Technical Paper Archive


This site contains all papers presented at Rubber Division, ACS Technical Meetings from 2000-2018. Meetings prior to 2000 are incomplete and papers are added as they are digitized.


For older papers not listed here, please send your request, including Meeting Year, Title, Author, and Paper # to: cbrady@rubber.org


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160th Technical Meeting

Date: October 16, 2001
Location: Cleveland, OH

Full set price (if using a coupon, choose select all below instead): $900.00

198th Technical Meeting - Fall 2020

196th Technical Meeting - Fall 2019

195th Technical Meeting - 2019 Spring

194th Technical Meeting - Fall 2018

193rd Technical Meeting - 2018 Spring

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Paper# 1 Paper1

IMPEDANCE SENSING TECHNOLOGY IN RUBBER PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS: QUALITY DATA AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS

Author: RIchard Magill
Abstract: Impedance sensing technology provides an important new method for rubber product manufacturers to improve quality control oftheir products, while simultaneously reducing cure times. This technology...


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Paper# Paper53

NEW ULTRA HIGH CIS POLYBUTADIENE THROUGH A NOVEL NEODYMIUM CATALYST

Author:
Abstract: by Gwanghoon Kwag,* Youngchan J ang, Pillsung Kim, Aju Kim, Seunghwon Lee, Hun] ong Baik, Dong-ll Yoon, Ho Young J eong, Jung-Goo Lee, Hosull Lee* Kumho Chemical Laboratories, Korea Kumho...


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Paper# Paper145

Stretching the EPDM Product Design: Dual Composition Metallocene EPDM

Author:
Abstract: Metallocene catalyst technology has been used for several years to produce ethylene elastomers in commercial facilities. Examples of these polymers are Nordel@ IP EPDM terpolymers supplied in a...


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Paper# Paper133

ABRASION AND SCRATCH BEHAVIOR OF ELASTOMERS

Author:
Abstract: Initial results on the abrasion and scratch behavior of elastomer compounds will be discussed. Elastomers studied were brominated isobutylene paramethylstyrene (BIMS) elastomer, butadiene rubber...


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Paper# Paper55

I COBALT-CATALYZED SYNTHESIS OF HIGH TRANS-1,4 POLYBUTADIENES

Author:
Abstract: COBALT-CATALYZED SYNTHESIS OF HIGH TRANS-1,4 POLYBUTADIENES. Kenneth F .Castner, The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Goodyear Chemical (330-- 7966327), 1485 East Archwood Ave., Akron, Ohio 44316.


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Paper# Paper93

COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON EFFECTS OF TESPT AND TESPD TREATED SILICA COMPOUNDS ON PROCESSING AND SILICA DISPERSION DURING

Author:
Abstract: The processability, dynamic, mechanical, heat build-up, blowout properties, and silica dispersion. of the bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasu1fide (TESPT) and the bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)disulfide...


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Paper# Paper5

SELECTIVE SELF-ADHESIVE SILICONE FOR

Author:
Abstract: SyuichiAzeehi, Naoki Yamakawa , Susumu Sekiguchi *and Noriyuki Meguriya Silicone-Electronics Material Research Center, Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd. 1-10, Hitomi, Matuida, Gunma 379-0224, Japan...


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Paper# Paper50

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF HEAT BUILD-UP IN RUBBER COMPOUNDS WITH APPLICATION TO FRACTURE

Author:
Abstract: IR thermography was used to produce images of the surface temperature profiles of cylindrical samples of filled rubber under cyclic compression conditions. A linearized constitutive approach and...


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Paper# Paper46

SUPERIOR MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRASONICALLY RECYCLED EPDM RUBBER '

Author:
Abstract: This paper describes the results of an extensive study involving the continuous ultrasonic devulcanization of unfilled EPDM rubber. Die pressure and ultrasound power consumption were measured as a...


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Paper# Paper38

DEVULCANIZATION OF SULFUR-CURED ISOPRENE RUBBER IN SUPERCARITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

Author:
Abstract: M. KOJIMA, K. OGAWA, H. MIZOSHIMA TOYO TIRE & RUBBER cO., LTD., R & D CENTER, IBARAKI, OSAKA B 567-0887, JAPAN M. TOSAKA, s. KOHJIYA KYOTO UNIVERSITY, INSTITUTE FOR CHEMICAL RESEARCH, UJI, KYOTO...


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Paper# Paper34

USING CRUMB RUBBER AS A FILTER MEDIA FOR WASTEWATER FILTRATION

Author:
Abstract: The use of the crumb rubber from waste tires as a filter media for wastewater filtration was investigated. Pilot studies were conducted with both synthetic and field wastewater. The conventional...


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Paper# 2 Paper2

Mould Release And Mould Fouling, How Can We Do Better?

Author: Colin Clarke* and Thomas Mergenhagen
Abstract: Most rubber production methods involve a moulding operation. The performance of the moulding department is therefore a most important factor for many producers. Many sophisticated polymers and...


