Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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164th Technical Meeting

Date: October 14, 2003
Location: Cleveland, OH

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $500.00

200th Technical Meeting - Fall 2021

198th Technical Meeting - Fall 2020

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

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Paper# 1 1

HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT EPDM VIA METALLOCENE CATALYST AND GAS PHASE PROCESS

Author: Rajan G. Vara*, Christian Daniel
Abstract: Nordel® MG represents the combination of two of the latest technologies in EPDM manufacture, gas phase polymerization and metallocene catalysis. This combination of the two technologies extends the...


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Paper# 2 2

A New Nordel MG EPDM Product Development - NDR 37060

Author: Arnis U. Paeglis
Abstract: Significant developments in EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer) polymerization and manufacturing technology by DuPont Dow Elastomers L.L.C. have led to a number of new and useful product...


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Paper# 3 3

THIRD GENERATION METALLOCENE EPDMs - NORDEL® MG HYDROCARBON RUBBERS

Author: Morris S. Edmondson*
Abstract: A third generation of metallocene derived EPDM elastomers [Nordel® MG hydrocarbon rubber] has been developed by combining the technological strengths of INSITETM metallocene catalysts and the...


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Paper# 4 4

Ethylene Elastomers: A Comparison of Conven.tlonal Ziegler-Natta and Metallocene Products

Author: Bruce A. Harrington*, M. Glenn Wllllams
Abstract: Over the past two decades, new polyolefin products have been introduced that are made using stereorigid metallocenes with discrete structures. Metallocenes have made possible a wider variety of...


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Paper# 5 5

STYRENE-BUTADIENE RANDOM COPOLYMER AS PERFORMANCE ENHANCING ADDITIVE IN THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS

Author: Manoj Ajbani*, Chris Kiehl, and Andy Takacs
Abstract: Styrene-butadiene random copolymer (SBR) was added as a performance-enhancing additive by the Chemical Division of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (“Goodyear Chemical”) in blends of...


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Paper# 6 6

New Vamac® Polymer with Improved High Temperature Flex Resistance

Author: E. McBride, Y.T. Wu, D. D. King, K. Kammerer *
Abstract: A new Vamac® (AEM) polymer is being introduced which has better flex properties compared to conventional grades of Vamac®. The new polymer is Vamac® GXF. The compounds made from the new polymer...


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Paper# 7 7

INTRODUCING THE NEW CLASS OF TPVS: THEY CAN DO THE WORK OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE RUBBERS, OFTEN FOR LESS

Author: Jim Pike*, Amy Schantz, Katherine Cook
Abstract: Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) are increasingly seen as attractive alternatives to thermoset elastomers because of their ease of manufacturing, processing, recycleability, and performance. The...


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Paper# 10 2003fall 10

Peroxide Curing Trends Cure Characteristics of Peroxides

Author: Anders H. Johansson
Abstract: This paper is a study of the various peroxides and polymers used in the rubber industry. It will discuss the relative reactivity of different polymers with peroxides, the influence of zinc oxide on...


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Paper# 13 13

THE EFFECTS OF ADDITIVES ON PEROXIDE VULCANIZATION

Author: Peter R. Dluzneski*, Charles B. Helms
Abstract: Peroxides are commonly used for cross-linking of elastomers. This report discusses how various polymers react to peroxide cross-linking as well as the different cross-linking efficiencies observed...


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Paper# 14 14

NEW USEFUL ASTM TEST METHODS AND STANDARDS NOW AVAILABLE INTERNATIONALLY FOR THE RUBBER INDUSTRY

Author: John S. Dick*
Abstract: Abstract There are presently over 300 ASTM International Standards that are used daily by the rubber industry. These standards are used for classification of compounding materials, quality...


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Paper# 15 15

Cure State Distributions in Rubbers by Dynamic Nano-Indentation

Author: Andy H. Tsou*, Alistair D. Westwood*, Jonathan S. Schulze* and Erik G. Herbert**
Abstract: A depth-sensing and frequency-specific dynamic indentation technique was used to determine the spatial distributions of dynamic moduli, including storage (E') and loss moduli (E''), in...


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Paper# 16 16

CARBON BLACK DISPERSION MEASUREMENT IN RUBBER VULCANIZATES VIA INTERFEROMETRIC MICROSCOPY

Author: Archie P. Smith*, Toni L. Aybar, Ricky W. Magee, Charles R. Herd
Abstract: A new method for characterizing the carbon black dispersion in rubber compounds is introduced. This technique is based on interferometric microscopy (IFM) and utilizes the interference fringes...


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Paper# 18 18

Dynamic Testing of a Closed-Cell Elastomeric Foam, a Time-Temperature Superposition Study

Author: Alan I. Kasner
Abstract: Dynamic properties of a medium density, closed cell polyurethane foam were measured at a range of frequencies and temperatures in shear, compression, and bending modes for a time-temperature...


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Paper# 19 19

MECHANISM OF IMPROVED AGED RUBBER-TO-BRASS ADHESION USING ONECOMPONENT RESINS

Author: Pankaj Y. Patil* and William J. van Ooij
Abstract: Using a squalene liquid rubber modeling approach, we have shown recently that the role of an adhesion promoting one-component resin system is similar to the conventional resorcinol based...


