and in-rubber properties. Compressed...


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Paper# 102 102

GRAPHITE IN RUBBER COMPOUNDS - NEW OPPORTUNITIES WITH GRAPHITE PRODUCTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RUBBER COMPOUNDS

Author: Thomas M. Gruenberger* and Nicolas Probst
Abstract: First investigations on graphite containing rubber compounds are presented. Due to the special nature of these carbon fillers, the study of electrical and thermal conductivity of the compounds was...


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Paper# 103 43a

Designing Modern Process Promoters to Maximize the Performance of Silica Reinforcement in Tires

Author: S. Monthey* and H.-M. lssel
Abstract: Since the introduction of silica as a performance enhancing reinforcement for tires, many changes have occurred in tire compound mixing and processing. The significant challenges created by...


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Paper# 104 104

A NEW CONCEPT OF SILICA, NAMED NEWWORKED SILICA, PROVIDING EXCEPTIONALY POWFUL REINFOECEMENT FOR RUBBER COMPOUNDS

Author: Gon Seo*, Shinyoung Kaang
Abstract: A new concept of reinforcing silica, named networked silica, was prepared by forming a three- dimensional network among silica particles with hydrocarbon linkages. Silica particles were combined by...


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Paper# 111 Iii

ZINC OXIDE REVIEW AND UNITED STATES MARKET CHARACTERISTICS

Author: Carl N. Caputo*, James W. Campbell
Abstract: This paper will begin with a summary of recent Global Trends in zinc oxide and their relation to the United States Industrial Markets. We will then review end use markets and applications linking...


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Paper# 49 A 49a

MULTI-SCALE MODELING OF RUBBER MATRIX COMPOSITE MATERIALS & STRUCTURES

Author: Roger Assaker* , Laurent Adam, Nicolas Bilger and lssam Doghri
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the numerical modeling of the behavior of a class of composites where a matrix material is reinforced with particles, fibers or more generally inclusions. Our aim is...


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