Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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161st Technical Meeting

Date: April 29, 2002
Location: Savannah, GA

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $340.00

198th Technical Meeting - Fall 2020

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

193rd Technical Meeting - 2018 Spring

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Paper# Paper58

THE A-Z SHARK 120 EXTFIUDEFI-GEAR PUMP SYSTEM

Author:
Abstract: The benefits of extrusion through a gear pump - i.e. very effective pressure build-up and constant throughput with the thereby associated dimensional accuracy of the extrudate - are well known to...


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Paper# Paper3

G. R. Hamed and A. A. A1-Sheneper

Author:
Abstract: In the past several years 1'6, we have studied cut growth in tensile specimens of diene vulcanizates, primarily ones based on natural rubber. Over a broad range of crosslink densities and cut...


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Paper# Paper2

IMPROVING CARCASS DURABILITY THROUGH FILLER SELECTION

Author:
Abstract: Carcass durability is a complex function of compound selection, mixingXprocessing, final assembly, tire design, vehicle fitment, and ultimately, consumer use - or abuse. The formidable task facing...


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Paper# Paper56

Synergy of a Theory of Processing, An Elasticity I Viscosity Tester and a

Author:
Abstract: The paper presents a Theory of Processing, an Elasticity I Viscosity Tester, and a High Shear Mixer. It describes the synergy between these in providing a new general procedure for controlling...


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Paper# Paper53

THERMOREVERSIBLE CROSSLINKING RUBBER

Author:
Abstract: by Keisuke Chino*, Makoto Ashiura, Junichiro N atori, Masahiro Ikawa and Tetsuji Kawazura Research & Development Center, The Yokohama Rubber, Co. Ltd., 2-1 Oiwake Hiratsuka Kanagawa 254-8601 JAPAN


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Paper# Paper5

Michal Benes*

Author:
Abstract: Rubber compounds based on styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) containing organophilic layered silicates were prepared and evaluated in terms of Young s moduli enhancement. A new type of hybrid rubber...


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Paper# Paper52

Model and Analysis for Kinetics of Agglomerate Erosion in Simple Shear Flows

Author:
Abstract: A model for the erosion kinetics of powder agglomerates in simple shear flows was devel- oped. The model assumes the erosion rate to be proportional with the difference between hydrodynamic and...


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Paper# Paper8

Fracture Mechanics of Bond Failure in the 0Pure Sheari9 test piece

Author:
Abstract: The ffpure shearil test piece consists of a thin, rectangular strip of rubber held by or bonded to rigid grips along its long edges. When the grips are pulled apart, the rubber in the center of the...


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Paper# Paper10

RESPONSE OF ELASTOMERIC BUSHINGS TO COMBINED COMPRESSIONI SHEAR LOADINGS

Author:
Abstract: R. P. Kezar*, Z. Tao, K. J. Patenaude, J. L. Mead(JoeygMead@uml.edu), R. G. Stacer (RossgStacer@uml.edu), Department of Plastics Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854


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Paper# Paper11

Why Do Cracks Turn SideWays'f

Author:
Abstract: Calculations have been made by FEA of strain energy release rates G for a rubber sheet with a small edge crack, subjected to a far-field simple extension. Growth of the crack is considered in both...


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Paper# Paper50

RHEOLOGY OF PVC PLASTISOL - VII - EXPLORATION ON NON-LINEARITY OF VISCOELASPIC

Author:
Abstract: frequency (pseudo-plastic), reaching a Viscosity minimum and then, increased (dilatancy). At a fixed. frequency, the viscosity decreased with the increase of amplitude, reaching a minimum and then,...


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Paper# Paper49

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE METALLATION MECHANISM

Author:
Abstract: To meet different property requirements in the tire industry, the micro- and macro- structure of elastomers such as styrene-butadiene rubber can be delicately controlled. Such changes are typically...


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Paper# Paper15

UNIQUE PRODUCTION PROCESS- UNIQUE SILICA STRUCTURE

Author:
Abstract: Since the beginning of the 1990s, precipitated silica in conjunction with special solution polymers and organosilanes acting as coupling agents have been used in passenger car tire treads. The...


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Paper# Paper16

The Advantages of Wollastonite, a Non-Traditional Filler,

Author:
Abstract: This paper will introduce selected grades of wollastonite (calcium metasilicate), considered a non-traditional functional filler for elastomers. Evaluations are made in FKM, EPDM, and other...