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Paper# 20 20

ECONOMIC MODELING—CAN HISTORY PREDICT THE FUTURE? A Case Study of US Light Truck Sales

Author: Paul A. Boudreau, Bradley A. Jacobs*, Kimberly Kanevsky
Abstract: A method is proposed for creating models based on macroeconomic and industry indicators that can be used to forecast company and business performance. To illustrate the method, a model of US Light...


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Paper# 21 21

MES: GLOBALLY AVAILABLE NON-CARCINOGENIC PROCESS OIL FOR THE TIRE INDUSTRY

Author: F. M. Gragg. P. D. F. Vernon, L. de Seré, L. E. Hoch
Abstract: Increasing health and environmental concerns over the use of carcinogenic aromatic extracts in tires is causing manufacturers to seek alternate extender and process oils. ExxonMobil is responding...


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Paper# 22 22

ZINC LOADED CLAY AS ACTIVATOR IN SULFUR VULCANIZATION: A NEW ROUTE FOR ZINC OXIDE REDUCTION IN RUBBER COMPOUNDS

Author: Geert Heideman*, Jacques W.M. Noordermeer, Rabin N. Datta
Abstract: Concern about the release of eco-toxic zinc species from rubbers into the environment leads to an increasing interest in potential substitutes. Although alternative metal oxides and zinc compounds...


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Paper# 24 24

Liquid Phase Mixing: The Future of Natural Rubber Compounding for Productivity and Performance

Author: Ting Wang*, M. J. Wang, James Shell, Yee Ling Wong and Viktor Vejins
Abstract: It has been long thought that if carbon black dispersion could take place in a liquid phase process, many of the shortcomings in dry mixing could be eliminated. Recently, Cabot Corporation...


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Paper# 25 25

NOVEL ADHESION PROMOTER FOR VARIOUS ELASTOMER/SUBSTRATE COMBINATIONS

Author: Stephen O’Rourke
Abstract: Rubber adhesion to various substrates such as metal, glass, and textiles can be achieved in a number of ways. HALLBOND APS (Adhesion Promoter System) is unique in that adhesion can be accomplished...


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Paper# 26 26

A SIMPLIFIED APPROACH TO TESTING FOR QUALITY CONTROL AND PROCESS CONTROL

Author: John B. Putman*
Abstract: Quality and process control testing are used for batch releasing of rubber compounds as a way of assuring product uniformity. Since the advent of the Oscillating Disk Rheometer (ODR) in the 1960’s,...


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Paper# 27 27

Antimicrobial Rubber Addresses Cleaning & Part Replacement Challenges in Food Processing, Packaging, Medical & Other Applications

Author: B. Patel*, S. McDowell, R. C. Kerr, G. R. Haas
Abstract: Microscopic organisms can wreak havoc with rubber parts, often resulting in machinery and equipment disassembly, high-cost cleaning bills, and downtime. Premature deterioration and replacement of...


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Paper# 28 28

IMPROVING CURE CHARACTERISTICS IN PEROXIDE CURED POLYISOPRENE

Author: Joseph S. Burke
Abstract: The processing and curing of natural rubber and polyisoprene with sulfur systems is a mature art. The compounder and molder can be presented with choices in scorch safety and cure rate suitable...


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Paper# 30 30

EPDM PEROXIDE VULCANIZATION IN HOT AIR

Author: Herman Dikland*, Dave Hofkens
Abstract: Ethylene-propylene co and ter-polymers (EPM and EPDM) have found common use in a wide variety of automotive, industrial, electronic and domestic applications. EPDM can be crosslinked both with...


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Paper# 31 31

No Post Cure Developments with AEM Ethylene Acrylic Elastomers

Author: Klaus Kammerer, Douglas King*, Laurent Lefebvre , Edward McBride, Dave Mitchell, and Yun-Tai Wu
Abstract: Ethylene acrylic (AEM) elastomers are widely used in applications where the combination of good heat and oil resistance is required. Elimination of post cure operations provides for lean...


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Paper# 32 32

USE OF COAGENTS IN PEROXIDE-CURED CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE

Author: Clay B. McElwee
Abstract: Although peroxide-curing of chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) is a common practice, this elastomer tends to have a relatively low state of cure without the addition of a coagent. Coagents can be used...


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Paper# 33 33

LABORATORY SIMULATED AGING AND THE EFFECT ON THE OXYGEN CONTENT IN RUBBER

Author: Dave L. Schwarz*, Donald W. Askea and Bruce D. Lambillotte
Abstract: Aging of rubber in internal tire components is typically associated with oxidation. With exposure in the field, oxygen levels in rubber components can significantly change with time. Laboratory...


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Paper# 34 34

Accelerated Aging Of Tires, Part I

Author: John M. Baldwin
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to determine whether a new tire can be artificially aged in an accelerated manner, duplicating the actual mechanism of chemical aging observed in field-aged tires....