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Paper# 3 Paper3

The Effects of Processing Parameters on the Performance of Autodepositable Coatings for Rubber to Metal Bonding

Author: Brett A. Flearick*, Bebecca S. Cowles, James B. Williams
Abstract: New autodepositable organic coatings for bonding rubber to metal have been developed to provide a variety of performance enhancements compared to conventional bonding techniques. These coatings...


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Paper# 4 Paper4

Meeting "Life of the Vehicle" and LEV-II Emission Reguirements with AEM Elastomers

Author: H.J. Barager, E. McBride, Y.T. Wu, D. D. King, K. Kammerer*
Abstract: The new LEV-ll vehicle emission requirements are beginning to impact traditional engine sealing requirements. VMQ cam cover and oil pan seals can weep out engine oil and they can also permeate a...


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Paper# 6 Paper6

Plastic Rubber Masterbatches

Author: Chandrasekaran R. Pillai
Abstract: Using a novel technique, a range of plastic and rubber masterbatches of different polymers may be prepared to meet specific needs of final applications. The final compounder or product fabricator...


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Paper# 7 Paper7

Iran's Role and Market Potential In Tire Manufacturing

Author: Mahmood Habibnia*
Abstract: In this paper, firstly we analyze supply and demand of tire in Iran market. This process illustrates the ability of tire production, introduces the tire productive companies and the automobile...


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Paper# 8 Paper8

New Method for Utilizing Pyrolyzed production Of Scrap Tires

Author: Mehdi Ebrahymi, A. R. Ansari & M. Habib Nia
Abstract: In case of consumption humble Carbon Black by tire producer companies and the possibility of using the Carbon Back by pyrolysing the scrap tires, therefore nowadays the process of pyrolyzation is...


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Paper# 9 Paper9

HIGH-TEMPERATURE HIGH- PRESSURE SINTERING: A METHOD OF RECYCLING WASTE RUBBER

Author: Drew E. Williams* , Jeremy E. Morin, Amiya R. Tripathy and Richard J. Farris
Abstract: Chemically crosslinked rubbers are among some the most difficult materials to recycle, since they will not dissolve or melt. Presently, there are only a few uses for the materials reclaimed from...


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Paper# 10 Paper10

RUBBER RECYCLING: UNDERSTSANDING THE MECHANISM OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE HIGH- PRESSURE VULCANIZED RUBBER SINTERING

Author: A.R. Tripathy*, J.E. Morin, D.E. Williams, and R.J. Farris
Abstract: Vulcanized rubbers are infusible and insoluble in nature, thereby difficult to recycle. There are currently numerous methods for recycling of tire waste, each having limited success. Recently,...


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Paper# 11 Paper11

ULTRASONICALLY TREATED POLYPROPYLENE/GROUND TIRE RUBBER BLENDS

Author: Jeong Seok Oh* and A. I. Isayev
Abstract: Compounding the ground tire rubber (GRT) with commercial polyolefins such as polypropylene (PP) is a possible way of recycling GRT. These new blends can provide low cost materials. The present...


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Paper# 13 Paper13

Fundamental Properties of Activated-Modiiied Rubber(AMR), a Devulcanized Recycled Rubber Produced from Rubber Scrap and Used Tires

Author: Bill Klingensmith, Paul Standley, Li Xing Ru, Zhe Ying
Abstract: The Guangzhou Resaerch Institute for Utilization or Reclaimed Resources in Guangzhou, China has developed a technology to recover the scrap rubber from tires using a devulcanizing process. The...


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Paper# 14 Paper14

Utilization of Devulcanized Recyclate; Part 1: Replacement of Virgin Polymer in Generic Tire Tread Compound.

Author: Paul M. Standley
Abstract: Experiments were run on whole tire recyclate derived from 10 mesh GTR (ground tire rubber) processed using a proprietary devulcanization methodology developed in China at the Gwangzhou Research...


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Paper# 15 Paper15

Utilization of the Rubber Process Analyzer in Six Sigma Programs To Improve Quality and Reduce Production Costs

Author: John Dick,*, Michael Ferraco, Ken Immel, Tom Mlinar, Mark Senskey, John Sezna
Abstract: The principal players in the automotive industry have embarked on a new campaign to reduce product quality variation and manufacturing costs of components, sub-systems, and systems. The goal of...


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Paper# 16 Paper16

Controlling Raw Material Quality Stability

Author: William F. Cole, Jr.
Abstract: With the introduction of quality programs such as ISO 9000, QS 9000, and 66 many rubber companies have implemented procedural programs in an effort to control raw material quality variability. At...


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Paper# 19 Paper19

AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR MEASURING FILLER DISPERSION OF UNCURED RUBBER

Author: John B. Putman*, Matthew C. Putman, and Robert Samples
Abstract: Filler dispersion is a critical component in determining material properties of a vulcanized rubber compound. Various methods exist to determine the degree of dispersion including mechanical,...


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Paper# 20 Paper20

Flocculation in Carbon Black Filled Rubber Compounds.

Author: M. Gerspacher, L. Nikiel*, H. H. Yang, and C. P. O'Farrell
Abstract: The properties of carbon black filled rubber compounds are greatly influenced by the extend of filler micro-dispersion. Dispersion takes place during mixing where carbon black pellets are broken up...


