Technical Paper Archive

This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.

For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to:

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166th Technical Meeting

Date: October 05, 2004
Location: Columbus, OH

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $900.00

200th Technical Meeting - Fall 2021

198th Technical Meeting - Fall 2020

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

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Paper# 63 63

The Use of VESTENAMER@ Trans- polyoctenamer (TOR) and Ground Tire Rubber (GTR) in High Temperature Asphalt Applications

Author: Bernard J. Burns*
Abstract: Styrene-Butadiene-styrene (SBS) has been successfully used to modify asphalt for many years. Some disadvantages are the separation out of suspension of the SBS from the asphalt, the 17(P C...

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Paper# 1 01


Author: John S. Dick*
Abstract: With the new millennium, much progress has been made in the rubber industry to improve rubber test productivity, implement test rationalization and significantly reduce testing costs. These efforts...

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Paper# 2 02


Author: Morris S. Edmonds0n* and Bruce T. Nakata
Abstract: Nordel@ MG Hydrocarbon Rubbers [a third generation of metallocene derived EPDM elastomers] have been developed by combining the technological strength of INSITETM metallocene catalysts and the...

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Paper# 3 03

Crystallinity and Low Temperature Properties of High Mooney Gas-Phase Nordel® MG EPDM

Author: Arnis U. Paeglis*, Larry A. Meiske and Morgan M. Hughes
Abstract: This paper examines crystallinity and low temperature behavior of Nordel@ MG EPDM products made in the gas-phase process using INSITETM metallocene catalyst. Polymers over a range of compositions...

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Paper# 6 06

New DuPont™ Vamac® (AEM) Dipolymer with Improved Cure Rate and Compression Set

Author: By Klaus Kammerer*, Douglas King*, Laurent Lefebvre*, Edward McBride, Dave Mitchell, Zamin Shah and Yun-Tai Wu
Abstract: Ethylene acrylic (AEM) elastomers are widely used in applications where the combination of good heat and oil resistance is required. Elimination of post cure operations provides for lean...

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Paper# 7 07

A New Kind of Viscosity Modifier for High Performance Elastomers

Author: Gerd Schmaucks* Bernd Friede, Anders Sorhuus, Jan Olaf Roszinski
Abstract: The new viscosity modifier SIDISTAR® described in this presentation offers the opportunity to increase the dosage level of reinforcing fillers, like precipitated silica or carbon black, without...

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Paper# 8 08

Properties and processing of a Heat Cured ONE PART™ Liquid Silicone Rubber

Author: Paul Kehl*
Abstract: This paper outlines the results of physical testing and injection processing of a newly developed one component heat cured liquid silicone rubber system. This silicone system is able to alleviate...

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Paper# 9 09

SP and CST Technologies - A new generation of cost saving curatives in rubber processing.

Author: Fabien DEBAUD, Alfredo DEFRANCISCI and Leonard H. PALYS*
Abstract: ABSTRACT Improving processing time and scorch resistance of organic peroxide based curing systems is a constant objective that focuses on productivity increase, and consequently cost decrease. The...

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Paper# 10 10

Introduction to Peroxide Curable Ultra Low Viscosity FKM Technology

Author: Mitsuru Kishine* and James Jacks
Abstract: Last year, Daikin introduced the characteristics and processability of our new bisphenol cured FKM elastomer with ultra low viscosity (ULV). Process evaluations with this material showed...

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Paper# 11 11


Author: Roderic P. Quirk*, Taejun Yoo, Taehee Cheong and Hoon Kim
Abstract: Alkyllithium-initiated polymerization and electrophilic termination reactions have been used to synthesize co-amine-functionalized elastomers. Secondary amine-functionalized polymers have...

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Paper# 12 12


Author: Mayumi Hayashi*, Katsunari Inagaki, Akio Imai
Abstract: Much attention is still being paid to styrene-butadiene rubbers (SBRs) for tire tread compounds because they are one of the most important materials for improving both dry and wet grip and for the...

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Paper# 13 13


Author: Eric S. Castner
Abstract: Phase morphology is generally accepted to have a strong influence on the dynamic and mechanical properties of a composite. In conventional elastorner processing where internal mixers and mills are...