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Paper# Paper17

Elastomeric Barrier Coatings for Sporting Goods

Author:
Abstract: Sports balls and bicycle tires need to hold air pressure, have elastomeric flexibility, and minimize the energy losses that occur when the product is deformed. Natural rubber is often used in these...


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Paper# Paper18

MECHANICAL PROPERTY or RUBBER REINFORCED WITH RICE HUSK CHARCOAL

Author:
Abstract: We examined the effectiveness of the powdered charcoal made from rice chaff as a reinforcement material of rubber. We found that this carbonized chaff manifested a reinforcing effect almost...


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Paper# Paper19

CHEMICAL IMAGINGWITH SCANNING NEAR-FIELD MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY

Author:
Abstract: The ability to measure chemical bond changes on the nanometer scale is of critical importance for the characterization of surfaces relevant to catalysis, materials and biological problems. Our goal...


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Paper# Paper20

APPLICATIONS OF RAMAN CHEMICAL IMAGING TO POLYMERIC SYSTEMS

Author:
Abstract: Vibrational spectroscopic chemical imaging involves the simultaneous recording of spectral and spatial information from a sample. In combination, the two techniques make the assessment of material...


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Paper# Paper47

New Insights into Structural Developments in Natural Rubber during

Author:
Abstract: Molecular orientation and strain-induced crystallization of vulcanized natural rubber during uniaxial deformation were studied via in-Sim synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The high...


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Paper# Paper22

RAMAN MICROIMAGING OF POLYMER BLENDS

Author:
Abstract: Raman microimaging technique was used to study the distribution of silica filler and elastomer domains in binary and ternary polymer blends containing BR, BIMS, NR andlor SBR. Contour maps...


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Paper# Paper23

Interrogating Differential Cross-link and Defect Densities in Elastomer Compounds by NMR Imaging

Author:
Abstract: Abstract. 1H spin-echo NMR micro-imaging has been used to identify and characterize chemical and physical network heterogeneities in synthetic polyisobutylene-based elastomer compounds. Spatial...


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Paper# Paper46

Effect of Chemical Composition of BIMS on the Morphology of its Blends with BR. Part 2. Blends with Carbon Black

Author:
Abstract: Phase morphologies and carbon black (CB) filler phase distribution in BIMSIBR blends were evaluated using AFM and SEM. CB was pre-compounded in either BIMS or BR prior to mixing. Blends of...


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Paper# Paper43

APPLICATION OF FIELD EMISSION SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TO MICROANALYSIS OF ELASTOMERS

Author:
Abstract: The distribution and heterogeneity of fillers, curatives and additives in elastomers have been mapped elementally at high spatial resolutions, g 30 nm. This has been achieved through marrying an...


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Paper# Paper34

Investigating the microscopic properties of thermoplastic-elastic polymers

Author:
Abstract: The development of thermoplastic-elastic polymers requires as well the knowledge of their microstractare as of their microscopic material properties. Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) provides the...


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Paper# Paper33

INVESTIGATIONS ON CROSSLINKED POLYMERS

Author:
Abstract: Atomic Force Microscopy is a valuable method for poylmer surface imaging. Additionally, material parameters such as stiffness can be mappedwith a spacial resolution in the nanometer range. Since....


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Paper# Paper31

ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY IN ANALYSIS OF RUBBER MATERIALS

Author:
Abstract: by Natalya Yerina# and Sergei Magonov* Digital lnstrumentsNeeco Metrology Group, Santa Barbara CA, USA # On leave from the Semenov*s Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences,...


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Paper# 1 Paper1

INFLUENCE OF CARBON BLACK SURFACE ACTIVITY ON VULCANIZATION REACTION

Author:
Abstract: The present work is focused on the role of CB surface activity in the influence on the vulcanization reaction. To study this effect two carbon black grades, N474 and Durex- O, of high surface...


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Paper# 4 Paper4

UNDERSTANDING THE CHEMISTRY OF THE RUBBER/SILANE REACTION FOR SILICA REINFORCEMENT, USING MODEL OLEFINS

Author: S. C. Debnath* and J. W. M. Noorderrneer
Abstract: Bifunctional organosilanes, particularly bis-(triethoxy-silyl-propyl) tetrasulfide (TESPT), are very efficient silica-rubber coupling agents. As to the functionality of TESPT in silica stocks, till...