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Paper# 21 Paper21

COMPOUND VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES AND FRACTURE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR IN TRUCK TIRE DURABILITY PREDICTION

Author: Hany G. Moneypenny*, Syed K. Mowdood and M. Nahmias
Abstract: Truck tire durability is discussed with respect to the importance in identifying the mode, initiation point. propagation and reason of the failure. The process is illustrated with two possible...


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Paper# 22 Paper22

Predictive Testing (Rolling Resistance) for Rubber Compounds with the Method of Dynamic Mechanic Thermal Spectroscopy - Correlation between Tyre Ranking and Tan 5

Author: Dr. Horst Deckmann
Abstract: The development of new tyres with improved properties (e.g. optimised rolling resistance) is a main target of the research departments in the tyre industry. In the early beginning (compounding) up...


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Paper# 23 Paper23

Determination of Dynamic Friction Characteristics During Braking and the Consequence for Performance Prediction

Author: Oliver Albohr*
Abstract: Dynamic Eiction processes between rubber and surfaces are well described by a lot of physical models. Basic parameter used in the models to predict hnally the tire performance are the tread-...


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Paper# 24 Paper24

the Adhesion of Elastic Solids

Author: B.N.J. Persson
Abstract: When rubber slides on a hard, rough substrate, the surface asperities of the substrate exert oscillating forces on the rubber surface leading to energy fidissipationf via the internal friction of...


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Paper# 25 Paper25

Innovations in the Production of HNBR

Author: By Wil Belt, Olav Aagaard, Charlie Leonard, Tom Tsai and Niels van der Aar
Abstract: This paper describes a new approach to an environmentally safe manufacturing process for HNBR, which is based on the hydrogenation of NBR latex. After the hydrogenation step, the latex is...


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Paper# 26 Paper26

New Improved Cold Flexibility HNBR

Author: Takafumi Kawanaka *
Abstract: Since HNBR was commercialized, it has been widely recognized as a high performance rubber because of its superior mechanical properties, heat, oil, and chemical resistance. The applications of HN...


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Paper# 27 Paper27

NOVEL LOW TEMPERATURE HNBR POLYMERS

Author: Edmee Files* and Mark Jones
Abstract: Hydrogenated nitriles (HNBR) have many desirable properties including heat, oil and fuel resistance. Low temperature properties are typically governed by the acrylonitrile (ACN) content. Low...


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Paper# 28 Paper28

Elastomers Exhibiting Safe and Durable Antimicrobial Properties

Author: Geoffrey R. Haas, Bhawan Patel, Bob C. Kerr
Abstract: There has been a great deal of attention in recent years given to problems associated with microbial contamination from potential everyday exposure. Noteworthy examples of such concerns include...


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Paper# 29 Paper29

New, Improved Processing HFP-Peroxide Cured Types of Viton®

Author: Ronald D. Stevens* & Donald F. Lyons
Abstract: Fluoroelastomers having a monomer composition of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), hexafluoropropylene (HFP) and vinylidene fluoride (VF2) with an incorporated cure site monomer that allows peroxide...


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Paper# 30 Paper30

New, Improved Processing PMVE-Peroxide Cured Types of

Author: Ronald D. Stevens and Donald F. Lyons*
Abstract: Fluoroelastomers having a monomer composition of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), perfluoromethylvinyl ether (PMVE), and vinylidene fluoride (VF2) with an incorporated cure site monomer that enables...


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Paper# 31 Paper31

The Novel Use of Controlled Long Chain Branched Keltan® Blends to Widen the Processing Window

Author: Jagdish R. Patel*, H. J. H. Beelen and M. J. M. Wilms
Abstract: Combinations of new CLCB EPDM grades are used showing the advantages to be gained by blending. Previous papers have described the intrinsic properties of EPDMs produced using the CLCB...


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Paper# 32 Paper32

lmproved Low-Temperature Properties Polyacrylate Elastomers

Author: Isao Kubota* And Hiroshi Kanno
Abstract: Polyacrylate elastomers (ACM) are widely used in the automotive industry because of their excellent resistance to lubricating oils and greases. They can be formulated to resist high-temperature...


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Paper# 33 Paper33

A new "intelligent" peptizer concept: better dynamic properties plus improved processing

Author: C. Clarke, R. Galle-Gutbrecht, M. Hensel, K.-H. Menting*, T. Mergenhagen
Abstract: Even after more than a hundred years of development in the rubber industry vulcanisates of natural rubber (NR) still show a unique set of features unmatched by all the different synthetic...


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Paper# 36 Paper36

Rejuvenation of Non-tire Rubbers

Author: Hari Chandra*
Abstract: Presentation Files Only Describes MC-TC Technology which rejuvenates scrap rubber/polymer into useful rubber/polymer


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Paper# 37 Paper37

THERMOREVERSIBLE CROSSLINKING RUBBER USING SUPRAMOLECULAR HYDROGEN BONDING NETWORKS

Author: eisuke Chino*, Makoto Ashiura, Junichiro Natori
Abstract: Thermoreversible crosslinking rubber (TRC-IR) was easily synthesized by addition of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol(ATA) followed by modification of isoprene rubber (IR) with maleic anhydride in solid...


