Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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162nd Technical Meeting

Date: October 08, 2002
Location: Pittsburgh, PA

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $900.00

200th Technical Meeting - Fall 2021

198th Technical Meeting - Fall 2020

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

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Paper# 1 1

TILT MIXER ROTOR EVOLUTION

Author: Peter F. Glasser *
Abstract: Discusses applications and design differences in tilt rotor mixers.


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Paper# 2 2

AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR MEASURING SURFACE ROUGHNESS TO INDICATE FILLER DISPERSION

Author: John B. Putman* and Robert Samples
Abstract: Surface roughness as an indicator of filler dispersion has typically been measured by mechanical or optical methods. Optical methods provided both a direct measurement and a fast determination of...


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Paper# 3 3

A SHORT RHEOLOGICAL TEST TO OVERCOME THE INADEQUACIES OF TRADITIONAL SCORCH MEASUREMENTS

Author: John S. Dick,*
Abstract: Traditional measures of Scorch, such as Mooney Scorch, ODR ts2, MDR tsl and tcl0, have been used to predict how well a new formulation will process in the factory. However, it has been recognized...


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Paper# 4 4

Predispersion, A Novel Method to Enhance the Dispersion of Fibers into Elastomeric Compoundstt

Author: S. Monthey* and Dr. A. H. Johansson*
Abstract: Historically cotton fibers have been used as reinforcement in a variety of rubber compounds. Because these fibers displayed relatively smooth texture, exhibited relatively low surface area, were...


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Paper# 5 5

THE USE OF EPDM IN COOLANT HOSES NOW AND IN THE FUTURE

Author: G. Choonoo * G.Vroomen
Abstract: EPDM has for a long time been regarded as the ideal material for rubber hoses and gaskets used in automotive cooling systems. In fact, EPDM is the predominant elastomer in the coolant hose market....


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Paper# 7 7

THE RUBBER/THERMOPLASTICS CONTINUUM

Author: Charles P. Rader*
Abstract: Thermoplastic Elastomers have had a pronounced impact on the non-tire segment of the rubber industry, as well as the thermoplastics industry. The bases for their great success over the past three...


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Paper# 8 8

CASE STUDIES FOR THERMOPLASTIC VULCANIZATES AFTER REAL-LIFE APPLICATIONS

Author: Joseph E. Pfeiffer* and Andre Van Meerbeek
Abstract: One of the unique and important property of thermoplastic vulcanizates is the recyclability of the material. Another key feature is the real-life performance in dynamic applications and after...


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Paper# 9 9

A STUDY ON THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMER BLENDS USING RUBBER POWDER

Author: Sung Hyuk HWang,* Sung Hyo Lee, Jin Kuk Kim, Shi Xinyan
Abstract: Nowadays, the waste EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) is causing significantly environmental problems with increasing vehicles. From environmental and economical perspectives, the recycling...


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Paper# 10 10

New Technology for Dynamic Testing of Elastomeric Materials

Author: Kirk K Biegler* and Ric Carreras
Abstract: This paper presents the capabilities of a new patented ELectroForce@ linear motor technology developed through an alliance with Bose@ Corporation (Framingham, MA) and Endu1aTEC@ (Minnetonka, MN)...


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Paper# 12 12

THEORETICAL AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF A NEW WAY OF USING MOVING DIE RHEOMETERS IN SCANNING MODE FOR THE CURE OF RUBBERS

Author: I.D.Rosca, J.M.Vergnaud
Abstract: Generally, rheometers and especially the moving die rheometers (MDR), are used under isothermal conditions for determining the parameters of the kinetics of the cure of rubbers, in spite of the...


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Paper# 13 13

VISCOELASTIC MEASUREMENTS AT HIGH FREQUENCIES AND OVER A WIDE STIFFNESS RANGE WITH ACCURATE TEMPERATURES

Author: Jonathon Foreman*, Jürgen Schawe and Matthias Wagner
Abstract: Modern dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) instruments measure the viscoelastic properties of rubber materials rapidly over wide frequency and temperature ranges by applying sinusoidal stresses and...


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Paper# 14 14

Essential Aspects For Color Quality Control

Author: Micheal F. Miller*
Abstract: The need for a color standards program arises often within large corporations manufacturing in more than one location. Oftentimes, this product is a component, subject in assembly to close...


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Paper# 15 15

PROCESS OF HEATING AND CURE IN MDR RHEOMETERS UNDER ISOTHERMAL CONDITIONS

Author: l.D.Rosca, J.M.Vergnaud*
Abstract: Generally. moving die rheometers (MDR), are used under isothermal conditions for determining the parameters of the kinetics of the cure of rubbers, in spite of the following drawbacks: at least...


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Paper# 16 16

Analytical Services in the Twenty-First Century: State-of-the-Art Problem-Solving For the Rubber Industry

Author: John W. Zeitler*
Abstract: The analytical services laboratory of a modern rubber chemical company plays a vital role in providing the "total quality" system required by today s rubber manufacturers and their customers. In...