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Paper# 35 35

Field Aging of Tires, Part I

Author: John M. Baldwin*, Mark A. Dawson and Paul D. Hurley
Abstract: In order to quantitatively understand the effects of mileage, age, environmental conditions, and vehicle interactions on the steel belt package of a radial tire, a study was conducted to retrieve...


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Paper# 36 36

THE PRINCIPLE OF SHEAROGRAPHY AND ITS APPLICATION TO NONDESTRUCTIVE TIRE TESTING

Author: Robert W. Yeager
Abstract: Shearography, also called “Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry,” or “Laser-Based Shearography,” is an interferometric method of inspection which permits full-field observation of surface...


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Paper# 37 37

Non-Destructive Evaluation of Tires Using X-Band Microwave

Author: Massood Tabib-Azar, Joseph Zarycki, S. K. Mowdood
Abstract: To develop applications of microwave for non-destructive evaluations of tires, we performed preliminary measurements including transmission spectroscopy, polarization measurements and...


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Paper# 39 39

POLYMER AND ALIGNED CARBON NANOTUBE NANOCOMPOSITES

Author: Liming Dai* and Junbing Yang
Abstract: The excellent optoelectronic, mechanical, and thermal properties of carbon nanotubes have made them very attractive for a wide range of potential applications. However, many applications require...


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Paper# 40 40

An Analysis of the Microscopic Deformation Field in Rubbers Filled with Nano-Particles

Author: Arnab Sarkar*, Joseph C. Dellamorte and James M. Caruthers
Abstract: Nanometer size particulate fillers like carbon black are used to improve the mechanical performance of engineering elastomers, where the properties depend upon the volume fraction and structure of...


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Paper# 41 41

LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES COMPRISING RUBBERY POLYMER MATRICES

Author: L. A. Goettler*, H. Thakkar, K. Y.Lee, M. Benes, and L. Hlnojosa~Falcon
Abstract: This review of the pertinent literature dealing with layered silicate nanocomposites comprising rubbery polymer matrices is supplemented with original data. from the authors' laboratory. It...


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Paper# 42 42

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber Based Nanocomposites : Preparation and Mechanical Properties

Author: Susmita Sadhu and Anil K. Bhowmick*
Abstract: Nanocomposites were prepared using three different grades of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) containing 19%, 34% and 50% acrylonitrile group and octadecyl amine modified Na-montmorillonite...


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Paper# 43 43a

RUBBER NANOCOMPOSITES VIA SOLUTION AND MELT INTERCALATION

Author: Siby Varghese*, J. Karger-Kocsis and Abraham Pannikodu
Abstract: A brief review was given on the production and structure/property relationships in rubbers reinforced by layered silicates. Natural rubber (NR) based nanocomposites from latex with 10-wt% natural...


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Paper# 43 43

Synthesis and Characterization of Acrylic Rubber/ Silica Nanocomposites by Sol-Gel Technique

Author: Abhijit Bandyopadhyay, Mousumi De Sarkar and Anil K. Bhowmick*
Abstract: Acrylic rubber / silica nanocomposites were synthesized by using sol-gel technique involving tetraethoxy silane (TEOS), deionized water and catalytic amount of concentrated hydrochloric acid. All...


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Paper# 44 44

Establishing Structure-Property Relationships using Materials with Linear and Star-Branched Macrostructures

Author: Steven K. Henning
Abstract: Establishing structure-property relationships between polymer macrostructure and compound performance and processing characteristics is an important step in the development of new elastomeric...


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Paper# 45 45

DMA ANALYSIS OF CONDUCTIVE BR/EPDM/CB BLENDS

Author: Rigoberto Ibarra-Gómez*, Alfredo Márquez, Mónica Mendoza-Duarte
Abstract: In the present work, Dynamical Mechanical Analysis was employed in order to evaluate viscoelastic properties of polybutadiene (BR)/EPDM/Carbon black (CB) blends as a function of the strain...


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Paper# 46 46

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF SOLVENT SWELLING ON THE CONDUCTIVITY OF ELASTOMER-CARBON BLACK COMPOSITES . PART I: ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION.

Author: Antonio Carrillo and Alfredo Márquez*
Abstract: In the present work the evolution of the electric properties of two electro-conductive composites is studied when they enter in contact with organic liquids. The composites were elaborated with two...


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Paper# 47 47

DISTRIBUTED MICRO-BEND OPTICAL SENSOR WITH DIRECTIONAL SWELLING AND OPTIMAL ELASTOMER PERFORMANCE

Author: Alfredo Márquez* Mónica Mendoza-Duarte And Antonio Carrillo
Abstract: This paper reports the second part of a work that introduces and describes the testing of a new optical distributed sensor. This new sensor is capable of detecting and locating liquid hydrocarbon...


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Paper# 48 48

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Rubber in Immersion Environments

Author: Steven Sauerbrunn and Michael Zemo
Abstract: Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) is used to determine the modulus and damping (mechanical energy absorption) of viscoelastic materials such as most elastomers, as functions of temperature, time,...


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Paper# 49 49

When an SEM is Not Enough: Addressing the Question of Dispersion in Torn Samples

Author: Fred Fraser*, Jim Hoffman, Joshua Kelley, F. Joseph Walker
Abstract: This paper recounts some of the events surrounding a dispute between a supplier and a customer regarding test failures involving styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) diaphragms. At the heart of the issue...