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Paper# 39 Paper39

MECHANOCHEMICAL DEVULCANISATION OF ELASTOMERS

Author: S. S. Sangari*, N. Kao, N.Bhattacharya, D. Pavel and K. Silva
Abstract: Mechanochemical process was applied to devulcanised model filled vulcanised styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). The devulcanisation process was carried out in an internal mixer usirg various chemical...


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Paper# 41 Paper41

STRAIN-INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION AND STRENGTH OF RUBBER

Author: A. N. Gent* and L.-Q. Zhang
Abstract: The rate and extent of crystallization in crosslinked samples of natural rubber (NR), cis-1,4-polybutadiene (BR), and butyl rubber (IIR), were studied by observing the relaxation of stress in...


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Paper# 42 Paper42

True Stress and True Strain and Real Time Birefringence Development of Orientation in Rubber during Uniaxial Stretching as Detected by Spectral Birefringence Technique II. Natural Rubber and Synthetic poly-Isoprene

Author: Shigeyuki Toki*, Taner Zafer Sen, David Valladares and Miko Cakmak
Abstract: A newely developed uniaxial stretching system that allows the determination of true stress, true strain and real time birefringence simultaneously was used to investigate the fundamental...


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Paper# 43 Paper43

Effect of a Novel Heat Stabilizer Additive on the Heat Resistance of EPDM and EVM Vulcanizates

Author: J. E. Hannay*, F. Guerin, H. Bender
Abstract: The use of polymers in high temperature applications is limited by the thermo-oxidative degradation of the polymer matrix. The benefit of a novel heat stabilizer has already been demonstrated in...


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Paper# 45 Paper45

Variation of Silica Form and Surface Area on Processing, Dispersion and Compound Reinforcement in Keltan 2340A (EPDM)

Author: David R. Schultz*, and Stephen P. Hughes
Abstract: Silica (non-HDS and HDS type) in pellet, granule, microgranule, powder, and spherical form, and ranging in N2 single point and cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surface area, was processed at...


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Paper# 47 Paper47

The Friction and Wear of Rubber, Part 2: Micro-mechanical Description of Intrinsic Wear

Author: David P. Gerrard
Abstract: The concept of a Damage Orientation Distribution Function was introduced in Part 1 of this series to describe the transient effect on wear generated by a dynamically changing slip orientation. In...


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Paper# 48 Paper48

CORRELATION BETWEEN ROAD WEAR OF TlRE$ AND COMPUTER ROAD WEAR SIMULATION USING LABORATORY ABRASION DATA

Author: A. Grosch*
Abstract: The severity of road tests, particularly when carried out with customer vehicles is not well defined. Any result obtained in this way is a spot reading which contains no information about its...


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Paper# 49 Paper49

Parameter Dependence and Prediction of Fatigue Properties of Elastomer Products

Author: T. Alshuth* and F. Abraham
Abstract: Although elastomeric materials exhibit very high strains for relatively small stresses, making them appropriate for many automotive applications, they still have behaviour in common with other...


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Paper# 54 Paper54

Control of Microstructure in Polymerization of Butadiene by V(acac)3 and Co(acac)3 in Combination with Methyaluminoxane

Author: Kiyoshi Endo*, Yasuhiro Yamanaka and Naoyoshi Hatakeyama
Abstract: Polymerization of butadiene (Bd) by V(acac)3lMAO and Co(acac)3llVIAO catalysts was investigated. The microstructure of the poly(Bd) strongly depended on the polymerization conditions. In the...


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Paper# 58 Paper58

PRODUCTION OF PETROLEUM PLASTICIZERS

Author: Jimmy M. Rasco
Abstract: Presentation Slides Only


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Paper# 59 Paper59

LIGHT-COLORED PARAFFINIC OILS IN RUBBER PROCESSING

Author: William D. Nash
Abstract: For years, crude oils have been refined by fractionation to separate fuels from heavier, waxy distillates. Typically, the resulting oil distillates are subsequently processed through some...


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Paper# 61 Paper61

High Performance Ester Plasticizers

Author: Stephen O'Rourke
Abstract: Traditional elastomer polymers suchlas nitrile, polychloroprene, chlorinated polyethylene and chlorosulfonated polyethylene have for years used moderate to low performance ester plasticizers....


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Paper# 63 Paper63a

EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL FUNCTIONALIZATION OF EMULSION POLYMERS

Author: Victor M. Monroy*, Sandra D. Hofmann and Renate Tietz
Abstract: ESBRis functionalized with different polar groups at a level of about 2 % were synthesized and tested in silica compounds. For the compounding studies, the amount of silane coupling agent was...


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Paper# 64 Paper64

BLENDS of NITRILE RUBBER

Author: MANU M. PATEL* and DR. ASHOK MOODBIDRI PRABHU
Abstract: Blending of Polymers for property improvement or for cost reductions have gained increasing importance during recent years. Compatibility of the constituent polymers is often a necessity for...