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Paper# 17 17

Development of Metallocene Catalyst Technology for the Manufacture of Ethylene- propylene-diene Rubber via the Gas Phase Process

Author: Sarah L. Martin*, Larry D. Cady, David P. Denton, David L. Ramage
Abstract: DuPont Dow Elastomers L.L.C has in recent years developed internal core competencies in the areas of ethylene elastomers process, catalyst, and product technology. Possession of these competencies...


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Paper# 18 18

New Generation Oil Extended EPDM for Applications Where Color Counts

Author: Susmita Bhattacharjee*, Rayner Krista and Gregory Blackmon
Abstract: A series of new generation oil extended, ultra high molecular weight EPDM polymers has been designed to improve color stability for thermoplastic vulcanizates, colored rubber articles and carbon...


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Paper# 19 19

Properties and performance of EPDM produced via gas-phase process using constrained geometry catalyst technology

Author: Christopher S. Grant*, Rajan G. Vara
Abstract: The gas-phase fluidized bed process has been widely used for the production of polyethylene and polypropylene. This technology was applied to the commercial production of EPDM in 1997. Large-scale...


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Paper# 20 20

THE POWER OF PERFORMANCE ADDITIVES

Author: W Mark Stewart
Abstract: This paper explores the increasing use of Performance Additives (prepared rubber chemicals or pre-dispersions of rubber chemicals, and colorants) to reduce overall manufacturing costs. The value of...


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Paper# 21 21

New Vamac@ (AEM) Elastomers with Improved Performance

Author: Klaus Kammerer, Douglas King*, Laurent Lefebvre, Edward McBride, and Yun-Tai Wu
Abstract: DuPont has introduced a new finishing line for their Vamac@ ethylene acrylic (AEM) elastomers. The finishing line was developed to produce Vamac@ products with lower residual methyl acrylate...


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Paper# 22 22

TECHNOLOGY, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATION OF SYNTHETIC RUBBERS IN RUSSIA: CURRENT STATUS, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Author: By Arkady S. Estrin*
Abstract: The data presented in this paper illustrate the growth of the production of Russian synthetic rubber (SR), tire and technical rubber goods during the last several years. The driving forces of the...


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Paper# 23 23

DEPENDENCE OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND PROCESSING BEHAVIOR OF BLENDS OF SILICONE RUBBER AND FLUORORUBBER ON BLEND MORPHOLOGY

Author: Arun Ghosh and S.K.De*
Abstract: Fluorocarbon elastomer based on tetrafluoroethylenelpropylenel vinylidene fluoride terpolymer is a specialty polymer, which can be used in chemical, food processing, oil producing, electrical and...


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Paper# 24 24

NOVEL THERMOPLASTIC VULCANIZATES WHICH DEMONSTRATE EXCELLENT ADHESION TO METAL SUBSTRATES DURING MELT PROCESSING

Author: Marvin Hill* and Mike Goncy
Abstract: This work covers the development of novel thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) that exhibit excellent adhesion to a wide variety of metal substrates during melt processing. These novel TPV...


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Paper# 25 25

New Developments for Oil and Fuel Resistant Thermoplastic Vulcanizates

Author: M. Blume, C. Rosin: and R.H. Schuster*
Abstract: Thermoplastic Vulcanizates (TPE-V) based on isotactic Polypropylene (iPP) and Polyam- ide (PA) respectively and polar rubbers (ENR,EVA, HNBR, NBR, ACM) were prepared by dynamic vulcanization in a...


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Paper# 26 26

DYNAMICALLY VULCANIZED PP/EPDM BLENDS: EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF PEROXIDES ON THE PROPERTIES

Author: K. Naskar∗ and J.W.M. Noordermeer
Abstract: Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) or dynamic vulcanizates are thermoplastic elastomers produced by simultaneous mixing and crosslinking of a rubber and a thermoplastic. The effects of different...


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Paper# 27 27

NOVEL DENDRITIC (ARBORESCENT) POLYISOBUTYLENE-POLYSTYRENE THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS

Author: S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Kwon, A.K. Naskar, A.K. Bhowmick, J.E. Puskas*
Abstract: The synthesis of novel arborescent block copolymers comprising of rubbery polyisobutylene (PIB) and glassy polystyrene (PSt) blocks was accomplished by the use of arborescent PIB as a...


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Paper# 28 28

CONTINUOUS ULTRASONIC PROCESS FOR IN-SITU COMPATIBILIZATION OF POLYPROPYLENE/NATURAL RUBBER BLENDS

Author: Jeong Seok Oh* and A. I. Isayev
Abstract: A new ultrasonic reactor was built in which two horns were placed in a slit die attached to a plastic extruder. The immiscible polypropylene (PP)lnatural rubber (NR) blends of various...


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Paper# 29 29

MORPHOLOGY OF THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS STUDIED BY ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY

Author: M. A. Rogunova* and D. Jarus
Abstract: The effect of a copolymer compatibilizer on the morphology development in polypropylene (PP)lethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM) based Thermoplastic Vulcanizate (TPV) blend has been investigated...