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Paper# 14 14


Author: Jake A. Da1phond*, Steven K. Henning, Craig W. Burkhart, and Stephan Rodewald
Abstract: Polymer-filler interaction influences the level of hysteresis observed in tires. By improving the interaction, one can expect enhanced filler dispersion leading to lower rolling resistance and the...

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Paper# 15 15

BIIR in Treads: Preparation of High Traction Tread Compounds Through Polymer-Filler Modification.

Author: Rui Flesendes*, Kevin Kulbaba and Anthony W. Nizioleki
Abstract: Tire tread formulations containing butyl (e. g. BIIR) elastomers are known to possess excellent wet traction performance. However, these tread compounds have historically possessed poor abrasion...

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Paper# 16 16

Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruder in Granular EPDM Rubber Continuous Mixing

Author: Pietro Lavaggi*
Abstract: Presentation Slides: Extrusion process is moving toward an interesting future in the field of rubber compounding. At present, a lot of work have been done to make continuous compounding a valuable...

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Paper# 17 17

Optimization of DMRT Testing For Cured Dynamic Properties

Author: John B. Putman*, Matthew C. Putman
Abstract: Oscillating disk curemeters, and more recently moving die curemeters, have routinely been used to evaluate how a rubber compound will vulcanize in the laboratory. These results have also been used...

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Paper# 19 19

Fully Automatic X-ray Inspection for Tire Manufacturers

Author: Mihai Cojocaru*
Abstract: Focus on tire quality has never been more intense. Pressure is on manufacturers to insure the quality of their product while reducing costs in order to survive in these tough economic times. This...

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Paper# 20 20

Nature of Strain-Induced Crystallization in Synthetic Poly-isoprene by In-Sim Synchrotron X-ray Study

Author: Shigeyuki Toki*, Igors Sics, Benjamin S. Hsiao, Masatoshi Tosaka
Abstract: Dynamic (strain-induced) crystallization and static (temperature- or time- induced) crystallization of poly-isoprene rubbers have been studied by simultaneous in- situ synchrotron X-ray and...

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Paper# 21 21

The Economics of Using Recycled Materials

Author: Bill Klingensmith, Sam Kaufman
Abstract: Presentation Slides only. Review of the global situation and impact on cost and availability for U.S. Rubber Industry. Examines cost of manufacturing recycled rubber and how it can be used to...

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Paper# 23 23

Compounding With Recycled Scrap Rubber

Author: Marvin J. Myhre
Abstract: Over the past decade a number of persons and companies have developed, patented and marketed technologies to regenerate scrap crumb rubber. The scrap crumb, regenerated was from both tire and non-...

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Paper# 25 25


Author: V. V. Rajan*, W. K. Dierkes, and J. W. M. Noordermeer*
Abstract: The mechanism of devulcanization of sulfur-vulcanized natural rubber with aromatic disulfides and aliphatic amines has been studied using 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene (Cg,-H12) as a low-molecular weight...

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Paper# 26 26


Author: Wenlai Feng* and A. I. Isayev
Abstract: The recycling of butyl rubber based tire-curing bladder was carried out by means of a grooved barrel ultrasonic extruder. Die pressure and ultrasonic power consumption were measured as a function...

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Paper# 27 27

Role of Compatibilization in Recycling Rubber Waste by Blending with Plastics.

Author: D. Mangaraj
Abstract: Blending ground rubber with thermoplastic and thermoset polymers is a very cost effective and efficient method for recycling rubber waste. However it is important for vulcanized rubber particles...

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Paper# 28 28

Trouser Tearing of a Model Natural Rubber Tread Ply Vulcanizate

Author: S. Hiza and G. R. Hamed*
Abstract: A previous paper dealt with T-peel tearing of a model black-filled NR tread ply vulcanizate. Tearing alternated between slow ("stick") and fast ("slip") growth stages. "Stick" fracture involved...

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Paper# 29 29

FIeld Aging of Tires, Part II

Author: John M. Baldwin *, David B. Bauer, Paul D. Hurley
Abstract: In an attempt to better understand the mechanism of rubber aging in tires, used tires were retrieved from customer cars. Consumers were contacted in 6 cities located throughout the United States...

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Paper# 30 30

Accelerated Aging of Tires, Part III

Author: John M. Baldwin*, David R. Bauer, Kevin R. Ellwood
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to determine the conditions whereby a new tire can be artificially aged in an accelerated manner, in order to duplicate the actual mechanism of chemical aging...