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Paper# 65 Paper65

Improved Mixing of Polyacrylate

Author: Andy Anderson*, Paul Manley
Abstract: The objective of this paper was to study the mixing of Polyacrylate (ACM) compounds in order to reduce mixing time. Compounds were mixed upsidedown or rightsideup at low rpmis or high rpmis in a...


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Paper# 66 Paper66

Non-Lead Polyepichlorohydrin (ECO) Elastomer Compounds

Author: Peter J. Abraham*, Ivan C. Burczak,Clark J .Cable
Abstract: polyepichlorohydrin (ECO) elastomers has been ethylene thiourea (ETU) and lead, usually Pb3O4 (red lead oxide). Lead containing materials have become more of an environmental issue in recent times...


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Paper# 67 Paper67

Evaluation of processing induced morphology and its relation to mechanical weary behavior of ESBR and SSBR

Author: M. Nadeem Qureshi, H. Qarnmar, and J. Padovan
Abstract: The morphology of raw rubber plays a significant role in the degradation processes of rubber. The results of an experimental study involving a unique technique of surface preparation suggests that...


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Paper# 68 Paper68

Characterization of Binary and Tertiary Blends of SBR, NBR, and PVC by Mid and Near IR Spectroscopy

Author: Stephanie R. Shield* and Ghebrehiwet N. Ghebremeskel
Abstract: NBRIPVC blends are widely ased in hoses, gaskets, shoe soles, and as coatings in the electrical indastry. In some applications, a small portion of the NBR in NBRIPVC blends is replaced by E-SBR to...


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Paper# 69 Paper69

Characterization of Rubber Micro-Morphology by I Atomic Force Mic-roscopy (AFM)

Author: LH. Jeon*, H. Kim, S.G. Kim
Abstract: Micro-morphology of the rubber compound such as polymer compatibility and carbon black distribution is one of the most important parameter, which affects on the compound performance. Transmission...


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Paper# 90 Paper90 lin

On the Filler Flocculation in Silica-Filled Rubbers Part I. Quantifying and Tracking Filler Flocculation and Polymer-Filler Interaction in Unvulcanized Rubber Compounds

Author: Chen-Chy Lin*, W.L. Hergenrother, E. Alexanian, and G.G.A. Böhm
Abstract: Filler flocculation was followed for silica filled compounds containing various alkoxy silanes and non-silane type polar additives. The methodology employed in this paper permitted a quantitative...


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Paper# 94 Paper94

A NEW GENERATION CARBON-SILICA DUAL PHASE FILLER (CSDPF)

Author: Ping Zhang*, Meng-Jiao Wang, Yakov Kutsovsky, Stephen Laube and Khaled Mahmud
Abstract: activity of the carbon phase and optimized silica 'coverage at the surface of the aggregate. Owing to its unique features, the new reinforcing tiller requires less than half of the silane coupling...


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Paper# 95 Paper95

Processability Characteristics of Liniear and Branched Butyls

Author: Gabor Kaszas
Abstract: Butyl samples with different degrees of branching and molecular weight were prepared in batch and continuous polymerization experiments. Branching was achieved using a bifunctional monomer....


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Paper# 96 Paper96

Effect of Branching on the Rheological Properties of Butyl Elastomelz

Author: Gabor Kaszas
Abstract: Butyl elastomers with different degree of branching -and molecular weight were prepared in laboratory batch polymerization experiments. Samples prepared ranged from high gel content to linear....


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Paper# 97 Paper97

HALOBUTYL AND OLEFIN COPOLYMER BLENDS FOR IMPROVED PROCESSABILITY

Author: Andy H. Tsou* and Ilan Duvdevani
Abstract: Improved green strength of halobutyl at elevated temperatures was obtained Via blending with semi-crystalline polymers. For such improvement, a judicious selection of olefin copolymers, such as...


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Paper# 98 Paper98

POLYMER DEVELOPMENTS TO IMPROVE TIRE LIFE AND FUEL ECONOMY

Author: A. J. M. Sumner*, Dr. R. Engehausen, J. Trimbach
Abstract: This paper describes the needs and significant new developments in tire rubbers. Tire life is affected by several factors, such as tread abrasion and resistance to cracking of the carcass. The...


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Paper# 99 Paper99

IMPROVEMENT OF ROLLING RESISTANCE OF SILICA TIRE COMPOUNDS BY MODIFIED S-SBR

Author: Akira Saito, Haruo Yainada, Takaaki Matsuda, Nobuaki Kubo, and Norifusa Ishimura
Abstract: The functionalization effects of SBR and its mechanism were examined in order to develop silica tire compounds with improved rolling resistance. A modified SBR was prepared by the reaction of the...


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Paper# 100 Paper100

Chemically Modified Polymers for Tire Application

Author: Masao Nakamura*
Abstract: Many kinds of polymers have been developed, over about the last 100 years, to improve the performance of carbon black reinforced tire formulations. SBR polymerized by organic Li compounds has been...


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Paper# 101 Paper101

ENVIRONMENTALLY PREFERRED ADHESIVES FOR RUBBER TO METAL BONDING

Author: Brian P. Carney*, Christian C. Green, Jennifer A. DiBacco
Abstract: Due to the increasing demand from both government and industry to use materials that are "environmentally preferred", it has become critical to reformulate rubber to metal adhesives with new...