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Paper# 30 30

HIGHER DEMANDS ON AIR CONDITIONING HOSE

Author: Isaac U. Shilad
Abstract: In this new era of high speed and faster mode of communications and transportation, the demands to achieve better performance are higher than ever. The automobiles are running faster and hotter...


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Paper# 31 31

USE OF BOTH CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL TESTS FOR INVESTIGATION OF SPLITS IN SBR

Author: Fred Fraser*, Joshua Kelley and F. J. Walker
Abstract: In this study we implement a battery of tests to find the cause of splits in SBR brake booster diaphragms. Using a combination of experimental and circumstantial evidence, our team makes a...


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Paper# 32 32

Novel Compounding Techniques for Improved Temperature Properties for HNBR

Author: Edmee Files
Abstract: The rubber industry is under continuous pressure to provide materials with improved heat and fluid resistance. Hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) has been successfully meeting these...


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Paper# 33 33

Lonq Term Heat Aging of Various Fluoroelastomers

Author: Ronald D. Stevens*
Abstract: The California Air Resource Board's LEV ll upcoming regulation for long term, 15-year fuel system durability starting in 2004, has generated a renewed interest in the heat aging properties of...


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Paper# 34 34

Advances in New Heat-Resistant ACM Compounding

Author: Andy Anderson, Rhoda Bruner, and Paul Manley*
Abstract: As the space for under-the-hood components has decreased, temperatures in this environment have steadily risen. These increasing temperatures require the use of elastomers with ever-greater heat...


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Paper# 35 35

A Simple Model for Predicting Heat Aging of EPDM Rubber

Author: Arnis U. Paeglis
Abstract: Heat aging stability is a hallmark of EPDM rubber and a requirement for use in automotive, roofing and other applications. Retention of physical properties after accelerated heat aging is a...


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Paper# 36 36

THERMO-MECHANICAL ANALYSES OF DYNAMICALLY LOADED RUBBER CYLINDERS

Author: Arthur R. Johnson* and Tzi-Kang Chen
Abstract: Thick rubber components are employed by the Army to carry large loads. In tanks, rubber covers road wheels and track systems to protect roadways. It is difficult for design engineers to simulate...


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Paper# 38 38

MODEL FOR DAMPING IN HIGHLY DEFORMED ELASTOMERS

Author: David W. Nicholson
Abstract: Highly deformed elastomeric mounts are often used for vibration damping, for example in automobile engines. Starting from a thermodynamic viewpoint, a model for damping behavior in...


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Paper# 40 40

Some Benchmark Problems for FEA from Torsional Behavior of Rubber

Author: O. H. Yeoh
Abstract: Two commercial finite element analysis (FEA) programs, ANSYS and FLEXPAC, were compared in benchmark problems involving torsion of cylindrical rubber specimens. The effects of using different...


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Paper# 41 41

Streamlining New Product Development in TPEs

Author: John Quarmley, Lou Rossi, Jim Morton
Abstract: TPE producers are increasingly recognizing the importance of new products to meet their sales and earnings objectives. However, custom tailoring TPE compounds to meet the wide variety of customer...


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Paper# 42 42

ALIPHATIC TPU SYSTEMS FOR LIGHT-STABLE APPLICATIONS

Author: Gerald DiBattista*
Abstract: The demands made on elastomeric plastics - particularly those destined for applications where appearance is key - are growing ever more rigorous. Many such applications make use of thermoplastic...


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Paper# 44 44

STRETCHING the ENVELOPE: TWO NEW APPLICATIONS of TPE to AUTOMOTIVE BODY SEALING

Author: Wesley A. Thompson
Abstract: Abstract: Two new automotive body-sealing applications will be considered. The technical drivers of need for recycling and mass reduction, combined with the feature drivers of color capability and...


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Paper# 45 45

ENHANCING METALLOCENE TPE’S PEFORMANCE FOR EXTRUDED APPLICATIONS

Author: Laura B. Weaver*, Henry G. Heck, and Dan Moldovan
Abstract: During the last eight years metallocene-based ethylene elastomers have contributed as a modifier to enhance the performance and processability of hard TPOs in automotive applications when present...


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Paper# 46 46

MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON WEAR

Author: Joseph Padovan* and M. Nadeem Qureshi
Abstract: Presentation Slides Only - FEA surface mechanics models can qualitatively explain the formation of wear particles but cannot gage the reason for their non agglomerated intrinsic size range,...


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Paper# 47 47

BIIR Green Strength Enhancement by Semierystalline Specialty Propylene Elastomers

Author: Andy H. Tsou, Ilan Duvdevani*, and Sudhin Datta
Abstract: The high flow activation energy of poly(isobutylene) elastomers leads to strong temperature erosion in green strength of halobutyl rubber compounds. In warm production environments, it is desirable...


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Paper# 48 48

TREAD ABRASION, RUBBER DEGRADATION AND THE MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY OF TIRE DEBRIS PARTICLES

Author: Giovanni F Crosta*
Abstract: Some results about the mathematical morphology of tire debris particles are presented and related to other experimental data about the material degradation processes. Fractal analysis has been...