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Paper# 50 50

NONDESTRUCTIVE RUBBER PRODUCT TESTING: THE NMR-MOUSE

Author: B. Blümich
Abstract: The NMR-MOUSE® is a small NMR sensor which is positioned on the object of interest for investigation of surface–near volume elements in terms of relaxation and other NMR parameters. The transverse...


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Paper# 51 51

CHARACTERIZATION OF ELASTOMERS AND ELASTOMERIC COMPOSITES FOR APPLICATIONS TO TIRE PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS

Author: Bernhard R. Tittmann
Abstract: Tires usually consist of rubber and reinforced metal wires. Understanding the elastic properties of the rubber material and evaluating the bond condition between the rubber and wires are important....


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Paper# 52 52

Simulation of Rolling Resistance with the Method of Pulsed Dynamic Mechanic Thermal Spectroscopy (P-DMTS)

Author: Horst Deckmann*
Abstract: The development of new tires with improved properties (e.g. optimised rolling resistance) is a main target of the research departments in the tire industry. In the early beginning (compounding) up...


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Paper# 53 53

THE DETECTION OF MATRIX DEGRADATION IN THE WEDGE RUBBER COMPOUNDS

Author: Michael Peterson*
Abstract: Recently attention has been focused on the degradation mechanics of rubber as a result of the Engineering Analysis Report from the Firestone Wilderness AT tires by the Office of Defect...


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Paper# 54 54

Peel Adhesion as a Measure of Rubber Properties for Steel Belted Radial Tires

Author: Mark A. Dawson* and John M. Baldwin
Abstract: Peel adhesion between steel belts in radial tires has been used recently as a method by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) to investigate the resistance of tires to...


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Paper# 57 57

NEW DEVELOPMENTS ON METALLOCENE ETHYLENE α-OLEFIN ELASTOMERS BLENDS WITH STYRENE BLOCK COPOLYMERS.

Author: MORGAN M. HUGHES and NEI S. DOMINGUES JR.
Abstract: Even after reaching product maturity, Styrene Block Copolymers (SBCs) still attract much technological and scientific interest because they provide low cost formulations in many traditional...


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Paper# 58 58

SPECIALTY ELASTOMER MODIFIERS WITH ISOTACTIC PROPYLENE CRYSTALLINITY FOR POLYPROPYLENE MODIFICATION

Author: N. Dharmarajan *, M.G. Williams and S. Datta
Abstract: Specialty elastomers possessing isotactic propylene crystallinity are a novel class of polyolefins made possible by advances in metallocene polymerization. These polymers contain a propylene rich...


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Paper# 59 59

STRUCTURE CHANGES DURING UNIAXIAL DEFORMATION OF ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE ELASTOMER BY IN-SITU SYNCHROTRON WIDE-ANGLE X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDIES

Author: Shigeyuki Toki*, Igors Sics , Li-Zhi Liu , Benjamin S. Hsiao , Andy H. Tsou and Sudhin Datta
Abstract: In-situ structural changes during uniaxial stretching and subsequent retraction of a new type of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) based on the propylene dominant ethylene-propylene (EP) copolymer were...


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Paper# 59 59

STRUCTURE CHANGES DURING UN IAXIAL DEFORMATION OF ETHYLEN E-PROPYLEN E ELASTOMER BY IN-SI T U SYN CHROTRON WIDE-ANGLE X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDIES

Author: Shigeyuki Toki*, Igors Sics, Li-Zhi Liu, Benjamin S. Hsiao, Andy H. Tsou and Sudhin Datta
Abstract: In-Sim structural changes during uniaxial stretching and subsequent retraction of a new type of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) based on the propylene dominant ethylene-propylene (EP) copolymer...


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Paper# 60 60

POLYOLEFIN ELASTOMERS WITH ISOTAOTIO PROPYLENE ORYETALLINITY

Author: E. DATTA., S. SRINIVAS., C. Y. CHENG, W. HU., A. TSOU, AND D. J. LOHSE
Abstract: Polyolefin elastomers, based on ethylene and its copolymers with alpha olefins such as propylene or octane, combine the desirable attributes of processlbllity, economy and resistance to...


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Paper# 61 61

SELF-COMPATIBILIZATION BEHAVIOR OF THE MODIFIED POLYMER AT THE CHAIN END WITH NITROXYL RADICAL

Author: Makoto Ashiura*, Keisuke Chino and Tetsuji Kawazura
Abstract: Self-compatibilization of an immiscible blend was investigated by a functionalized polymer, which has a nitroxyl radical moiety at the chain end. The polymer was prepared by the reaction of a...


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Paper# 62 62

Introduction to Ultra Low Viscosity FKM Technology

Author: Mitsuru Kishine*, Masaki Irie
Abstract: Ways to lower viscosity for Vinylidene Fluoride/Hexafluoropropylene Copolymers were studied in order to develop fluoroelastomers with improved processing capabilities. The new polymerization...