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Paper# 31 31

Correlation of Rubber Properties Between Field Aged Tires and Laboratory Aged Tires

Author: David R. Bauer*, John M. Baldwin, Kevin R. Ellwood
Abstract: The kinetics of aging of key tire properties both in the field and in oven exposures at different temperatures has been interpreted using a combination of empirical models and accelerated shift...

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Paper# 32 32


Author: Bernhard R. Tittmann* Jikai Du, Ian Lucas
Abstract: Evaluating the elastic properties of rubber is important for improving tire performance. Here, new ultrasonic techniques and results are reported for both soft rubber and real tire materials....

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Paper# 33 33


Author: John S. Dick*
Abstract: Rubber is different from other engineering materials in that it is commonly subject to many unique processing problems that are not normally encountered with the processing of other non-rubber...

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Paper# 34 34


Author: William W. Andersen*, John A. Sezna
Abstract: Over the past year, Eaton Corporation - Golf Pride has determined with the use of the Rubber Process Analyzer 2000 effective means for selecting an alternative supply of EPDM elastomers. Polymer...

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Paper# 35 35


Author: Arthur L. Scott
Abstract: Lean? Is it the new catchphrase like TQM or Kaizen? Or is it here to stay. In this paper we will discuss several of the Lean Manufacturing Methodologies such as 5S, KanBan, Poke Yoke, and Task...

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Paper# 36 36

Utilization of the RPA as a On-line Tester in a Rubber Mixing Department

Author: Sophie Blachere* and John Dick
Abstract: Hutchinson is well known in the rubber industry and has 96 production sites worldwide. In the US, Hutchinson has four production sites for the automotive sealing business and one mixing facility...

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Paper# 37 37

The Hysteresis Temperature and Strain Dependences in Filled Rubbers

Author: Alberto Scurati* and Chenchy J. Lin
Abstract: The strong hysteresis (tan 5) temperature dependence observed in filled compounds containin g functional polymers was investigated by studying the individual effect of filler-filler (F-F) and...

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Paper# 39 39

Control of Dynamic Properties by Engineered Nanomaterials

Author: Anne Feng Xie*, Eric S. Castner and Lei Zheng
Abstract: There has been increasing interest in applications of nanoparticles in rubber compositions, since they provide unique physical properties that differ from those of bulk material. Dynamic mechanical...

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Paper# 40 40

Influence of Nanosilica Particles on Hysteresis and Stress-Induced Crystallization of Natural Rubber as Investigated by a New Real Time True Stress-True Strain Birefringence System

Author: M. Cakmak*, F. Fiorentini, S. lVIowdood
Abstract: in this research the influence of nanosilica particles on hysteresis and stress - induced crystallization of natural rubber compounds is described. The Birefringence Spectral System developed in...

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Paper# 41 41

The Effect of Co-poly-(paraphenylene/3,4'-oxydiethylene) Terephthalamide Short Fiber in Silica Compounds

Author: R. N. Datta*
Abstract: The effect of Co-poly-(paraphenylene/3,4'-oxydiethylene) Terephthalamide short fiber (PP/ODPTA, Technora) has been investigated in silica Containing "green tire" compounds. It has been demonstrated...

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Paper# 42 42

Engineered Elastomer for Tire Reinforcement

Author: C. W. Tsimpris*, T. S. Mroczkowski*
Abstract: Concentrates of para-aramid pulp in matrix elastomers were developed to facilitate its incorporation into rubber compounds. These concentrates, called engineered elastomer, reinforce more...

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Paper# 43 43

Characterization of hard-to-process oil field application materials using Variable Temperature Analysis on RPA2000.

Author: Jogesh Arora*, Hamid Salem and John Dick
Abstract: Advancing material science to achieve extraordinary goals and improve oil field equipment performance and manufacturability are some of the primary goals of our organization. Elastomeric...

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Paper# 45 45


Author: Matthew Putman*, Frank Welsh
Abstract: The measurement and analysis of carbon black dispersion has been an important focus in the development and support of sulfur cured rubber products. Various microscopy and analytical methods,...

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Paper# 46 46

Wear Characteristics Predicted using Loss Modulus at High Strain

Author: Frederick Ignatz-Hoover*
Abstract: Chain segments between chain-ends and network junction points are not load bearing segments. Hamed concludes that dangling chain-ends adsorbed onto filler surfaces could "...bear slipping...