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Paper# 49 49

THE ROLE OF OXIDISED CARBON BLACK IN TYRE TREAD COMPOUND

Author: S.K.Chakraborty*, Anushree Dukhande and M.S.Banerjee
Abstract: Carbon black is used for reinforcement of rubber, which gives vulcanizate of improved physical properties. The reinforcement characteristics of the black filler depend on the colloidal morphology...


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Paper# 50 50

REGENERATION OF CARBON BLACK FROM WASTE AUTOMOBILE TIRES AND ITS USE IN CARCASS COMPOUND

Author: Nilkanta Mondal , R. Mukhapadhyaya* and Saikat Das Gupta
Abstract: Post-consumer tires is a real challenge now-a-days. These tires must be disposed of in an environmentally sound and sustainable manner. Pyrolysis has proved an attractive means with which to deal...


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Paper# 51 51

Novel Approach of Rubber-Filler Interaction through Surface Modification of Carbon Black

Author: S. Chakraborty*, S. Ganguly, P. Bhattacharya and A.N. Banerjee
Abstract: A few aliphatic polyhydroxy compounds are known to modify the surface chemistry of different fillers leading to greater polymer-filler interaction with increased active sites. In the present study,...


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Paper# 52 52

Permeation Properties and Weep Properties of Vamac® ethylene acrylic AEM Compounds in Oil and Oil/Gasoline Mixtures

Author: K. Kammerer, H.J. Barager E. McBride Y.T. Wu D. D. King
Abstract: The LEV-ll regulations will go into affect for model year 2004 cars. These new regulations will further restrict the amount of VOCs that can come from a car. A potential source of VOCs is engine...


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Paper# 53 53

Long-Term Performance of New, Improved Specialty Fluoroelastomers in Various Aggressive Fluids

Author: Theresa M. Dobel* and John G. Bauerle
Abstract: More aggressive environments in both automotive and industrial applications as well as a drive for longer part life are increasing the demand for specialty fluoroelastomers. Recent advances in the...


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Paper# 54 54

STRETCHING THE TEMPERATURE LIMITS OF HNBR ELASTOMERS

Author: J.N. Gamlin*, S.X. Guo, D. Achten
Abstract: HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber) is a high performance elastomer, known for its excellent resistance to heat, oils and fuels. These characteristics in combination with an improved low...


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Paper# 55 55

Improving the Heat Resistance of HNBR, ACM and EAM by the use of Antioxidants

Author: Bob Ohm*
Abstract: Various antioxidants are evaluated in hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene rubber (HNBR), polyacrylic elastomer (ACM) and ethylene-acrylic elastomer (EAM), polymers which are frequently used in...


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Paper# 56 56

Novel Aminic Antidegradants with Improved Properties

Author: Gerrit Knobloch*
Abstract: Para-phenylene-diamines (PPDs) have for decades been indispensable antidegradants for sulfur-crosslinked vulcanizates. Given their hitherto unsurpassed range of effectiveness, compounds such as...


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Paper# 57 57

A Comprehensive Design Framework for Engineering Rubber Formulations: From Formulation Chemistry through Cure to Part Performance

Author: Arnab Sarkar, Prasenjeet Ghosh, Priyan Patkar, Venkat Venkatasubramanian and James M. Caruthers
Abstract: The properties of engineering parts made from formulated rubbers depend upon the detailed composition of the formulation, the manufacturing process, the shape of the part and the environment that...


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Paper# 58 58

ENERGY DISSIPATION OF RUBBER FROM A CLASSICAL POINT OF VIEW

Author: James A. Popio*, Ted A. Conway and Paul C. Lam
Abstract: This study is concerned with an energetically based phenomenological constitutive model for rubber under dynamic loading conditions. The dynamic rubber performance is explained using classical...


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Paper# 59 59

RESPONSE OF ELASTOMERIC BLOCKS DURING LARGE COMPRESSION STRAINS

Author: K. J. Patenaude*, Z. Tao, J. L. Mead, R. G. Stacer
Abstract: An experimental investigation has been conducted to evaluate the response of rubber blocks under large compressive loadings. Quantitative measurements of the nonlinear behavior of two rubber...


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Paper# 60 60

A SIMPLE APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZE FINITE COMPRESSIBILITY OF ELASTOMERS

Author: Mark R. Gurvich* and Thomas S. Fleischman
Abstract: A hybrid experirn ental-num erical approach is proposed for accurate dimensionless characterization of rubber finite compressibility. Rubber specimens in the form of bonded rubber disks are...


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Paper# 61 61

Problems with Developing Visual Inspection Criteria for Replacement of Vibration Isolators and Shock Mounts

Author: J. R. Halladay* and O. H. Yeoh
Abstract: Elastomeric components are used in a multitude of mounting applications for isolating vibration and controlling shock inputs. In actual applications, it is important to know when a mount is nearing...