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Paper# 63 63

DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOUNDING PROCESSES FOR FLUROELASTOMERS USING TWIN-SCREW COMPOUNDERS

Author: Shankar Godavarti* and Scott Koenig
Abstract: This paper presents the results of converting a fluoroelastomer batch compounding process into a continuous process using thermoplastic twin-screw compounders. Compounding of fluoroelastomers is a...


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Paper# 65 65

ADHESIVES FOR BONDING FLUOROELASTOMERS-TO-METAL IN AUTOMOTIVE SEALING APPLICATIONS

Author: E. Polaski* and D. Mowrey
Abstract: Fluoroelastomers (FKM) continue to increase in their usage in automotive sealing applications primarily because of their superior chemical resistance. Early automobiles used cork or leather for...


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Paper# 66 66

NEW TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCE SILICONE SPONGE WITHOUT CHEMICAL BLOWING AGENTS OR VOLATILE ORGANICS

Author: Ronald Romanowski* and Bradley A. Jones
Abstract: Silicone sponge materials are used in applications requiring the benefit of siloxane polymers such as; low temperature flexibility, thermal resistance, UV and ozone resistance, and electrical...


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Paper# 67 67

Rheology of PVC Plastisol - XI: Viscosity Aging, Mechanisms and Plasticizer Types

Author: N. Nakajima and E. R. Harrell
Abstract: The viscosity of PVC plastisol increases during storage, a phenomenon called viscosity aging. One of the causes of the viscosity aging is the de-agglomeration of agglomerated particles, which are...


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Paper# 68 68

BLENDING ETHYLENE VINYLACETATE COPOLYMERS WITH NITRILE TO IMPROVE OZONE RESISTANCE

Author: Don Tsou* and John Dewar
Abstract: Nitrile elastomers are used in many demanding environments and frequently come in contact with ozone during service. Unfortunately, nitrile elastomers unless hydrogenated have relatively poor...


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Paper# 69 69

CRACK GROWTH IN VULCANIZED RUBBER

Author: G. R. Hamed
Abstract: Over the past several years we have studied crack growth in gum and blackfilled vulcanizates, including compositions based on EPDM, SBR, NR, BR,and NR/BR blends. Usually, tensile specimens...


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Paper# 70 70

STEEL CORD ADHESION AFTER HEAT AGING AND DYNAMIC EXERCISE

Author: Bruce D. Lambillotte* and Marc A. Gibson
Abstract: Dynamic exercises of ASTM D2229 steel cord/rubber blocks, coupled with heat aging studies were explored to investigate a new laboratory adhesion test for cord-rubber composites. Aging was...


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Paper# 73 73

HYDROCARBON EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM TIRES

Author: LaRon Michelle Brown* and Paul D. Hurley
Abstract: As the amount of hydrocarbons permitted to be emitted by vehicles moves lower and lower, vehicle manufacturers are examining the component sources of the emissions and attempting to limit them. The...


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Paper# 74 74

Technical Trends in Indoor Tire Testing

Author: Gerald R. Potts*, Joseph D. Walter and E. Gerald Eigenfeld
Abstract: A brief history reaching back almost 100 years is presented with the past 30 years showing definite “Up Tech” trends in test technology. The development of computers and modern control systems...


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Paper# 76 76

Characterization of Carbon Black Filled Elastomers by Ultrasonic Impedance Technique

Author: W. Victor Chang*
Abstract: A complete characterization of linear viscoelastic properties of an isotropic material requires measurement of both the longitudinal and the shear ultrasonic properties at a constant frequency....


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Paper# 77 77

SILICA FILLER AS A CROSSLINKING AGENT FOR FUNCTIONALIZED RUBBERS: ROLE OF COUPLING AGENTS

Author: S.K. De
Abstract: High temperature molding of the XNBR-precipitated silica and ENR-precipitated silica mixtures leads to crosslinking of the rubber phases, even in the absence of conventional rubber vulcanizing...


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Paper# 78 78

DROP TEMPERATURE EFFECTS OF MOISTURE TREATED SILICA ON TESPD/CB/S-SBR COMPOUNDS

Author: Kim K-J and VanderKooi J.
Abstract: The effects of drop temperatures were investigated on moisture treated (50wt%) silica/(triethoxysilylpropyl)disulfide (TESPD)/carbon black (CB)/S-SBR compounds with respect to processability,...


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Paper# 79 79

Characteristics of Elastomeric Nanofiber Membranes produced by Electrospinning

Author: Yoshihiro Yamashita, Akira Tanaka and Frank Ko*
Abstract: This study examines the feasibility of co-electrospinning of vapor grown nanofiber (VGNF) and vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCF) within thermoplastic elastomer matrices including SBS block copolymer,...


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Paper# 80 80

The Chemistry of Anti-Degradants

Author: Peter R. Dluzneski* and Charles B. Helms
Abstract: Environmental factors such as oxygen, ozone, light, heat, humidity, solvents, and other chemicals can severely reduce the longevity of rubber parts. To protect rubber articles from the environment,...