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Paper# 102 Paper102

STYRENE-ISOPRENE-STYRENE BLOCK COPOLYMERS BASED PRESSURE SENSITIVE ADHESIVES

Author: Hiroshi Matsuura* and Jing Zhang
Abstract: Styrene-isoprene-styrene block copolymers (SIS), including minor portions of styrene-isoprene block copolymers (SI), have been used almost exclusively as base elastomers for hot melt pressure...


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Paper# 103 Paper103

BONDING RUBBER TO REINFORCING MATERIALS WITH ADHESION PROMOTING COAGENTS

Author: Richard Costin*
Abstract: Many rubber products are reinforced with metallic or synthetic fibers and fabrics for increased physical strength. Good adhesion between the rubber and the reinforcing material is necessary for the...


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Paper# 104 Paper104

NEW METAL TREATMENT PROCESS GIVES SUPERIOR FLEXIBILITY IN SWAGE TESTING

Author: Rebecca Cowles*, Helmut Kucera, Brett Rearick, Jennifer Sullivan
Abstract: Rubber to metal bonded constructions known as ffbushingsli, are widely used in automobiles to isolate noise, vibration, and harshness. Manufacturing such bushings typically involves a ffswageli...


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Paper# 105 Paper105

Silanes as Rubber-to-Metal Bonding Agents

Author: Michael J. Moore
Abstract: Organo-functional silanes have been used as coupling agents to improve the properties of composite materials for over 40 years. Their application as rubber-to-metal adhesives has become widespread....


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Paper# 106 Paper106

WING FUNCTION TECHNOLOGY - A NEW ROTOR TECHNOLOGY FOR THE FARREL BANBURY MIXER

Author: L. N. Valsamis and F.J. Borzenski
Abstract: The design and operating characteristics of the Wing Function Technology (WFT) rotors, a new generation of rotor designsfor the BANBURY@ family of batch mixers, is presented and discussed. The...


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Paper# 107 Paper107

OPTIMIZING MIXING IN THE FARREL BANBURY@ MIXER WITH WING FUNCTION TECHNOLOGY (WET) ROTORS

Author: F.J. Borzenski and L. N. Valsamis
Abstract: These rotoThe unique dispersive and distributive mixing characteristics of a new rotor design, the Wing Function Technology rotors (WET) for the Farrel BANBURY batch mixer have been quantified by...


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Paper# 108 Paper108

Compounding and Extrusion of TPV's: New Development of Machinery Equipment

Author: Reinhard Uphus
Abstract: Thermoplastic elastomers - also referred to as TPE - belong to a relatively young group of materials that is continuously gaining in importance. The automotive industry, in particular, contributes...


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Paper# 109 Paper109

A New Gear Pump for Rubber Extrusion

Author: Reinhard Uphus
Abstract: Extruder-gear pump combinations have been known for many years in the thermoplastics processing sector. In recent years, this machine combination has also established itself in the rubber industry....


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Paper# 110 Paper110

Up-dating a torsional dynamic rheometer for Fourier transform rheometry on rubber materials

Author: Jean L. I.eblanc*, Christophe de la Chapelle
Abstract: A torsional dynamic rheometer has been suitably modified in order to collect actual torque and strain data, in view of studying the non-linear viscoelastic region. Essentially a fast electronic...


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Paper# 112 Paper112

ELASTOMERS FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE TIRES

Author: Clovis H. Lira
Abstract: Intensive research efforts have been focused on elastomers designed to be employed in tire treads with low rolling resistance, without harming the safety of the vehicle. These materials may...


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Paper# 113 Paper113

EVALUATION OF ISOBUTYLENE-BASED ELASTOMERS IN A MODEL WINTER TIRE TREAD

Author: Walter H. Waddell, Julie H. Kuhr and Robert P. Poulter
Abstract: The performance of butyl, chlorobutyl, bromobutyl and brominated isobutylene- co-para-methylstyrene (BIMS) rubbers were evaluated versus a solution-polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber with 20%...


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Paper# 114 Paper114

REINFORCEMENT OF BIIR WITH SILICA.

Author: W. Hopkins*, W. Von Hellens, A. Koski and J. Rausa
Abstract: The unique reactivity of bromobutyl rubber (BIIR) has been utilized to develop Butyl compounds containing silica with very good reinforcement (M300 I M100 as high as 7). A significant improvement...


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Paper# 115 Paper115

BROMOBUTYL (BIIR) IN TIRE TREADS.

Author: W. Hopkins*, W. von Hellens, A. Koski and J. Rausa
Abstract: The unique reactivity of bromobutyl (BIIR) has been utilized to develop compounds based on polybutadiene (BR) -I- BIIR, which have equal or better wear resistance (DIN) than a standard BRI styrene...