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Paper# 62 62

A PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODEL FOR THE EFFECT OF R-RATIO ON FATIGUE OF STRAIN CRYSTALLIZING RUBBERS

Author: W. V. MARS*
Abstract: The fatigue crack growth rate in strain crystallizing rubbers depends not only on the maximum energy release rate experienced during a loading cycle, but also on the minimum, or equivalently, the R...


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Paper# 63 63

Evaluation of Slip Coat Materials Co-extruded on TPVs for Automotive Weatherseal

Author: By Reza Sadeghi*
Abstract: The sliding friction of TPV strips co-extruded with a thin layer of slip coat materials was measured at different temperatures. These strips were used to predict the performance of the slip...


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Paper# 64 64

TPE OVERMOLDING SOLUTIONS FOR ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS

Author: Rajesh Varrna*, Dan Liu, Walter Ripple and Krishna Venkataswamy
Abstract: There is an increasing demand for ergonomically designed products in various consumer applications. To enhance the performance in the end use application and marketability of such consumer products...


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Paper# 65 65

HARD / SOFT OVERMOLDED PARTS WITH KRAIBURG TPE THERMOLAST K : MATERIAL COMBINATIONS, PROCESSING, TESTING OF ADHESION

Author: Joerg Saenger*
Abstract: The influence of material combination and processing on the adhesion in overmolded parts made from hard thermoplastics and soft thermoplastic elastomers will be discussed. A method for testing the...


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Paper# 67 67

RELAXATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FOAMED THERMOPLASTIC VULCANIZATES

Author: Scott Schrader* and Abdelhadi Sahnoune
Abstract: We report on direct measurement of mechanical response and relaxation behavior of foamed thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) as a function of cyclic loading and time. The data are compared to that of...


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Paper# 68 68

Distribution of Silica in Rubber Blends

Author: Jonas Ziegler*, R. H. Schuster
Abstract: The influence of surface modification of precipitated silica by defined silanization on filler- rubber interaction and filler distribution in NBR/BR blends is investigated. The distribution of...


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Paper# 69 69

USE OF TERTIARY ALKYLAMINE - FATTY ACID SALT TO IMPROVE ROLLING RESISTANCE AND PROCESSABILITY ON SILICA TREAD

Author: Kazuhiro Yanagisawa
Abstract: Silica-filled tread compounds show good balance between wet traction and rolling resistance. On the other hand, strong fillerlfiller interaction results in poor silica dispersion, and consequent...


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Paper# 70 70

EFFECTS OF SURFACTANTS CONTAINING ZINC ION ON TESPT AND TESPD TREATED SILICA COMPOUNDS ON PROCESSABILITY IN NATURAL RUBBER

Author: Kwang-J ea Kim*
Abstract: A zinc ion containing surfactants (ZB47 and ZL) were added into the TESPT (bis(triethoxysilylpropyl) tetrasulfide)lsilica and the TESPD (bis(triethoxysilylpropyl) disulfide)lsilica and their...


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Paper# 71 71

Morphology and crystallization behavior of lightly cross-linked natural rubber in blend

Author: Tetsuji Kawazurai, Seiichi Kawaharai, and Yoshinobu lsonoi
Abstract: Isothermal crystallization behavior of natural rubber (NR) dispersed in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) was investigated at -250C in terms of dilatometry. NR was crosslinked with dicumyl peroxide to...


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Paper# 72 72

Continuous Mixing, a challenging Opportunity

Author: Gerard Nijman
Abstract: In recent years a lot of research work has been done in the field of continuous mixing of rubber compounds and the trend is that research on this topic will increase. Additionally powdery and free...


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Paper# 73 73

PRODUCTION AND APPLICATION OF SILICA LOADED POWDER RUBBER BASED ON E-SBR

Author: Udo Goerl
Abstract: With the development of a silica-loaded free-flowing rubber I tiller compound system based on E-SBR it could be demonstrated that the powder rubber technology can also be successfully used for...


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Paper# 75 75

CONTINUOUS TANGENTIAL MIXING OF ELASTOMERS

Author: Peter Wickenheisser
Abstract: The demand for continuous mixing of rubber in the 1950's initiated a series of developments that continues to evolve. Many diverse approaches utilizing both new, and existing, technologies have...


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Paper# 76 76

The Single-Rotor Continuous Mixing System (Carter Continuous Compounder & Carousel Blender)

Author: Philip K. Freakley*
Abstract: A new and novel continuous mixer for rubber compounds has been developed in a co-operation between the Rubber Process Engineering Centre at Loughborough University and Carter Bros (Rochdale) Ltd in...


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Paper# 77 77

FURTHER PROCESS ADVANTAGES, CHANCES AND APPLICATIONS OF EXTRUDER GEAR PUMP SYSTEMS

Author: Olaf Skibba and Oliver Thoma
Abstract: The benefits of extrusion through a gear pump - i.e. very effective pressure build-up and constant throughput with the thereby associated dimensional accuracy of the extrudate - are well known to...