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Paper# 81 81

Improved aging resistance of elastomers by micro-disperse rubber additives

Author: Ana Maria Cano Sierra, Thomas Frueh*, Hans-Martin Issel
Abstract: The chemical structure of rubber networks is changed over the live time of parts due to environmental influences as heat, fluids, oxygen, ozone, dynamic load and other deteriorating effects. This...


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Paper# 82 82

Solid-State 13C NMR Studies of Temperature Effects in the Oxidative Degradation of Natural Rubber Vulcanizates

Author: Yuji Kitamura* and J. L. Koenig
Abstract: Carbon black filled and unfilled natural rubber composites, degraded at 85 and 110'C, were analyzed with solid-state 13C NMR and equilibrium swelling measurements. No significant changes of the...


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Paper# 83 83

THINGS I LEARNED ABOUT PPDS AT MY MENTOR'S KNEE AND OTHER PLACES

Author: Joseph A. Kuczkowski
Abstract: A hodgepodge of information on para-phenylene-diamine antioxidants / antiozonants will be presented. Some of it will be factual. Some of it will be speculative. Some of it will be mechanistic....


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Paper# 85 85

THERMAL STABILITY OF FLUOROELASTOMER CROSSLINKS: PEROXIDE/TRIAZINE AND BISPHENOL-AF CURE

Author: W. F. BOYE* and D. L. HERTZ III.
Abstract: Fluorocarbon elastomers are amorphous polymers designed to meet the demanding conditions in aggressive environments. The polymer backbone must have good resistance to heat and a broad range of...


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Paper# 86 86

ULTRASONIC TREATMENT OF UNFILLED BUTADIENE RUBBER

Author: Jeong Seok Oh , A. I. Isayev* and E. von Meerwall
Abstract: The ultrasonic treatment of gum and vulcanizates of unfilled butadiene rubber (BR) in a grooved barrel ultrasonic reactor at various processing conditions was carried out. During ultrasonic...


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Paper# 88 88

AMPHIPHILIC RECYCLED RUBBER PARTICLES USED FOR SURFACE COATINGS

Author: Nima Shahidi*, Hamid Arastoopour and Fouad Teymour
Abstract: Almost 3 million tons of scrap tires are annually generated in North America. Among the rubber recycling approaches, size reduction is a feasible approach for the most beneficial reuse of these...


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Paper# 89 89

CONTINUOUS PROCESS FOR RECYCLING OF POLYURETHANE FOAM

Author: Sayata Ghose* and A.I. Isayev
Abstract: The investigation deals with the recycling of high resiliency polyurethane foam by the application of high power ultrasound in a continuous ultrasonic reactor. The foam has been decrosslinked at...


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Paper# 90 90

Tire Recycling to Crum

Author: Dan Burda
Abstract: The scrap or waste tire has become one of the most recognized waste items in the world. Fortunately, due to the basic building block of tires, i.e. rubber, and its high value and energy content,...


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Paper# 91 91

CALCULATION METHODS FOR SPHERICAL ELASTOMER BEARINGS PART I: ANGULAR DEFLECTION

Author: Judson T. Bauman
Abstract: This paper briefly traces the history of spherical elastomer bearings in high load applications. The mathematical treatment of angular deflection, carried by shear in the pads, is presented. The...


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Paper# 92 92

On Frictional Characterization of Elastomers and Elastomeric Composites

Author: M. Scherbakov
Abstract: Frictional behavior is an important mode of performance for a majority of engineering problems involving material contact. Frictional resistance is considered to be one of the leading factors in...


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Paper# 93 93

Crack growth in twisted rubber disks. Part 3. Effects of crack depth and location

Author: O. H. Yeoh* and A. N. Gent
Abstract: A simple analysis of the fracture energy for a shallow ring crack in a twisted rubber disk is presented and compared to a linear fracture mechanics solution for a similar crack in an infinitely...


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Paper# 95 95

ORIGINS OF CATASTROPHIC FAILURE IN SUV TIRES AS COMPOSITE STRUCTURES

Author: B. L. Lee, J. H. Song* and A. Hosterman
Abstract: In view of extensive safety recall of the tires equipped for Ford Explorer sports and utility vehicles (SUV) due to their catastrophic “belt leaving belt” failures, several crucial mechanical...


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Paper# 96 96

HIGH-PERFORMANCE 150°C CAPABLE THERMOPLASTIC VULCANIZATES (TPVS) - LONG-TERM AGING BEHAVIOR AND PROCESSING

Author: Brian J. Cail* Robert D. (Bob) DeMarco Charles Smith
Abstract: A new family of 150°C capable, heat- and oil-resistant thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) has found growing interest in under-the-hood automotive applications. The low-temperature properties and...


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Paper# 97 97

Organic Phosphite Stabilizers (OPS)

Author: Don R. Stevenson*, Daryl Stein, Ryan Reese and Dr. Michael Jakupca
Abstract: Organic phosphite stabilizers (OPS) can be used to protect many polymers against color and melt flow degradation during processing. A major use of liquid phosphites is in liquid iimixed metal...


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Paper# 98 98

QUINONEDIIMINE ANTIDEGRADANT FOR COST SAVING – PRODUCTIVITY IN VARIOUS GRADES OF NATURAL RUBBER

Author: Frederick Ignatz-Hoover and Byron H. To*
Abstract: Improvements in mixing efficiency can offer significant savings in natural rubber compounds. Mixing fine particle carbon black into tough grades of natural rubber can be a difficult and time...