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Paper# 6 Paper6

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE FATIGUE LIFE OF RUBBER: A LITERATURE SURVEY

Author: W. V. MARS*
Abstract: Many factors are known to influence the mechanical fatigue life of rubber components. Four major categories of factors are reviewed here: the effects of mechanical loading history, environmental...


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Paper# 7 Paper7

Problem Solving in Polymer Material Engineering Engineering Failure Analysis and Failure Mode Analysis of Components & Structures: Polymers, Adhesives, Elastomers, Plastics and Polymer Composites

Author: Abraham Pannikottu* and Hisham Mohamed
Abstract: The topic of Failure Analysis(Failure Mode Analysis is of both practical and scientific interest. The failure mode of polymers sets limits to engineering design. Therefore, Failure Analysis(Failure...


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Paper# 12 Paper12

FAILURE ANALYSIS OF RUBBER-TO-METAL BONDED ENGINEERED COMPONENTS

Author: Gene Polaski
Abstract: There are innumerable items made for automotive, aerospace and industrial applications where elastomers are adhered to metal using bonding agents that cure and bond the rubber to the metal...


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Paper# 13 Paper13

NOVEL ELECTRON BEAM MODIFIED SURFACE TREATED SILICA AND CARBON-SILICA DUAL PHASE FILLER AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RUBBER VULCANIZATES

Author: Anil K. Bhowmick*, Sudip Ray and A. M. Shanmugharaj
Abstract: Surface modification of silica and carbon-silica dual phase filler (CSDPF) has been performed by treating these fillers with silane coupling agents followed by electron beam irradiation. These...


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Paper# 21 Paper21

VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPIC IMAGING OF POLYMER SURFACES

Author: Imelda Keen, Tuyet-Trinh Do, i Llewellyn Rintoul, Mathew Celina and Peter M. Fredericks*
Abstract: Polymer surfaces have been studied by two different vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Raman mapping by point illumination is discussed with examples taken from the plasma treatment of...


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Paper# 24 Paper24

APPLICATION OF SCANNING TRANSMISSION X-RAY MICROSCOPY TO THE RUBBER INDUSTRY I

Author:
Abstract: Materials of commercial significance in the rubber industry are usually multi- component systems composed of several elastomers and various tillers. Elucidating the complex morphology that can...


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Paper# 25 Paper25

LIFE TIME IMPROVEMENT OF RADIAL TIRES WITH THE HELP OF STEEL CORDS HAVING SUPERIOR CORROSION AND FRETTING RESISTANCE

Author: Murat Basaran
Abstract: Modern radial tires are expected to deliver a long service life without losing their integrity even, at times, under improper conditions. Steel cord reinforcement is used at the belt area of all...


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Paper# 26 Paper26

Rayon: The advanced material for rubber reinforcement

Author: Christian Norhausen
Abstract: Although in production for more than 50 years Rayon has not lost its attractiveness as yarn for rubber reinforcement. its combination of properties makes it the best choice for the use in the...


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Paper# 27 Paper27

ADVANCED SINGLE END CORD FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE TIRES

Author: Walter Terschiiren
Abstract: Specialized converters for single end cord have started to evaluate their machines for the production of advanced SEC for tires. Every production step is revised and adapted to the new requirements...


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Paper# 28 Paper28

Beltec Tire Reinforcement New Platform Technologies for Cap Ply

Author: Jeff Fritsch*, Peter B. Rim, Donald L. Brown
Abstract: Honeywell Performance Fibers has developed a new cap ply reinforcement with a unique property set designed to reduce the risk of belt edge separation, provide hlgh-speed rating without sacrificing...


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Paper# 29 Paper29

BONDING RUBBER TO PLASTICS WITHOUT ADHESIVES e BENEFITS FOR PRODUCER AND CONSUMER

Author: Klaus M. Diedrich
Abstract: 12 years ago the first paper with regard to adhesive-free produced hardlsoft parts, so-called K&K composites, was presented at an ACS Rubber Division Meeting in Las Vegas1. The expression "K&K"...