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Paper# 78 78

POLYMERIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CYCLIC STRUCTURES IN ELASTOMERIC HIGH VINYL POLY(BUTAD]ENE)

Author: Steven K. Henning*, Denver D. Werstler, Michael L. Kerns, and Eilert A. Ofstead
Abstract: The production of high vinyl polybutadiene rubber (HVPBd) at temperatures conducive to commercial processes requires the use of polar modifiers to effect 1,2-addition of butadiene. However, the...


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Paper# 79 79

STRUCTURE AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF BREATHABLE BUTYL RUBBER MEMBRANES

Author: N. Viriyabanthorn*, J. L. Mead, and R. G. Stacer
Abstract: Development of breathable elastomeric membranes based upon commercial butyl rubber (HR) solution coating compounds is reported. These semi-permeable membranes are produced by electrospinning the...


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Paper# 80 80

PERFORMANCE OF BUTYL RUBBER (IIR) SHEET IN UNDERGROUND COMPRESSED AIR STORAGE FACILITY FOR CAES-GIT POWER PLANT

Author: Shingo Takagi
Abstract: The Compressed Air Energy Storage Gas Turbine (CAES-GIT) power generating system utilizes low-cost electricity available during off-peak hours to compress air, which will be stored in an...


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Paper# 82 82

ANISOTROPIC SWELLING OF EPDM RUBBER

Author: K. Azaar, J. M. Vergnaud*, and L.D. Rosca
Abstract: Anisotropic swelling is observed when thin ethylene propylene diene monomer discs are immersed in a liquid such as toluene, whatever the percent peroxide acting as the curing agent -ranging from 2...


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Paper# 83 83

Characterizing gum elastomers by Fourier transform rheometry

Author: Jean L. Leblanc*,
Abstract: Fourier transform (FT) rheometry is an emerging new technique that allows the linear and non-linear viscoelastic behavior of polymer materials to be accurately investigated. Basically samples are...


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Paper# 84 84

USE OF SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY FOR DETERMINATION OF UNDISPERSED PEROXIDE

Author: By Fred Fraser* and Joshua Kelley
Abstract: In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), were used to investigate a molding related defect.*' In what seemed initially to be a prosaic and...


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Paper# 85 85

Structural Developments in Natural and Synthetic Poly-isoprene Rubbers

Author: Shigeyuki Toki*, Igors Sics, Shaofeng Ran, Lizhi Liu and Benjamin S. Hsiao
Abstract: The high intensity of synchrotron X-rays and new image analysis methods made it possible to estimate the mass fractions of strain-induced crystals and amorphous chains in both oriented and...


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Paper# 86 86

CONDUCTIVITY AND CARBON NETWORK IN POLYMER COMPOSITES

Author: By Nicolaus Probst*, Eusebiu Grivei
Abstract: Carbon black structure concept appeared in the late fifties as the first higher structure carbon blacks came on the market. Structure was considered as the space available in the interstices of...


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Paper# 87 87

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN TACK AND VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF MODEL TIRE BELT SKIMS

Author: Bruce D. Lambillotte and Don Askea
Abstract: The objective of this work was to conduct an empirical search for correlations between viscoelastic responses and autohesive tack measurements from two trial series of variations of a model radial...


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Paper# 88 88

PROCESS ANALYSIS OF THE PLASTIFICATION OF RUBBER COMPOUNDS USING GEAR PUMPS

Author: Tom Wi1he]msmeyer* and Andreas Limper
Abstract: In the rubber industry gear pumps are used for several tasks. This leads to the fact, that there are many different demands and requests which have to be satisiied by this aggregate. Due to this...


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Paper# 89 89

Twin -Screw Rubber Mixing and Extrusion Concepts

Author: Reinhard Uphus
Abstract: The process of continuous mixing for the production of a rubber compound requires continuous feeding of all the ingredients of the compound. Furthermore, the ingredients have to be fed in the...


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Paper# 90 90

TWIN SCREW MIXER FOR RUBBER COMPOUNDING

Author: Luigi Pomini *, Roberto Regalia
Abstract: The continuous mixing technology in the rubber industry has been tested since long time ago, more than twenty years, but today only few industrial application have been confirmed. In this paper two...


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Paper# 91 91

Continuous Mixing - New Concepts

Author: Bernhard Fritsche*, Christoph Naef
Abstract: Continuous mixing is gaining in interest more and more and this results in good prospects for the rubber industry. The increasing availability of continuously feedable raw materials enable...


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Paper# 92 92

INNOVATIVE PROCESSING OF ELASTOMER MASSES

Author: Michael W. Batton*
Abstract: Now the right moment has come that rubber processes will change more and more from discontinuous to continuous processes as in the rubber industry as well a higher flexibility with regard to the...


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Paper# 93 93

Progress in the development of the Continuous Rubber Mixing Process by Twin-Screw Extrusion

Author: A. Amash*, M. Bogun and R.-H. Schuster
Abstract: Continuous mixing of powder rubber was basically studied by the twin-screw extrusion. Using several well-considered screw configurations, the development of the dispersion degree, Mooney viscosity,...