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Paper# 99 99

Free Radical Mechanisms of p-Phenylenediamine-type Antiozonant Protective Reactions

Author: Xian-Man Zhang
Abstract: Degradation caused by the atmospheric ozone is known to be the main cause for the aging of rubber and other polymeric materials, so antiozonants have been widely used to increase the lifetimes of...


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Paper# 100 100

Processing Effects on the Aging Characteristics of NR

Author: James Shell*, Ting Wang, and Viktor Vejins
Abstract: The aging characteristics of NR under high temperature conditions are well known, but it has been observed that the aging characteristics of NR compounds mixed in the latex phase are different...


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Paper# 101 101

Novel, Aminic Antioxidant, Antiozonant & Antifatigue for Rubber Compounding

Author: Chris Fagouri* , Joe Fay & Gerrit Knobloch
Abstract: Ciba Specialty Chemicals has developed a novel aminic para-phenylenediamine based stabilizer that provides good thermal, fatigue and antiozonant protection to rubbers. This new stabilizer is...


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Paper# 102 102

Novel Compounding Techniques to Enhance the Performance of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber (HNBR)

Author: Nick Sandland
Abstract: Continued research into the enhancement of high temperature stability of Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (HNBR) via the effective use of ingredients of a high pH. It is postulated that by...


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Paper# 103 103

The Effect of Vulcanization Systems on Bin Storage Stability, Physical and Cure Properties of Carboxylated Nitrile Rubbers

Author: Gregory P. Blackmon*, Rayner Krista, John Dewar
Abstract: Carboxylated nitrile rubbers (XNBR) are terpolymers of acrylonitrile, butadiene and an organic acid monomer. Although cured by conventional systems, the introduction of pendant carboxyl groups...


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Paper# 104 104

HXNBR FOR OIL WELL SPECIALTIES (OWS) AND ROLL APPLICATIONS

Author: Lorenzo Ferrari*, Richard J. Pazur, Ezio C. Campomizzi
Abstract: Hydrogenated Carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (HXNBR) compounds provide excellent mechanical properties, such as abrasion resistance and hot tear strength, as well as heat, oil and fluid...


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Paper# 105 105

HNBR/EVM BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE POWERTRAIN APPLICATIONS

Author: Lorenzo Ferrari*, R. J. Pazur, E. Campomizzi, W. von Hellens, G. Blackmon, and O. Pyrlik
Abstract: Hydrogenated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) compounds provide excellent mechanical properties, as well as heat, oil and fluid resistance in many demanding automotive applications. Ethylene...


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Paper# 106 106

Fatigue Life Comparisons of NR Compounds

Author: R. J. Del Vecchio*
Abstract: A designed experiment was used to evaluate multiple combinations of polyisoprene type, polybutadiene blending, addition of antidegradants, and variation in sulfur cure systems to determine what...


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Paper# 107 107

Continuous Compressive Stress Relaxation of Elastomers used in Engine Sealing Applications

Author: Richard J. Pazur*, Jon Bielby and Urban Dinges
Abstract: This presentation discusses the use of continuous compression stress relaxation (CCSR) as a benchmarking tool in differentiating sealing retention capabilities of a series of typical automotive...


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Paper# 108 108

SYNTHESES OF CYCLIC POLYSULFIDES AND THEIR PROPERTIES AS CURING AGENTS

Author: Wonmun Choi *,Tomoyuki Matsumura
Abstract: The reactions of dichloroalkanes and sodium tetra-sulfide (Na2S4) were carried out in the mixture of water and toluene to produce corresponding cyclic polysulfides and polysulfide polymer. The low...


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Paper# 109 109

A REVIEW OF THE DIFFERENT MIXING METHODS AND PROCESS ADDITIVE INFLUENCES IN BLACK AND SILICA FILLED COMPOUNDS

Author: Colin Clarke* and Manfred Hensel
Abstract: Although there has been much development and discussion regarding the use of silica as an alternative to carbon black as filler, in practice the usage is not fully adopted. Many applications are...


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Paper# 110 110

MODELING OF THE DISPERSION OF PARTICLE CLUSTERS

Author: Maddalena Fanelli*, Donald L. Feke and Ica Manas-Zloczower
Abstract: Dispersive mixing plays a fundamental role in compounding processes. Solid particle clusters, subjected to shearing forces while flowing through process streams, break down into smaller...


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Paper# 111 111

IMPROVEMENTS IN PROCESSING OF SILICA COMPOUNDS: OPTIMIZATION OF THE MIXING EQUIPMENT

Author: Wilma Dierkes*, Jacques W.M.Noordermeer
Abstract: The replacement of carbon black by silica in tread compounds results in a better performance of the tire in terms of wet-grip, abrasion resistance and rolling resistance, the latter resulting in a...