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Paper# 47 04

New Line of Modifiers for Low Polarity Elastomers and Plastics

Abstract: ABSTRACT This paper discusses ester-based additives to improve the properties of a number of low polarity polymers. These include elastomers like EPDM, Natural Rubber, Polychloroprene and...

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Paper# 47 47


Author: Zhenghong Tao*, Nantiya Viriyabanthorn, Bhavj it Ghumman, Carol Barry, Joey Mead
Abstract: This paper reviews the different types of heat resistant elastomers and the effects of compounding on the high temperature performance of these materials. Degradation mechanisms and testing...

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Paper# 48 48

Compounding for improved Physical and Heat Aging Properties in HXNBR

Author: R.J. Pazur*, L.P. Ferrari and E.C. Campomizzi
Abstract: Hydrogenated carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HXNBR) conveys many improved properties compared to carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR) such as mechanical properties (modulus and hot tear...

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Paper# 49 49

DuPont ETPV High Temperature Aging Performance

Author: C. Y. Lee-* and D. J. Wrigley
Abstract: DuPont ETPV engineering thermoplastic Vulcanizates (referred in this paper as ETPV) were introduced at the 2003 ACS Rubber Division meeting in Cleveland. ETPV is a higher performing class of...

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Paper# 50 50


Author: Mark Jones* and Edmee Files
Abstract: Hydrogenated nitriles (HNBR) have many desirable properties including heat, oil and fuel resistance. Low temperature properties are typically governed by the acrylonitrile (ACN) content. Low...

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Paper# 51 51

Optimizing Cure Conditions for a Peroxide Curable AEM Compound

Author: Edward McBricle, Douglas K. King, Yun Tai Wu, Klaus Kammerer, Laurent Lefebvre*
Abstract: AEM dipolymers are cured with peroxide. Two very important factors for a peroxide cure are the cure time and core temperature. The optimum core temperature can be determined by running a series of...

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Paper# 52 52

Compoundinq EPDM For Coolant Hose Applications, A Comparison Of EPDMs With Different Termonomers

Author: EPDMs With Different Termonomers
Abstract: A multitude of EPDM grades with varying properties can be found in the market today. Some manufacturers offer a wide selection of products from which to choose, while others focus on more specific...

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Paper# 53 53

4-E Cure Systems: Environmentally Safe Economical Exposure-less Easy to Use

Author: Ronnie L. Stuck*, Patricia M. Czomba, Rebecca A. Freeman, Mark J. Schill and Donna L. Decker
Abstract: The environmental focus with cure systems has been primarily to reduce or eliminate nitrosamine generating curatives. However, there are other environmental and health issues with rubber curatives...

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Paper# 55 55

Naphthenic Oil -- A Non-toxic Rubber Plasticizer

Author: Marika Joona*
Abstract: Mineral oils are complex mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. E.g. crude origin and refining technology affect the product character and performance in rubber compounds. There are...

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Paper# 56 56

Improving Silane Coupling to Rubber: The Use of 21 Zinc Processing Additive

Author: John Vander Kooi
Abstract: Examination of the silanes used by the tire industry from the bifunctionality of the silane (TESPT and TESPD) shows that both silanol and sulfur chemistry can be addressed. The sulfur crosslinking...

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Paper# 57 57

Moisture Level Effects on Hydrolysis Reaction in TESPD/Silica/CB/S-SBR Compound

Author: Kwang-Jea Kim* John Vanderkooi
Abstract: Moisture treated silicas (5, 35, 55 and l05wt%/l00wt%silica) have been. investigated in bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)disulfide(TESPD)/carbon black (CB)/S-SBR compound. The processability, the...

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Paper# 58 58

Use of a Waste Natural Gum as a Multi-Functional Additive in Rubber

Author: Soma Guhathakurta, S.Anandhan, Nikhil K.Singha R.N Chattopadhyay and Anil K. Bhowmick*
Abstract: Bahera gum, extracted from the bark of Terminalia bellerica, is a waste material. The present study involves the use of this natural gum as a rnulti-functional additive in natural rubber(NFt) and...