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Paper# 95 95

STUDY OF THE ADHESION LAYER FORMED ON BRASS BY SEM AND GRAZING INCIDENCE X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Author: Jong Myoung Kim*
Abstract: The morphology of the copper sulfide layer formed on brass panels cured in a squalene liquid model system was investigated by SEM. At cure temperature of 150C, the copper sulfide was observed to...


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Paper# 96 96

RUBBER/FIBER INTERACTIONS DURING THE TEARING OF RUBBER COATED POLYESTER FABRICS

Author: Z. Tao*, J. Chen, J.L. Mead, R.G. Stacer
Abstract: Results on the characterization of the tearing behavior of a series of uncoated and butyl rubber coated polyester plain weave fabrics are reported. Polyester fabrics were obtained from commercial...


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Paper# 97 97

ADHESION PROMOTION IN REINFORCED RUBBER

Author: Joseph Burke*
Abstract: Reinforcement depends on adhesion between the reinforcing material and the bulk compound. Adhesion is difficult to obtain in many systems of commercial interest. For some of these difficult systems...


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Paper# 98 98

EFFECT OF CONSTRUCTION ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF FABRIC REINFORCED RUBBER

Author: Samira Farboodmanesh*, Julie Chen, Joey Mead and Kari White
Abstract: Fabrics coated with rubber have wide applications in fields such as medical substrates, protective clothing, and flexible membranes for civil structures, airbags, geotextiles and industrial...


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Paper# 100 100

STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS UNDER UNIAXIAL LOADS FOR SILICA FILLED PDMS SHEETS

Author: Richard Wm. Tock*, Quamrul Arefeen, Fang Qiao, and Harry Parker
Abstract: Traditional statistical thermodynamic theory for ideal elastomers was combined with the equally well-defined Kemer equation for the modulus of composite materials to yield a theoretical...


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Paper# 101 101

SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF INTERFACE DEVELOPMENT AND PENETRATION IN MULTI- COMPONENT TRANSFER MOLDING OF RUBBER

Author: C. T. Li*, A. I. Isayev, R. L. Warley
Abstract: Simulation and experimental studies of pressure-controlled sequential transfer molding of two SBR rubber compounds under isothermal condition have been carried out to obtain a two-layered sandwich...


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Paper# 102 102

Problem of Approximation Function of Strain Energy Density

Author: Y. Yamashita*, S. Kawabata and A. Tanaka
Abstract: Recently, the strain energy density function has been the most useful in the finite element analysis (FEM) of rubber. Kawabata has examined this in detail. Therefore, it is already understood that...


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Paper# 103 103

COUPLED AXIAL-TORSIONAL RESPONSE OF ELASTOMER BUSHINGS

Author: Jennifer Kadlowec* and David Gerrard
Abstract: Elastomer bushings are essential components in tuning suspension systems since they isolate vibration, reduce noise transmission, accommodate oscillatory motions and accept misalignment of axes....


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Paper# 104 104

RHEOLOGY OF PVC PLASTISOL - VIII: MECHANISM OF NON-LINEAR VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR

Author: N. Nakajima and E. R. Harrell
Abstract: In the previous paper of this series the strain-amplitude dependence (non- linearity) of viscoelastic properties of a PVC plastisol was examined. The range of amplitude was 0.02 to 10.24 and that...


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Paper# 105 105

New Insights into the Mastication Process

Author: M. Hensel, K-H. Menting*, T. Mergenhagen and H. Umland
Abstract: Modern chemical peptizers are highly efficient in reducing the viscosity of natural rubber, provided a separate mastication step is used. Due to the chemical composition of the peptizers they are...


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Paper# 106 106

Productivity Enhancements in Difficult to Mix NR Compounds

Author: Frederick Ignatz-Hoover*
Abstract: With today's Steadily increasiNg demand for tires, capacity improvemeNts in mixing are becoming more highly valued. In addition, increasing demands for difficult to mix compounds require further...


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Paper# 107 107

Continuous and Discontinuous Mixing under Aspects of the Material Quality

Author: Martin Bogun, Frank Abraham, Liviu Muresan, Robert H. Schuster*, H. J. Radusch
Abstract: A comparative study of bale rubber and powder rubber mixing was performed with the goal of comparing the rheological behavior of the mixes and the physical properties of the corresponding...


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Paper# 108 108

CONTINUOUS MIXING AND COMPOUNDING OF POLYMERIFILLER AND POLYMERIPOLYMER MIXTURES WITH THE AID OF ULTRASOUND

Author: A. I. Isayev
Abstract: High power ultrasound is applied to break down silica agglomerates in EPDM/silica mixtures and to compatibilize plastic/rubber and rubber/rubber blends during extrusion process. Ultrasonically...


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Paper# 110 110

Magnetic Resonance Crosslink Density Measurements as a Tool for Quality Assurance of Rubber Compounds.

Author: Winfried Kuhn*, Stefan Kelbch*, Ulrich Giese# and Robert H. Schuster#
Abstract: Magnetic resonance techniques are widely used in almost all disciplines of natural sciences and medicine. This paper demonstrates the use of a low cost and very compact NMR system with dedicated...