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Paper# 112 112

SILANE-RUBBER COUPLING IN SULFUR, PEROXIDE, AND METAL OXIDE CURING SYSTEMS

Author: Orawan Taikum* and Hans-Detlef Luginsland
Abstract: For industrial rubber goods used in many different applications, carbon black is usually the filler of choice. For white and colored compounds, natural fillers such as clay and silicates are...


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Paper# 113 113

SILICA-FILLED FUNCTIONAL NATURAL RUBBER

Author: Ploenpit Boochathum* and Jurawadee Sanchompu
Abstract: Functional natural rubber was prepared using in situ ozonolysis reaction of natural latex. A mechanism of ozonolysis reaction has been proposed based on the results from FT-IR measurements. The...


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Paper# 114 114

EFFECT OF NETWORK-CHAIN LENGTH ON STRAIN-INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION OF NR AND IR VULCANIZATES

Author: M. Tosaka, S. Kohjiya*, S. Murakami and S. Poompradub
Abstract: Strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber (NR) and synthetic isoprene rubber (IR) with various crosslinking densities was investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction using a synchrotron...


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Paper# 115 115

LEAD FREE ELASTOMER STABILIZATION FOR WIRE AND CABLE APPLICATIONS

Author: Donghee Kang*, Keyur Desai, Kicherl Ho, Changmo Sung, Joey Mead
Abstract: Lead additives are often used as stabilizers in compounds for the wire and cable industry and are very effective for chlorine containing polymers, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins and...


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Paper# 116 116

Tire Aging Studies Using Modulus Mapping and Diffusion Limited Oxidation Model

Author: Edward R Terrill*, Uday Karmarkar, and Abraham Pannikottu
Abstract: The extent and location of aging in a light tire was studied. Some tire components experienced modulus change during aging as much as 100% change. In general, tire aging may include one or more...


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Paper# 117 117

ZINC 2-MERCAPTOTOLUIMIDAZOLE WITH OTHER ANTIOXIDANTS IN A PEROXIDE-CURED RADIATOR HOSE COMPOUND

Author: Ray Cash*
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to observe the synergies of Zinc 2- mercaptotoluimidazole (ZMTI) with other antioxidants in a radiator hose compound cured with three different peroxide systems....


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Paper# 118 118

Predictive Models for Life-Performance of Formulated Engineering Elastomers

Author: Priyan Patkar*, Arnab Sarkar, Shivani Syal, James M. Caruthers and Venkat Venkatasubramanian
Abstract: Engineering elastomers experience complex thermal and deformation historiesduring both part manufacture as well as throughout their service life. As a consequence of the thermal and deformation...


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Paper# 119 119

The Role of Antidegradant in Abrasion Resistance

Author: Frederick Ignatz-Hoover* and Byron To
Abstract: Abrasion is a complex set of phenomena. Many factors contribute to different rates of abrasion and the appearance of the abraded rubber including the nature of the abrading surface (both...


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Paper# 120 120

Compressive Stress Relaxation of (AEM) Ethylene Acrylic Elastomers

Author: Klaus Kammerer, Douglas King*, Laurent Lefebvre, Edward McBride, and Yun-Tai Wu
Abstract: Compressive Stress Relaxation (CSR) has gained importance as a screening tool for evaluation of automotive sealing materials. Ethylene acrylic (AEM) elastomers are widely used in automotive...


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Paper# 121 121

Impact of Using Maximum Rotor Control on Rubber Mixing

Author: Lars I Lattstrom
Abstract: Conventional tangential mixers are normally run by a DC electric motor and a large gear box. They are often operated in a fixed friction ratio mode and occasionally also with variable speed. The...


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Paper# 122 122

Peptizing Natural Rubber – Which Route Fits Your Requirements Best?

Author: K. Menting*, M. Hensel and H. Umland
Abstract: The viscosity reduction of natural rubber is one of the oldest processing problems in the rubber industry. The molecular weight of the material as delivered in sheets or bale form is much too...


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Paper# 123 123

AUTOMATED ACCURATE RUBBER STRIP STACKING

Author: Phillip A. Rastok* and Michael G. Slone
Abstract: Over the past several years the requirement for uncured rubber strips, ranging from 1½” to 6” wide and 3/16” to 5/8” thick, has increased dramatically. These strips must be packaged in sufficient...


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Paper# 125 125

The Future of Crygenic Deflashing

Author: Dwight Lutsko
Abstract: Presentation Slides only


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Paper# 126 126

NOVEL BUTYL COMPOSITE FOR LESS-LETHAL AMMUNITION.

Author: Judit E. Puskas, Bhuwneesh Kumar*, Amer Ebied
Abstract: This paper will discuss the design and testing of prototype less-lethal ammunitions based on a novel butyl-based composite. Existing less-lethal ammunition are based on EPDM, SBR and natural rubber...


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Paper# 61 A 61a

IN-SITU ULTRASONIC COMPATIBILIZATION OF UNVULCANIZED AND DYNAMICALLY VULCANIZED PP/EPDM BLENDS

Author: Wenlai Feng* and A. I. Isayev
Abstract: Dynamically vulcanized PP/EPDM blends were treated by high intensity ultrasonic waves during extrusion. These blends were compared with unvulcanized PP/EPDM blends that were treated by ultrasound...


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