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Paper# 118 Paper118

Optimization of Tire Tread Properties Using Emulsion Styrene- Butadiene Rubber Based Wet Masterbatches Filled with a Silica and a Blend of Silica and Carbon Black Filler System

Author: J. Zhao" and G. Ghebremeskelz
Abstract: In this paper, a technology is described based on wet masterbatch of silica and silicafcarbon black based on using blends of emulsion SBR with varying styrene content and molecular weight. The...


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Paper# 119 Paper119

Adhesion Failure in Bonded Rubber Cylinders Part 2: Fatigue Life Prediction of External Ring-shaped Cracks Using Tearing Energy Approach

Author: Doug Leicht*, Clare Rimnac, Robert Mullen
Abstract: Rubber disks bonded between flat parallel metal plates are often used as adhesion test specimens for example, ASTM D 429 1999, Method A (1). However, the mechanics of adhesion failure (debonding)...


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Paper# 120 Paper120

An Alternative To Phosphate Pre-Treatments For Use In Rubber Bonding

Author: Brent A. Sievers, Jeff C. Bainter, Christian M. Restifo,
Abstract: An Alternative To Phosphate Pre-Treatments For Use In Rubber Bonding Brent A. Sievers, Jeff C. Bainter, Christian M. Restifo, Circle-Prosco, Inc., Bloomington, IN 47404 And Peter J. J azenski


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Paper# 122 Paper122

TYRE-CORD ADHESION - INTERFACE MORPHOLOGY AND THE INFLUENCE OF COBALT

Author: W. Stephen Fulton*
Abstract: The structure of a tyre-cord interface has been investigated by novel electron microscopic methods, more traditional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques to reveal a...


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Paper# 124 Paper124

THE EFFECT OF INTERPHASE COUPLING ON THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SILICA-SILOXANE COMPOSITES

Author: Dale W. Schaefer, Bic T. N. Vu, James E. Mark
Abstract: Silica-reinforced siloxane composites are synthesized with heat labile azo groups at the polymer-filler interface. The azo group serves as a ffsmart interfaceli in that it is responsive to heat....


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Paper# 125 Paper125

INTERACTIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF POLYDHVIETHYLSILOXANES WITH FUMED SILICA FILLERS

Author: H. Barthel* and K. Nikitina
Abstract: uncured rubber, and secondly the visco-elastic and mechanical properties of the crosslinked elastomer. Both properties are largely influenced by filler-polymer interactions. In order to control...


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Paper# 126 Paper126

SURFACE ENERGY OF SILICA XEROGELS AND FUMED SILICA BY INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND INVERSE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

Author: J. B. Donnet, Y. J. Li, T. K. Wang*, H. Balard, and G. T. Burns
Abstract: Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and inverse liquid chromatography (ILC) have been used to detect the interaction energy between silicas (fumed silicas and silica xerogels) surfaces and probes...


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Paper# 127 Paper127

Instant Primerless Bonding of Silicone Rubber for Assembly Operations

Author: David M. Brassard
Abstract: Historically, silicone rubber has been a difficult substrate to bond due to the pendant trimethyl functionality's with low surface energies at the surface. However, attempts at obtaining adhesion...


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Paper# 128 Paper128

INVESTIGATION OF BACKING FOAM-TO-SEALAN T ADHESION IN JOINTS

Author: S. Iglauer, A.R. Hutchinson
Abstract: Sealants play a vital role in maintaining the weather tightness of buildings. Typical sealed joints comprise an elastomeric sealant, a backing foam and the sides of the joint corresponding to...


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Paper# 130 Paper130

Effect of Fluid Infiltration on the Dispersion Behavior of Powder Agglomerates

Author: J. Boyle, I. Manas-Zloczower, and D.L. Feke
Abstract: The hydrodynamic dispersion of particle agglomerates is affected by the infiltration of processing fluid, which can modify the cohesive strength of the powder agglomerate and the amount of stress...


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Paper# 131 Paper131

Cure System and Carbon Black Effects on NR Compound Performance in Truck Tire Applications

Author: Bin Chung*, H.R. Tomlinson, Gwen Mouzon, and Tommy Miller
Abstract: It is well known that the ratio of sulfur to accelerator in sulfur vulcanization system has the significant influence on NR network structure. Depending on the ratio, the sulfur vulcanization can...


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Paper# 131 Paper131a

THE INFLUENCE OF SILANE SULPHUR AND CARBON RANK ON PROCESSING OF A SILICA REINFORCED TYRE TREAD COMPOUND

Author: J.W. ten Brinke*, P.J. van Swaaij L.A.E.M. Reuvekamp, J.W.M. Noordermeer
Abstract: The effect of the sulphur rank (4-0) and of the carbon rank (2-10) of equivalents of bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasulphide TESPT as coupling agents for silica-reinforced tyre tread compounds, is...


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Paper# 132 Paper132

CO-CONTINUITY AND OZONE RESISTANCE OF BIMS COMPOUNDS

Author: Andy H. Tsou*, Ilan Duvdevani, and Kenneth O. McElrath
Abstract: A co-continuous blend of a high ozone resistant rubber with high diene rubbers, or with a mixture of high diene rubbers, can provide a rubber blend that is both ozone resistant and wear and scuff...