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Paper# 111 111

POWDER RUBBER SYSTEMS IN THE CONTINUOUS MIXING PROCESS UNDER ECONOMICAL ASPECTS

Author: By Udo Goerl
Abstract: Besides the solution of the technical questions and requirements, the economical aspects of a continuous compounding process will play an important role for its introduction into the mixing rooms...


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Paper# 112 112

EFFECT OF ZINC OXIDE ON THE REACTION OF TESPT SILANE COUPLING AGENT WITH SILICA AND RUBBER

Author: L.A.E.M. ReuVekamp*, S.C. Debnath, J.W. ten Brinke, R]. Van Swaaij, J Noordermeerl
Abstract: The addition of a coupling agent to silica-rubber compounds enhances filler-matrix compatibility. The coupling agent under study, TESPT, can also act as a sulphur donor, which leads to premature...


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Paper# 113 113

THERMOMECHANICAL DEGRADATION OF SBR DURING ULTRASONIC TREATMENT UNDER THE STATIC CONDITIONS

Author: V.V. Yashin* , C.K. Hong, and A.I. Isayev
Abstract: The paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical studies of the ultrasonic treatment of ground vulcanized unfilled styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) in a static device (no flow)....


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Paper# 114 114

UTILIZATION OF ULTRA-FINE RUBBER VULCANIZATE POWDERS

Author: Ceni Jacob, Arun Ghosh, P. P. De and S. K. De*
Abstract: Deterioration in physical properties of the ground waste vulcanizate-filled rubber compounds occurs primarily due to large size of the comminuted particles. Hence preparation of fine powder from...


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Paper# 115 115

CHANGES IMPACTING THE GROUND RUBBER INDUSTRY

Author: Michael Blumenthal*
Abstract: There is little disagreement that the highest value added application for scrap tire rubber is in the form of ground rubber (also referred to as crumb rubber or particulate rubber). Ground rubber...


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Paper# 116 116

DEVULCANIZATION OF UNFILLED NATURAL RUBBER IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

Author: M. Kojima*, M. Tosaka, and S. Kohjiya
Abstract: Sulfur-cured unfilled natural rubber was devulcanized in supercritical CO2 along with diphenyl disulfide (DD) as a devulcanizing reagent. The product was fractionated into sol and gel fractions....


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Paper# 117 117

HIGH-TEMPERATURE DEGRADATION/DEVULCANIZATION OF RUBBER: A METHOD OF RECYCLING WASTE RUBBER

Author: Drew E. Williams*, Amiya R. Tripathy, Elodie Vidil, and Richard J. Farris
Abstract: Few technologies have been developed to recycle waste thermosets compared to those available for the recycling of metals, glasses, and thermoplastics (meltable polymers). Rubbers, being a...


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Paper# 118 118

ULTRASONIC DEVULCANIZATION OF CARBON BLACK FILLED EPDM RUBBER

Author: Jushik Yun*, V. V. Yashin, and A. I. Isayev
Abstract: The recycling of carbon black (CB) filled EPDM rubber was carried out by using a newly built continuous ultrasonic grooved barrel reactor. Using this reactor, it was possible to increase by two...


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Paper# 119 119

Benefits of High Molecular Weight N BR Elastomers in Soft Printing Rolls

Author: John Dewar*, Rayner Krista and Don Tsou,
Abstract: Nitrile elastom ers have long been the preferred polymer in soft printing roll applications. These elastom ers provide satisfactory heat, aging and fatigue performance as well as the high abrasion,...


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Paper# 120 120

HXNBR and Metal Acrvlate Blends for Agplications Requiring High Modulus

Author: Walter Von Hellens* and Sharon Guo
Abstract: HXNBR (hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber) is a new high performance elastomer which has superior mechanical strength, excellent adhesion properties, as well as good resistance to...


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Paper# 121 121

Effect of ZnO Particle Size on the Curing of Carboxylated Nitrile Rubber

Author: G. R. Hamed and K.-C. Hua
Abstract: A carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR) has been mixed with zinc oxide particles of three different sizes (“S” ≈ 0.03 µm, “M” ≈ 0.31 µm, and “L” ≈ 2.2 µm) and cure behavior from oscillating disc...


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Paper# 122 122

Hydrogenated Carboxylated Nitrile Rubber for Enhanced Mechanical Properties

Author: E.C. Campomizzi*, L. P. Ferrari and W. Von Hellens
Abstract: The improvement in performance properties, especially hot air resistance, obtained by hydrogenation of unsaturated nitrile rubber has been well established. Also, the introduction of functional...


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Paper# 123 123

Model Reaction of Polysulfide with Olefin

Author: William L. Hergenrother, Ashley S. Hilton, and Chenchy J. Lin*
Abstract: A model polysulfide, I-butyl polysulfide (TBPS) and an olefin, cyclododecene (CDD), were used to study the reactivity of polysulfanes in silica filled rubbers. The TBPS has a similar sulfur rank...


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