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Paper# 59 59


Author: Clay B. McElwee, Joseph Burke, and Richard Costin
Abstract: Peroxide curing is typically favored over sulfur vulcanization of elastorners in applications where superior heat-aged perfonnance is desired. The drawback of this system is that properties such as...

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Paper# 60 60

The Development of a New Heat Resistant ACM Elastomer for Extrusion Applications

Author: Andy Anderson, Rhoda Bruner, Paul Manley,* and David Tao
Abstract: As the space for under-the-hood components has decreased, temperatures in this environment have steadily risen. At the same time, automotive fluids and oils have become more aggressive. These...

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Paper# 62 62

improving the Processibility of HNBR

Author: Fred Guerin, Sharon X. Guo
Abstract: HNBR (hydrogenated nitrite butadiene rubber) is a high performance elastomer, known for its excellent heat/ oils resistance and superior mechanical properties. However, commercially available HBNR...

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Paper# 64 64a

“150°C Capable TPVs for Demanding Polyamide and Polyester Over- Molding

Author: Samuel C. Harber*, Brian J. Cail, Charles Smith
Abstract: In early 2003, a new type of high-performance thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV) was commercially introduced. These materials have improved heat (1500C) and oil resistance (exceeding 3000 hours) and...

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Paper# 64 64

Flame Retardant Coatings for Elastomers

Author: Ashwin Rao* and Abraham Pannikottu
Abstract: Intumescent coatings have been extensively used to enhance the fire resistance properties of organic and metallic surfaces. These coatings may be classified in two main categories viz. char forming...

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Paper# 65 65

EPDM in Water Seal Applications Some Cost/Performance Consideration

Author: M. Koch* and S. Hughes**
Abstract: The use of EPDM in water sealing applications has grown significantly over the last decade. This is especially true in Western Europe, where long running initiatives are underway to harmonize the...

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Paper# 66 66

Factors Iniluencing Low Temperature Performance of EPDM Compounds

Author: John Dewar.* and Don Tsou,
Abstract: EPDM polymers are used in many applications that require performance at low temperature for example in brake seals and fire sprinkler systems. The properties of EPDM polymers such as ethylene and...

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Paper# 67 67


Author: Maya K.S and Rani Joseph*
Abstract: A novel route for the incorporation of nanosized silica into natural rubber matrix is suggested. Silica is precipitated in stabilized natural rubber latex. Coagulation of the latex gives natural...

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Paper# 68 68

Characterization of Latex Foam Nanostructure

Author: John T. Lean* and Morgan S. Sibbald
Abstract: The application of non-conventional testing methods by Goodyear such as dynamic mechanical testing and scanning probe microscopy can lead to interesting new ideas about an old material, latex foam....

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Paper# 69 69

Electron Beam Modification and Crosslinking: Influence of Nitrile and Carboxyl Contents and Level of Unsaturation on Structure and Properties of Nitrile Rubber

Author: V. Vijayabaskar*, S. Bhattacharya#, V. K. Tikku# and Anil K. Bhowmick
Abstract: The structural changes of nitrile rubber with varying nitrile contents, hydrogenated nitrile rubber and carboxylated nitrile rubber in presence and absence of a polyfunctional monomer namely...

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Paper# 70 70

Multifunctional Elastomeric Coating for Use on Rubber Components

Author: James R. Halladay* and Frank J. Krakowski
Abstract: One method of rendering molded elastomeric parts resistant to degrading eiivironments is to apply a protective coating over the elastomeric material. Room temperature curable elastomeric coatings...

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Paper# 70 70a

The Story of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates: Products Development and Technical Strategies for Commercial Success

Author: Sabet Abdou-Sabet*
Abstract: Research activities in the thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) have led to significant technical innovations since the discovery of elastic fibers in the fifties. The discovery of thermoplastic...

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Paper# 71 71

Technical Marketing for TPE Suppliers

Author: John M. Christensen*
Abstract: Technical marketing is a vital tool that TPE suppliers can use to drive commercial sales of their specialty materials. While overall growth rates remain attractive, the TPE industry has matured...

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Paper# 72 72


Author: Gerald DiBattista, Eva Gesterman & Wolfgang Brauer
Abstract: The demands made on elastorneric plastics W particularly those destined for applications where tactile properties are key H are growing ever more rigorous. Many such applications make use of...