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Paper# 134 Paper134

A MECHANISM FOR ENERGY DISSIPATON IN ELASTOMER DEFORMATION

Author: Arun Raman and Ricnard J. Farris
Abstract: Utilizing the energy delivery capacity of elastomers for applications such as regenerative brake devices requires efficient packaging so as to minimize the losses that could arise due to various...


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Paper# 135 Paper135a

Post Vulcanization Stabilizer In Compounding For Improved Durability

Author: Byron H. To* & Otto W. Maender
Abstract: Maintaining properties and performance throughout a natural rubber productis service life is directly related to retaining the integrity of the sulfur vulcanizate structure under both oxidative and...


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Paper# 136 Paper136b

Figures for Paper 136

Author:
Abstract:


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Paper# 136 Paper136a

THE ROLE OF THIOL INTERMEDIATES IN 2-MERCAPTOBENZOTHIAZOLE ACCELERATED SULFUR VULCANIZATION OF RUBBER MODEL COMPOUNDS

Author: Christopher D. Woolard*, Kevin G. Hendrikse and Maurits van der Horst
Abstract: The model compound, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene (TME), was vulcanized using 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and sulfur. MBT was not consumed during the vulcanization reaction. The resultant crosslinks...


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Paper# 137 Paper137

Effect of Crosslink Density on Cut Growth in Black-Filled Natural Rubber Vulcanizates

Author: G. R. Hamed and N. Ratttanasom
Abstract: Tensile strengths of gum and N115-filled natural rubber testpieces, with and without edge pre-cuts, have been determined. At low crosslink density, the regular (uncut) tensile strength of filled...


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Paper# 138 Paper138

Cure System Effect on Low Temperature Dynamic Shear Modulus of Natural Rubber

Author: Pete Spanos
Abstract: Cure systems are known to affect low temperature properties. In natural rubber, modulus increases with progressive levels of crystallization. The degree of crosslinking is known to affect the...


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Paper# 139 Paper139

The effect of Natural Rubber Crosslink density on Real Time Birefringence, True Stress and True Strain behavior

Author: D. Valladares, T. Sen, M. Cakmak*, S. Toki
Abstract: The effect of crosslink density on the strain-induced crystallization behavior of uniaxially stretched sulfur-cured Natural Rubber vulcanizates was investigated. For this purpose, we measured the...


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Paper# 140 Paper140

PREDICTING COMPOUND PROPERTY PERFORMANCE WITH CROSSLINK DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN NR A I COMPOUND CURED WITH PRIMARY ACCELERATOR ALONE VS. PRIMARYISECONDARY ACCELERATORS SUCH AS TETRA BENZYL AND TETRA ALKYL THIURAM DISULFIDES.

Author: SUNG W. HONG, KENNETH BEARDSLEY, PETER K. GREENE
Abstract: The high molecularweight tetra alkyl thiuram disultide with primary accelerator such as TBBS would provide not only scorch safety but also have improved heat aged and dynamic properties without...


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Paper# 141 Paper141

Characterizing Thermally Aged Networks

Author: Frederick Ignatz-Hoover; Rabin Datta
Abstract: Thermal aging resistance of vulcanizates can be characterized by monitoring several chemical changes. In addition to reversion of the sulfur network, oxidative aging will occur to both the polymer...


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Paper# 142 Paper142

Polydienes by Lanthanide Catalysts: 15 years of Industrial Development

Author: Mario A. Bruzzone
Abstract: The scope of this paper is to convey to you our emotions, actions and reactions during the research on L-anthanides in the cistactic polymerization of dienes. We succeeded, as early as in 1984, in...


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Paper# 142 Paper142a

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND COMPOUND PROPERTIES OF NEODYMIUM CATALYZED HIGH CIS- POLYISOPRENE RUBBER

Author: Michael J. Rachita*, Z. Gene Xu, and Michael K. Stockdale
Abstract: The production of a protein free synthetic polyisoprene, which has good physical properties and low levels of chemical impurities, has yet to be realized. Goodyear Chemical envisions that the use...


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Paper# 143 Paper143

HYDROTALCITE SCAVENGER OF ACID CHLORIDES FROM THE POLYMERIZATION OF EPDM

Author: Donald Beuke
Abstract: Hydrotalcite is a safe fine white powder chemical often found in over-the-counter common antacids. The structure is a hydrate of metal hydroxide, which scavenges acids by anion-exchange unlike most...


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Paper# 144 Paper144

Tailoring Polymer Molecular Structure in the EPDM Slurry Process

Author: Susmita Bhattacharjee*, Harald Bender and Dilip Padliya
Abstract: EPDM is the most extensively used elastomer in non-tire applications, and still shows growth potential in a mature rubber market. Although, EPDM has been in existence for quite some time, the...


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Paper# 146 Paper146

CONTINUOUS ULTRASONIC COPOLYMERIZATION AT THE INTERFACE OF IMMISCIBLE RUBBER BLENDS

Author: A. I. Isayev
Abstract: copolymerization and compatibilization of immiscible rubberfrubber blends. This in-situ copolymerization and compatibilization of the blends occurs at the interface at high pressures and a very...


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