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Paper# 35 Paper35

STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF CARBON BLACK FILLED ELASTOMERS II. IMS AND IR

Author: Mun Fu Tse*, Andy H. Tsou, and Michael K. Lyon
Abstract: Polymer-filler interactions have been found to affect performance of tire tread, sidewall, innerliner or carcass that are all based on filled elastomer blends. Identification of types of various...


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Paper# 36 Paper36

COMPOUNDING FOR ROLLING RESISTANCE TRACTION AND TREAD WEAR: A REVIEW OF THE FUNDAMENTALS:

Author: Jim Palombo*
Abstract: A basic grasp of general compounding principals is required when beginning work as a passenger car tread compounder in the tire industry. In addition, one needs to have an in-depth familiarity with...


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Paper# 37 Paper37

Overview of new developments in BR and SBR and their influence on tire-related properties

Author: Riidiger Engehausen
Abstract: During the last 20 to 30 years, tire performance has improved dramatically, the average life of a tire has nearly doubled, whereas the rolling resistance has been reduced by 50%. This development...


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Paper# 38 Paper38

A NEW CARBON BLACK TO REDUCE ROLLING RESISTANCE

Author: Tsukasa Maruyama*
Abstract: Carbon black (CB) was modified by the formation of polyaniline (PAn) on its surface. The properties of the CB in rubber compound were investigated. Polyaniline-modified carbon black (PAn-modified...


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Paper# 39 Paper39

IMPROVEMENT OF ROLLING RESISTANCE OF SILICA TIRE COMPOUNDS BY MODIFIED S-SBR

Author: Akira Saito*
Abstract: The functionalization effects of SBR and its mechanism were examined in order to develop silica tire compounds with improved rolling resistance. A modified SBR was prepared by the reaction of the...


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Paper# 40 Paper40

USE OF ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES TO INVESTIGATE THE TIRE WEAR BEHAVIOR OF ISOBUTYLENE-BASED SECTIONAL RETREADS

Author: Julie H. Kuhr, Carmen Neagu, Dirk F. Flouckhout and Walter H. Waddell
Abstract: Tread compounds prepared with varying brominated isobutylene-co-para- methylstyrene (BIMS), cis-polybutadiene and natural rubber levels in model wintertire tread compounds were evaluated versus...


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Paper# 41 Paper41

DETERMINING OF DYNAMIC FRICTION CHARACTERISTICS DURING BRAKING AND THE CONSEQUENCES FOR PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

Author: Oliver Albohr
Abstract: Dynamic friction processes between rubber and surfaces are well described by a lot of physical models. Basic parameter used in the models to predict finally the tire performance are the...


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Paper# 42 Paper42

Simulation of Rolling Resistance with the Method of Pulsed Dynamic Mechanic Thermal Spectroscopy (P-DMTS)

Author: Werner Conrads
Abstract: The development of new tires with improved properties (e.g. optimised rolling resistance) is a main target of the research departments in the tire industry. In the early beginning (compounding) up...


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Paper# 44 Paper44

Effect of Chemical Composition of BIMS on the Morphology of its Blends with BR. Part 1. Neat Rubber Blends

Author: Ilan Duvdevani*, Andy H. Tsou
Abstract: Morphologies of 50l5O (wlw) immiscible blends composed of brominated poly(isobutylene-co-p-methylstyrene) (BIMS) with varying chemical compositions and cis-poly(butadiene) (BR) have been studied by...


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Paper# 45 Paper45

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY DETECTION OF RUBBER MODIFIERS

Author:
Abstract: The application of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to imaging rubber modifiers in polymers is reviewed. Examples of modifiers in engineering polymers and food packaging materials as revealed...


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Paper# 51 Paper51

A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF RUBBER CURATIVES ON LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE IN A THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMER BLEND.

Author: K. Garde*, C.D. Woolard
Abstract: Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) are an important class of engineering materials that are widely studied today! . They consist of a blend of thermoplastic and elastomer, where the elastomer can...


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Paper# 54 Paper54

Tan Delta by DMA for Measurement of Cure State

Author: Cheryl Connolly, Donna Fogg, Fred Fraser*, Roger Natividad
Abstract: Thermal analysis is often used for assessment of relative cure state of rubber compounds, often by DSC measurements of either glass transition or residual curative. These techniques, along with...


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