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Paper# 73 73

New Fast Molding TPV Grades

Author: Dr. Ashok M. Adur and Dr. Marina A. Rogunova
Abstract: Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) have grown from a small specialty business in the 1970's and 1980's to a sizeable business on a global basis, primarily by replacing traditional thermoset...

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Paper# 74 74

New Highly-Crosslinked TPES Based on VNB-EPDM with Improved Compression

Author: Maria D. ElIul*
Abstract: 5-vinyl-2-norbornene EPDM, (VNB-EPDM) is more efficient than 5- ethylidene-Zenorbornene, (ENB-EPDM) in peroxide crosslinking, producing high cu re state at low concentrations of VNB and peroxide....

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Paper# 75 75

Causes and Prevention of Gas Fading in Thermoplastic Elastomers

Author: Leonard H. Davis*, Joseph E. Pfeiffer
Abstract: Over the years, TPE formulations have been optimized to enhance their performance in molding and extrusion applications. Stabilizer packages have been fine- tuned to afford protection against...

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Paper# 76 76

Evaluation of the Fatigue Properties of a Novel Polyisobutylene- Polystyrene Thermoplastic Elastomer in Comparison with other Rubbery

Author: Judit E. Puskas*
Abstract: ABSTRACT This paper will discuss the dynamic fatigue properties of a newly commercialized polystyrene- b-polyisobutylene-b-polystyrene (PS-PIB-PS) thermoplastic elastomer (TPE), in comparison with...

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Paper# 77 77

Rubber to Rubber Adhesion: Improving Adhesion between Pre-cured and Uncured Rubber Components

Author: Bruce Hahn
Abstract: In the manufacturing of rubber articles it is often desirable to adhere pressured (vulcanized) rubber components to uncured components. Adhesion between two uncured rubber components takes place...

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Paper# 78 78

Explaining The Textures of Wire Belt Peel Surfaces

Author: Ronald W. Smith*
Abstract: Passenger tire wire belts were peeled apart using a simple device that isolates one- inch widths of a belt ply for controlled peeling in a direction parallel to the lay of the ply. Peeling...

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Paper# 79 79

Characterization of Adhesion Interlayer between Rubber and Brass by a Novel Method of Sample Preparation

Author: Takeshi Hotaka*, Yasuhiro Ishikawa, and Kunio Mori
Abstract: Instrumental characterization of an adhesion interface in a rubber-brass system often faces a difficulty in exposing a clean surface due to a stick of rubber residue on a brass surface. We have...

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Paper# 80 80

Investigation of the Adhesion Layer Formed on Brass Using FE-SEM

Author: Jong Myoung Kim*
Abstract: ABSTRACT Change in the morphological features of the adhesion layer formed on brass was attempted to investigated with FE-SEM. The effect of the key compounding ingredients on the morphology of the...

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Paper# 81 81

Interface investigation of brass - rubber compound adhesion using a novel technique

Author: Young Jin Kim
Abstract: novel technique that focuses on interfacial reactivity

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Paper# 82 82

Functional Study of Organic Cobalt Salt as an Effect on Vulcanization Chemistry and Rubber-to--Metal Adhesion in a Steel Cord Coating Application

Author: Makio Mori*, Takamasa Kitamura, and Takeshi Hotaka
Abstract: Effect of organic cobalt salt on a vulcanization chemistry and an interfacial nature of rubberwto-metal adhesion was studied in a steel cord-coating application by solid-state 13C-NMR, XPS, and...

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Paper# 83 83

Mechanistic Study of the Effect of Adhesion Promoter Resins on the Crystal Structure of the Copper Sulfide Adhesion Layer at the Rubber-Brass Interface

Author: Pankaj Y. Patil* and William J. Van Ooij
Abstract: We have recently presented the effect of adhesion promoters resins used in the belt compound of tires on the mechanical properties of the rubber compounds. Also, we have proposed that the presence...

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Paper# 84 84


Author: W. Stephen FuIton*
Abstract: Many excellent, fundamental studies on tyre cord adhesion have described how zinc diffuses through the rubber brass interface to be sulphidized to form zinc sulphide and how zinc combines with...

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Paper# 18A 18a


Author: F. Fiorentini, M. Cakmak*, S. Mowdood**
Abstract: In this research the influence of nanosilica particles on hysteresis and stress - induced crystallization of natural rubber compounds is described. The Birefringence Spectral System developed in...

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